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Chapter 18 : Infections on Cruise Ships

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Abstract:

The spread of humanity across the Earth involved travel across the high seas, and until the advent of air travel, ships were the only way to cross the seas. The migration of humans also led to the spread of new diseases into nonimmune populations, with the introduction of pathogenic organisms or their vectors into these populations from ships and their crew. At the same time the presence of large groups of people on ships with limited sanitation, as well as poor food supplies, led to an increased risk of infectious diseases such as typhus and diseases of deficiency such as scurvy. With the advent of air travel, the number of people traveling by sea decreased until the recent resurgence of the cruise ship industry. The popularity of cruise ships for vacation travel has grown rapidly in recent years, and the Cruise Line International Association estimated that 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2103, and this number was forecast to be 21.7 million in 2014. The cruise industry has responded to these increasing passenger loads by increasing the size and capacity of cruise ships, with large “mega ships” that often carry over 5,000 passengers. While the most common cruise destination is the Caribbean, cruise ships are expanding their areas of operation and include river cruises and other destinations such as Antarctica, which are often inaccessible by other means of travel.

Citation: Kak V. 2016. Infections on Cruise Ships, p 345-353. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0007-2015
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Figures

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Figure 1

Transmission electron micrograph of norovirus virions. Noroviruses are nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the genus and the family . Source: Charles D. Humphrey, CDC.

Citation: Kak V. 2016. Infections on Cruise Ships, p 345-353. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0007-2015
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Figure 2

Micrograph of bacteria.

Citation: Kak V. 2016. Infections on Cruise Ships, p 345-353. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0007-2015
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References

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1. Acevedo F,, Diskin AL,, Dahl E . 2011. Varicella at sea: a two-year study on cruise ships. Int Marit Health 62 : 254261.[PubMed]
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3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . 2011. Vessel Sanitation Program 2011 Operations Manual. U.S. Public Health Service.
4. Cramer EH,, Blanton CJ,, Blanton LH,, Vaughan GH,, Bopp CA,, Forney DL . 2006. Epidemiology of gastroenteritis on cruise ships, 2001–2004. Am J Prevent Med 30 : 252257.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
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6. Guyard C,, Low DE . 2011. Legionella infections and travel associated legionellosis. Travel Med Infect Dis 9 : 176186.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
7. Miller JM,, Tam TWS,, Maloney S,, Fukuda K,, Cox N,, Hockin J,, Kertesz D,, Klimov A,, Cetron M . 2000. Cruise ships: high-risk passengers and the global spread of new influenza viruses. Clin Infect Dis 31 : 433438.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
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9. Stefanelli P,, Fazio C,, Neri A,, Isola P,, Sani S,, Marelli P,, Martinelli C,, Mastrantonio P,, Pompa MG . 2012. Cluster of invasive Neisseria meningitidis infections on a cruise ship, Italy, October 2012. Euro Surveill 17(50). [PubMed]
10. Ward KA,, Armstrong P,, McAnulty JM,, Iwasenko JM,, Dwyer DE . 2010. Outbreaks of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) on cruise ship. Emerg Infect Dis 16 : 17311737.[PubMed] [CrossRef]

Tables

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TABLE 1

Infectious pathogens and diseases of potential risk on cruise ships

Citation: Kak V. 2016. Infections on Cruise Ships, p 345-353. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0007-2015

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