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Chapter 3 : Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests

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Abstract:

Arthropods are the invertebrate phylum that includes both the eight-legged arachnids (ticks, mites, and spiders) and the six-legged insects (mosquitoes, ants, bees, and wasps). Leisure-time activity frequently brings people in contact with these pests, so bites and stings are often part of the price paid for outdoor fun. Most bites and stings are simply painful nuisances that resolve without treatment. Unfortunately, some arthropods, most notably ticks, pose the risk of transmitting serious infectious diseases such as Lyme disease () and rickettsial infections. This article will focus primarily on North American tick-borne diseases and syndromes. In the tropics, mosquitoes and other arthropods are a major source of disease transmission, but a few mosquito and other arthropod-borne North American diseases (e.g., babesiosis and West Nile disease) also merit discussion. Climate change and global transportation have the potential to change disease patterns, and many so-called tropical diseases are moving north or appearing in new areas.

Citation: Juckett G. 2016. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 83-96. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0001-2014
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Figures

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Figure 1

Tick Identification “Relative sizes of several ticks at different life stages.” Courtesy of United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Citation: Juckett G. 2016. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 83-96. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0001-2014
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Figure 2

Map of Lyme disease distribution: “Reported cases of Lyme disease – 2013.” Courtesy of United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Citation: Juckett G. 2016. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 83-96. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0001-2014
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Figure 3

Erythema migrans “bull’s-eye” rash. Courtesy of CDC/James Gathany (CDC-PHIL ID#9875).

Citation: Juckett G. 2016. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 83-96. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0001-2014
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Figure 4

Child’s right hand and wrist displaying the characteristic spotted rash of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Courtesy of CDC (CDC-PHIL ID #1962).

Citation: Juckett G. 2016. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 83-96. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0001-2014
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Figure 5

A tularemia lesion on the dorsal skin of the right hand. Courtesy of CDC/Dr. Brachman (CDC PHIL ID # 2037).

Citation: Juckett G. 2016. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 83-96. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0001-2014
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Figure 6

Babesia blood smear with ring forms and Maltese cross. From Rogers W. 2011. and , p 2091-2112. Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Citation: Juckett G. 2016. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 83-96. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0001-2014
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Figure 7

mosquito. Courtesy of CDC/James Gathany (CDC-PHIL ID #9181).

Citation: Juckett G. 2016. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 83-96. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0001-2014
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819231.chap3
1. Bratton RL,, Whiteside JW,, Hovan MJ,, Engle RL,, Edwards FD . 2008. Diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. Mayo Clin Proc 83 : 566571.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
2. Clark RP,, Hu LT . 2008. Prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am 22 : 381396, vii.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
3. Dana AN . 2009. Diagnosis and treatment of tick infestation and tick-borne diseases with cutaneous manifestations. Dermatol Ther 22 : 293326.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
4. Dept of Health and Human Services CDC . 2014. Tickborne Diseases of the United States: A Reference Manual for Health Care Providers, 2nd ed. http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/resources/TickborneDiseases.pdf.
5. Feder HM,, Johnson BJ,, O’Connell S,, Shapiro ED,, Steere AC,, Wormser GP,, Agger WA,, Artsob H,, Auwaerter P,, Dumler JS,, Bakken JS,, Bockenstedt LK,, Green J,, Dattwyler RJ,, Munoz J,, Nadelman RB,, Schwartz I,, Draper T,, McSweegan E,, Halperin JJ,, Klempner MS,, Krause PJ,, Mead P,, Morshed M,, Porwancher R,, Radolf JD,, Smith RP,, Sood S,, Weinstein A,, Wong SJ,, Zemel L , Group AHILD . 2007. A critical appraisal of “chronic Lyme disease.” N Engl J Med 357 : 14221430.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
6. Harik NS . 2013. Tularemia: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Pediatr Ann 42 : 288292.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
7. Jin H,, Wei F,, Liu Q,, Qian J . 2012. Epidemiology and control of human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a systematic review. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12 : 269274.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
8. Juckett G . 2013. Arthropod bites. Am Fam Physician 88 : 841847.[PubMed]
9. Vannier E,, Krause PJ . 2012. Human babesiosis. N Engl J Med 366 : 23972407.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
10. Woods CR . 2013. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 60 : 455470.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
11. Wormser GP,, Dattwyler RJ,, Shapiro ED,, Halperin JJ,, Steere AC,, Klempner MS,, Krause PJ,, Bakken JS,, Strle F,, Stanek G,, Bockenstedt L,, Fish D,, Dumler JS,, Nadelman RB . 2006. The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 43 : 10891134.[PubMed] [CrossRef]

Tables

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TABLE 1

Major clinical manifestations of Lyme disease

Citation: Juckett G. 2016. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 83-96. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0001-2014
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TABLE 2

Comparison of HME and HGA symptoms

Citation: Juckett G. 2016. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 83-96. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0001-2014
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TABLE 3

Common forms of tularemia

Citation: Juckett G. 2016. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 83-96. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0001-2014
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TABLE 4

Mosquito-borne infections in the United States

Citation: Juckett G. 2016. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: the Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 83-96. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0001-2014

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