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Chapter 2 : Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs

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Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on infections acquired in nonmarine environments, including natural freshwater environments (lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams) and man-made aquatic environments (swimming pools, hot tubs, whirlpools, and spas). The discussion is limited to infections associated with immersion or other exposure to aquatic macro- or microenvironments. Table 1 summarizes of the potential pathogens that occasionally cause problems after exposure to freshwater.

Citation: Ayi B. 2016. Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs, p 55-81. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0019-2015
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Figures

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Figure 1

folliculitis.

Citation: Ayi B. 2016. Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs, p 55-81. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0019-2015
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Figure 2

hot-foot syndrome. Courtesy of Fiorillo L, Zucker M, Sawyer D, Lin AN. 2001. The hot-foot syndrome.

Citation: Ayi B. 2016. Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs, p 55-81. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0019-2015
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Figure 3

Schistosome dermatitis.

Citation: Ayi B. 2016. Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs, p 55-81. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0019-2015
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Figure 4

lesions on the leg of a woman infected at a nail salon. Courtesy of Winthrop KL, Abrams M, Yakrus M, Schwartz I, Ely J, Gillies D, Vugia DJ. 2002. An outbreak of associated with footbaths at a nail salon.

Citation: Ayi B. 2016. Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs, p 55-81. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0019-2015
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Figure 5

Onset of the epidemic of at a nail salon.

Citation: Ayi B. 2016. Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs, p 55-81. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0019-2015
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Figure 6

Incidence per 100,000 population of Cryptosporidiosis, by year between 1995 and 2010. Courtesy of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Citation: Ayi B. 2016. Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs, p 55-81. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0019-2015
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Figure 7

Number of cryptosporidiosis case reports, by date of symptom onset from 2009 to 2010. Courtesy of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Citation: Ayi B. 2016. Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs, p 55-81. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0019-2015
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Figure 8

Number of case reports of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, by month of illness onset and probable water exposure in the United States from 1962 to 2014. Courtesy of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Citation: Ayi B. 2016. Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs, p 55-81. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0019-2015
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Figure 9

Wet mount of trophozoites cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) viewed using phase contrast microscopy at a magnification of 600. Courtesy of Capewell LG, Harris AM, Yoder JS, Cope JR, Eddy BA, Roy SL, Visvesvara GS, Fox LM, Beach MJ. 2014. Diagnosis, clinical course, and treatment of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in the United States, 1937–2013. doi:10.1093/jpids/piu103.

Citation: Ayi B. 2016. Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs, p 55-81. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0019-2015
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819231.chap2
1. Aronson JD . 1926. Spontaneous tuberculosis in saltwater fish. J Infect Dis 39 : 315319.[CrossRef]
2. Bisno AL . 1984. Cutaneous infections: microbiologic and epidemiologic considerations. Am J Med 76 : 172179.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
3. Castor ML,, Beach MJ . 2004. Reducing illness transmission from disinfected recreational water venues. Swimming, diarrhea and the emergence of a new public health concern. Pediatr Infect Dis J 23 : 866870.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
4. Cort WW . 1928. Schistosome dermatitis in the United States (Michigan). JAMA 90 : 10271029.[CrossRef]
5. Hlavsa MC,, Roberts VA,, Khaler AM,, Hilborn ED,, Wade TJ,, Backer LC,, Yoder JS . 2014. Recreational water-associated outbreaks: United States, 2009-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 63 : 610.[PubMed]
6. Katz AR,, Buchholz AE,, Hinson K,, Park Y,, Effler P . 2011. Leptospirosis in Hawaii, USA, 1999-2008. Emerg Infect Dis 17 : 221226.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
7. Schets FM,, De Roda Husman AM,, Havelaar AH . 2011. Disease outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water use. Epidemiol Infect 139 : 11141125.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
8. Winthrop KL,, Abrams M,, Yakrus M,, Schwartz I,, Ely J,, Gillies D,, Vugia DJ . 2002. An outbreak of mycobacterial furunculosis associated with footbaths at a nail salon. N Engl J Med 346 : 13661371.[PubMed] [CrossRef]

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Infections associated with exposure to freshwater

Citation: Ayi B. 2016. Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: from Lakes to Hot Tubs, p 55-81. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0019-2015

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