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Chapter 2 : Bacterial Zoonoses

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Abstract:

Beside the “classical” bacterial zoonoses, this chapter covers infectious diseases such as listeriosis, in which the causative agents are frequently found in animals and that are traditionally regarded as zoonoses. However, since these agents may also be found in the environment and are not necessarily transmitted directly from animals to humans, diseases caused by them have also been termed “sapronoses,” “geonoses,” or “saprozoonoses.”

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Figure 2.1

Important transmission chains and avenues for contamination of .

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.2
Figure 2.2

Anthrax carbuncle. Eschar with black, adherent crust (courtesy of Klinische Visite Bildtafeln Thomae No. 114, Bildarchiv für Medizin GmbH, Munich, Germany).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Figure 2.3

Clinical presentation of cat scratch disease with adenopathy of the axillar lymphnode (Dr. A. Sander, Freiburg, Germany).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.4
Figure 2.4

Erythema migrans following tick bite on the right thigh (Prof. R.C. Johnson, Minneapolis, MN, USA).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.5
Figure 2.5

in blood (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.6
Figure 2.6

The most important transmission chains of .

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.7
Figure 2.7

Possible transmission chains of subsp. .

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.8
Figure 2.8

Possible danger in transmitting chlamydiae when kissing birds (courtesy of Archiv Bayerisches Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebens-mittelsicherheit, Erlangen, Germany).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.9
Figure 2.9

Keratopathia superficialis and epithelial and subepithelial infiltrations across the entire cornea, caused by human chlamydiae. The source was a chlamydia-infected cat that suffered from a upper respiratory infection (Prof. G. J. Jahn, Erlangen, Germany).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Figure 2.10

Granulocytic anaplasmosis caused by Within the two granulocytes (left lower corner) morulae, that is, the reproductive stages of the organism can be seen. Hamster blood (Dr. B. Munderloh, Minneapolis, MN, USA).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.11
Figure 2.11

Systematics of the Order Rickettsiales (Dumler S 2001, modified Hartelt K 2004).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.12
Figure 2.12

Erysipeloid. Progressive erythema with edema and hemorrhagic areas (courtesy of Klinische Visite Bildtafeln Thomae, No. 114, Bildarchiv für Medizin GmbH, Munich, Germany).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.13
Figure 2.13

Glanders: Multiple eschars.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.14
Figure 2.14

Possible transmission chains for .

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.15
Figure 2.15

Possible transmission chains for the complex.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.16
Figure 2.16

Important transmission chains for .

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.17 (a,b)
Figure 2.17 (a,b)

. Spore-like bodies at the polar end of a vegetative cell (CAP, capping; VZ, vegetative cell, Sp, spore-like body). Modified from Bergey's , Vol 1, Krieg NR(ed.), p. 702. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore/London, 1984, modified. Drawing by C. Lüttich, Gera, Germany.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.18
Figure 2.18

Possible transmission chains, Q fever. The ticks are “multipliers“ and are not mandatory for transmission.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.19
Figure 2.19

Possible transmission chains, Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.20
Figure 2.20

Exanthema and primary lesion, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Dr. H. Lieske, Hamburg, Germany).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.21
Figure 2.21

Possible transmission chains, Mediterranean spotted fever.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.22
Figure 2.22

Tache noire and exanthema, Mediterranean spotted fever (Dr. B. Stenglein, Institut för Infektions und Tropenmedizin, Ludwig Maximilians Universität, Munich, Germany).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.23
Figure 2.23

African tick bite fever. Tache noire (eschar) on the left ankle (Dr. D. Hassler, Kraichtal, Germany).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.24
Figure 2.24

Possible transmission chains, rickettsialpox.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.25
Figure 2.25

Transmission chains, endemic typhus.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.26
Figure 2.26

Transmission chains, Tsutsugamushi fever.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.27
Figure 2.27

Important transmission chains and avenues of contamination for nontyphoidal salmonellae.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.28
Figure 2.28

The most important transmission chains for .

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.29
Figure 2.29

Primary lesion following infection with (Prof. W. Knapp, Erlangen, Germany).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.30
Figure 2.30

Possible transmission chains for and .

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.31
Figure 2.31

Dermatophilosis. Massive crust formation (up to 2 cm) in cattle.

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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Image of Figure 2.32
Figure 2.32

Typical microscopy of (Gram stain of skin lesion).

Citation: Bauerfeind R, Graevenitz A, Kimmig P, Schiefer H, Schwarz T, Slenczka W, Zahner H. 2016. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 175-291. In Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible From Animals and Humans, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819262_Ch02
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