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Chapter 40 : Strategies Used by Bacteria to Grow in Macrophages

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Abstract:

Intracellular bacterial pathogens cause a wide range of diseases and significantly contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases worldwide ( ) ( Table 1 ). These bacteria use several different strategies to replicate in host cells and influence host processes such as membrane trafficking, signaling pathways, metabolism, cell death, and survival ( ). Broadly, intracellular bacteria colonize two topologically distinct regions of the host cell and are divided into cytosolic and intravacuolar bacteria according to their intracellular lifestyle. However, most intracellular bacterial pathogens have unique intracellular life cycles with features strikingly different from one another ( Fig. 1 ). It should also be noted that intravacuolar pathogens gain access to the host cytosol to some extent, and that cytosolic bacteria might spend an underestimated part of their intracellular life cycle within membrane-bound compartments ( ).

Citation: Mitchell G, Chen C, Portnoy D. 2017. Strategies Used by Bacteria to Grow in Macrophages, p 701-725. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0012-2015
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Figure 1

Lifestyles of intracellular bacterial pathogens. (1) escapes a late endosome (LE)-like vacuole in a T6SS-dependent manner. Following replication in the cytosol, may retranslocate to a membrane-bound compartment resembling an autolysosome. (2) escapes the phagolysosomal pathway using the T2SS (Sec) effectors LLO and PLCs. replicates rapidly in the cytosol and hijacks the host actin polymerization machinery to move within and between cells. (3) escapes into the cytosol in a T3SS-dependent manner. performs actin-based motility and promotes host cell fusion. (4) is adapted to the phagolysosomal pathway and resides in a spacious phagolysosomal-like compartment. The Dot/Icm system (T4SS) is required for recruiting the autophagosomal marker LC3 and for vacuole biogenesis. (5) arrests phagosome maturation at the early endosome (EE) stage in a T7SS-dependent manner. (6) and segregate from the endocytic route at the EE stage, recruit ER-derived vesicles, and form ribosome-studded specialized vacuoles in a T4SS-dependent manner. (7) e segregates from the endocytic route and forms a unique inclusion vacuole by recruiting Golgi-derived vesicles. e effectors promote Golgi fragmentation and generate actin filaments around the inclusion. is found in two different forms: the nonreplicating infectious elementary body (EB) and the intracytoplasmic replicative reticulate body (RB). T2SS and T3SS effectors are thought to be involved in the intracellular life cycle of . (8) replicates in an LE-like compartment that excludes lysosomal degradation enzymes. The -containing vacuole migrates to the microtubule-organizing center and forms -induced filaments (Sif) along microtubules in a T3SS-dependent manner.

Citation: Mitchell G, Chen C, Portnoy D. 2017. Strategies Used by Bacteria to Grow in Macrophages, p 701-725. In Gordon S (ed), Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0012-2015
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