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Chapter 1 : Viral Zoonoses

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Abstract:

Viruses are usually classified according to structural principles and genetic homology. Agents causing zoonoses exist in various virus groups that have similarities in the disease patterns that they induce. There may also be similarities involved in hosts and vectors. In this chapter, we have chosen a sequential arrangement following viral classifications for the most part. This sequence makes it possible to point out similarities within individual virus groups. Tables include the geographical distribution and clinical signs that are important for differential diagnosis. Viral zoonoses are also compared with nonviral zoonotic diseases.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Image of Figure 1.1(a, b, c)
Figure 1.1(a, b, c)

Arboviral Transmission cycles (a) Urban infectious cycles where humans are the source of infection for mosquitoes have been demonstrated, or are possible, if the level of viremia is sufficient. Infected people have to be protected from mosquito bites. This type of infection cycle has been found for yellow fever, dengue, St. Louis encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Chikungunya fever. It is possible for O'nyong-nyong, Mayaro, Ross River, Oropouche, Rift Valley, and Wesselsbron fevers. (b) Humans are the dead-end hosts in the infection chain and do not serve for amplification. This type of infection chain exists for eastern and western equine encephalitides and Rocio, West Nile, and Sindbis fevers. (c) A vertical transmission (transovarial and transstadial) exists in arthropods and is of importance epidemiologically. This type of transmission is found in the following tick-transmitted virus infections: spring-summer meningoencephalitis, Russian spring-summer meningoencephalitis, louping ill, Kyasanur Forest fever, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Colorado tick encephalitis. It is found in the following mosquito-transmitted infections: California and Japanese encephalitides and Murray Valley fever.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.2

Countries and territories, where cases of Chikungunya disease have been reported. http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/pdfs/ChikungunyaWorldMap_03-10-2015.pdf. Courtesy CDC.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.3

Areas in Germany where tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic. The transition from the eastern to the western type of TBE is indicated. Outside the areas of endemicity, sporadic autochthonous TBE infections have been found. (Courtesy of Chiron Behring.)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.4

Infectious cycle of the tick-borne encephalitis virus complex.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.5

Countries in which Japanese encephalitis has been identified. Status Nov. 2012. Courtesy CDC.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Image of Figure 1.6(a, b)
Figure 1.6(a, b)

Areas with risk of Yellow Fever transmission in South America. http://www.cdc.gov/yellowfever/maps/south_america.html. Courtesy CDC

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.7

Distribution of Dengue virus infection. CDC 2012

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.8

(flying fox) Reservoir of filoviruses (source: Oren Peles via the PikiWiki – Israel free images collection project)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.9

Maculopapular exanthema at day 6 of Marburg virus disease. (Courtesy of G. Baltzer.)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.10

Patient with Marburg virus disease in a prefinal stage. (Courtesy of W. Stille)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Image of Figure 1.11
Figure 1.11

Infection chain of rabies.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Image of Figure 1.12
Figure 1.12

Hemorrhagic conjunctivitis after infection with Newcastle disease virus. (Photo: J. Kösters, Institute for Poultry Diseases, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.13

Lesions on the hand of an animal keeper caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus infection. (Archival photo, Institute of Veterinary Hygiene and Animal Infectious Diseases, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Image of Figure 1.14
Figure 1.14

Local pox after vaccination with vaccinia virus. (Photo: J. Pilaski.)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Image of Figure 1.15
Figure 1.15

Confluent generalized vaccinia in an American recruit, who was vaccinated without knowledge of his HIV-infection. Redield RR et al., disseminated vaccinia in a military recruit with human immunedeficiency virus (HIV) disease. New Engl. J. Med. (1987), 316, 673 – 676. (Courtesy of New Engl. J. Med.)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.16

Facial poxvirus lesion (arrow) in a cat. (Photo: D. von Bomhard.)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.17

Poxvirus lesion transmitted from a diseased cat. (Photo: T. Nasemann.)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.18

Contagious ecthyma of sheep. (Photo: J. Pilaski.)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.19

Human infection with orf virus. (Photo: Dr. Valder, Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Land- wirtschaft und Forster, Bonn, Germany.)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.20

Pseudocowpox infection on the udder of a cow (udder pox).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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Figure 1.21

Generalized pseudocowpox virus infection in a human. (Photo: J. Pilaski.)

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-174. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch01
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