Chapter 14 : Stress Responses, Adaptation, and Virulence of Bacterial Pathogens During Host Gastrointestinal Colonization

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Bacterial pathogens are exposed to a variety of stressful conditions while spreading to and colonizing new hosts to cause infection. Gastrointestinal pathogens such as , , , , , and species encounter numerous stresses during host colonization and infection. During transit through the gastrointestinal tract these pathogens are exposed to physical stresses (pH and osmotic stresses) as well as noxious substances (reactive oxygen and nitrosative species). Bacteria respond to these stresses by altering their transcriptome/proteome in an adaptive manner to either overcome the stress or resist the stress long enough to transition to more favorable conditions. The following sections will present the current state of knowledge for each stress response mentioned above and how these defenses contribute to bacterial virulence.

Citation: Flint A, Butcher J, Stintzi A. 2016. Stress Responses, Adaptation, and Virulence of Bacterial Pathogens During Host Gastrointestinal Colonization, p 387-411. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed),

Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Fifth Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0007-2015
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Figure 1

The immediate and long-term osmotic shock responses of bacterial pathogens protect against changes in osmolarity during host colonization. During initial exposure to hyperosmotic shock, pathogens transport K ions from the external environment into the cytoplasm to prevent cellular dehydration. K ion uptake can occur utilizing the low-affinity TrkAEH(G) or high-affinity KdpFABC acquisition systems. Following initial K uptake, uptake of glycine betaine and choline, and synthesis of trehalose are part of the long-term bacterial adaptations to osmotic stress. Uptake of glycine betaine is mediated by the ProP and ProVWX systems. Choline is transported by BetT into the cytoplasm and converted into betaine aldehyde and then glycine betaine by BetA. Alternatively, BetB can catalyze the conversion of betaine aldehyde into glycine betaine. Finally, trehalose can be synthesized from glucose by either BetA or BetB. Chol, choline; GB, glycine betaine; BA, betaine aldehyde.

Citation: Flint A, Butcher J, Stintzi A. 2016. Stress Responses, Adaptation, and Virulence of Bacterial Pathogens During Host Gastrointestinal Colonization, p 387-411. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed),

Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Fifth Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0007-2015
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

The oxidant detoxification mechanisms of bacterial pathogens provide defense against the oxidative burst encountered within the host neutrophil. Invading pathogens are engulfed within the neutrophil phagolysosome and exposed reactive oxygen species and bactericidal compounds. Electrons supplied by NADPH oxidase reduce O into O , which is subsequently converted into HO and HOCl. The oxidative stress defenses present pathogens (such as Shiga-toxin-producing ) that contribute to bacterial survival against neutrophil oxidative burst. Uncharged O and HO freely diffuse across the bacterial membranes into the periplasmic and cytoplasmic spaces of the bacterial cell. O can undergo one electron reduction to produce O . O and HO can be detoxified within the periplasm by SodC and KatP, respectively. Within the cytoplasm, O and HO are detoxified by SodA and KatE/AhpC, respectively. SodA and KatE are both induced under conditions of oxidative stress and are under the control of the transcriptional regulators SoxSR and OxyR.

Citation: Flint A, Butcher J, Stintzi A. 2016. Stress Responses, Adaptation, and Virulence of Bacterial Pathogens During Host Gastrointestinal Colonization, p 387-411. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed),

Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Fifth Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0007-2015
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