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Chapter 1 : Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore

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Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

In the United States, the consumption of seafood in 2012 alone totaled more than 4.7 billion pounds, or 14.4 pounds per person per year. An increase in the consumption of seafood is occurring with a resultant increase in the number of cases of fish- and shellfish-related food poisonings. Improved reporting of cases due to a greater awareness of the public and health care personnel of the association between seafood consumption and illness has also contributed to this observed increase. In the United States, food-borne illness due to contaminated fish and shellfish account for over 600,000 illnesses, including 3,000 hospitalizations and 94 deaths every year. Food-borne disease from fish and shellfish can be categorized into allergic, infectious, and toxin-mediated etiologies. The CDC and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reported on all types of food-borne illness in the United States from 1998 to 2008. Bacterial causes were involved in more than 77% of confirmed outbreaks, whereas chemical poisonings from fish and shellfish toxins were responsible for 11.4% of outbreaks of confirmed etiology.

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2016. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore, p 1-54. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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Figures

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Figure 1

The puffer fish is considered a delicacy in Japan and must be prepared by specially trained chefs to avoid poisoning. Photograph © Laszlo Ilyes 2006. Licensed under CC-BY-2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en).

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2016. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore, p 1-54. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

There are over 200 serotypes of which share a common flagellar H antigen and are distinguished from each other by a somatic O antigen. Serotype O1 and O139 are the strains associated with cholera. Image courtesy of J.B. Goforth, G. Hou, and E. Karatan. © 2011, Appalachian State University. All rights reserved.

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2016. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore, p 1-54. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Wound infections due to may occur as a result of primary inoculation or hematogenous spread in a bacteremic individual. Prompt debridement, appropriate antimicrobial agents, and occasionally amputation, are necessary to avoid severe tissue necrosis and fulminant sepsis. Image from R.A. Schwartz 2015 (Medscape).

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2016. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore, p 1-54. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

The great white shark is one of a number of shark species implicated in shark attacks in North America. Specialized sensory systems compensate for poor color vision by allowing the shark to detect motion as well as electrical fields of its prey. Photograph © Terry Goss 2006. Licensed under CC-BY-2.5 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/).

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2016. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore, p 1-54. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Moray eels usually flee when confronted. Fang-like teeth and a vice-like jaw allow it to inflict serious damage if confronted. Photograph © Sylke Rohrlach 2013. Licensed under CC-BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en).

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2016. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore, p 1-54. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819231.chap1
1. Auerbach PS . 1991. Marine envenomations. N Engl J Med 325 : 486493.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
2. Brown CK,, Shepherd SM . 1992. Marine trauma, envenomations, and intoxications. Emerg Med Clin North Am 10 : 385408.[PubMed]
3. Burgess G . 2015. ISAF 2014 Worldwide Shark Attack Summary. Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida.
4. Dechet AM,, Yu PA,, Koram N,, Painter J . 2008. Nonfoodborne Vibrio infections: an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, 1997-2006. Clin Infect Dis 46 : 970976.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
5. Guerrant RL,, Walker DH,, Weller PF . 2011. Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens and Practice, 3rd ed. Saunders/Elsevier, Edinburgh.
6. Johnson CN,, Bowers JC,, Griffitt KJ,, Molina V,, Clostio RW,, Pei S,, Laws E,, Paranjpye RN,, Strom MS,, Chen A,, Hasan NA,, Huq A,, Noriea NF 3rd,, Grimes DJ,, Colwell RR . 2012. Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in the coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, and Washington (United States). Appl Environ Microbiol 78 : 72497257.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
7. Loharikar A,, Newton AE,, Stroika S,, Freeman M,, Greene KD,, Parsons MB,, Bopp C,, Talkington D,, Mintz ED,, Mahon BE . 2015. Cholera in the United States, 2001-2011: a reflection of patterns of global epidemiology and travel. Epidemiol Infect 143 : 695703.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
8. Pennotti R,, Scallan E,, Backer L,, Thomas J,, Angulo FJ . 2013. Ciguatera and scombroid fish poisoning in the United States. Foodborne Pathog Dis 10 : 10591066.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
9. Williamson JA,, Fenner PJ,, Burnett JW . 1996. Venomous and Poisonous Marine Animals: A Medical and Biological Handbook. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, Australia.
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Fish and shellfish poisoning

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2016. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore, p 1-54. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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TABLE 2

Clinical presentations of pathogenic infections in humans

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2016. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore, p 1-54. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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TABLE 3

Microorganisms associated with marine wound infections and recommended antimicrobial therapies

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2016. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore, p 1-54. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015

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