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Chapter 9 : The History of Epidemic Typhus

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The History of Epidemic Typhus, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Bacteria of the order were first described as short Gram-negative bacillary microorganisms that retained basic fuchsin when stained by the method of Gimenez and grew in association with eukaryotic cells ( ). In 1993, the order was divided into three families—namely, , , and Two distinct groups are found within the genus, including the spotted fever group and the typhus group. In the typhus group, the two species and are pathogenic in humans ( Table 1 ). causes murine typhus, which is a flea-transmitted disease that occurs in warm climates ( ). is responsible for epidemic typhus, a disease of the cold months, during which heavy clothing and poor sanitary conditions are conducive to lice proliferation ( ).

Citation: Angelakis E, Bechah Y, Raoult D. 2016. The History of Epidemic Typhus, p 81-92. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0010-2015
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Figures

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Figure 1

Human body louse (). Typical size is 2 to 4 mm.

Citation: Angelakis E, Bechah Y, Raoult D. 2016. The History of Epidemic Typhus, p 81-92. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0010-2015
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Figure 2

Classic abdominal skin rash of typhus.

Citation: Angelakis E, Bechah Y, Raoult D. 2016. The History of Epidemic Typhus, p 81-92. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0010-2015
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Figure 3

Actual foci of epidemic typhus.

Citation: Angelakis E, Bechah Y, Raoult D. 2016. The History of Epidemic Typhus, p 81-92. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0010-2015
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Figure 4

General view of the burial site in Douai, France.

Citation: Angelakis E, Bechah Y, Raoult D. 2016. The History of Epidemic Typhus, p 81-92. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0010-2015
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Figure 5

Imperial-type button found in the grave in Vilnius.

Citation: Angelakis E, Bechah Y, Raoult D. 2016. The History of Epidemic Typhus, p 81-92. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0010-2015
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Some epidemiological features of typhus group

Citation: Angelakis E, Bechah Y, Raoult D. 2016. The History of Epidemic Typhus, p 81-92. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0010-2015
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

History of epidemic typhus and the description of

Citation: Angelakis E, Bechah Y, Raoult D. 2016. The History of Epidemic Typhus, p 81-92. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0010-2015

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