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Chapter 7 : Diseases Transmitted by Birds

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Diseases Transmitted by Birds, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Infectious diseases can be transmitted to humans from birds by one of several mechanisms ( Table 1 ). In group 1 infections, birds are the natural reservoirs for the infectious agent, which causes illness among them. The diseased birds then disseminate the infectious agent into the environment, and humans become infected as accidental hosts. Examples of such infections include psittacosis, Newcastle disease, avian influenza, and yersiniosis. In group 2 and 3 infections, birds are the natural reservoirs for the infectious agent but do not become ill themselves. The infectious agents of group 2 infections (for example, salmonellosis and mite infections) disseminate from the colonized birds into the environment directly, and the agents of group 3 infections (for example, eastern equine encephalitis [EEE], western equine encephalitis [WEE], St. Louis encephalitis [SLE], and Japanese B encephalitis [JE]) disseminate by means of arthropod vectors and involve humans as accidental hosts. With group 4 infections, birds are not the natural reservoirs, but they facilitate growth of the organisms in the environment by means of their fecal matter. Examples of infections of the last category include the fungal diseases histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis.

Citation: Levison M. 2016. Diseases Transmitted by Birds, p 151-170. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0004-2015
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Figures

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Figure 1

A dead crow, an indicator of West Nile virus infection.

Citation: Levison M. 2016. Diseases Transmitted by Birds, p 151-170. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0004-2015
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Pigeons roosting in large groups gather atop or in buildings, where their old droppings can harbor the causal agent of cryptococcosis.

Citation: Levison M. 2016. Diseases Transmitted by Birds, p 151-170. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0004-2015
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References

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1. Acha PN,, Szyfres B . 1987. Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals, 2nd ed. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC.
2. Brandly CA . 1964. The occupational hazard of Newcastle disease to man. Lab Anim Care 14 : 433440.[PubMed]
3. Centers for Disease Control . 1982. Psittacosis associated with turkey processing—Ohio. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 30 : 638640.[PubMed]
4. Gatus BJ,, Rose MR . 1983. Japanese B encephalitis: epidemiology, clinical and pathologic aspects. J Infect 6 : 213218.[CrossRef]
5. Peiris JSM,, de Jong MD,, Guan Y . 2007. Avian influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health. Clin Microbiol Rev 20 : 243267. doi:10.1128/CMR.00037-06. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
6. Tellier R . 2006. Review of aerosol transmission of influenza A virus. Emerg Infect Dis 12 : 16571662.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
7. Tesh RB . 1982. Arthritides caused by mosquito-borne viruses. Annu Rev Med 33 : 3140.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
8. Wheat J,, Sarosi G,, McKinsey D,, Hamill R,, Bradsher R,, Johnson P,, Loyd J,, Kauffman C . 2000. Practice guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis. Clin Infect Dis 30 : 688695.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
9. World Health Organization . 2015. Influenza at the human-animal interface. Summary and assessment as of 26 January 2015. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/Influenza_Summary_IRA_HA_interface_26January2015.pdf.pdf.
10. World Health Organization Scientific Working Group . 1980. Enteric infections due to Campylobacter, Yersinia, Salmonella and Shigella . Bull WHO 58 : 519537.[PubMed]

Tables

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TABLE 1

Bird-related diseases

Citation: Levison M. 2016. Diseases Transmitted by Birds, p 151-170. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0004-2015

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