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Chapter 23 : Contrasting Lifestyles Within the Host Cell

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Abstract:

Bacterial pathogens that adopt an intracellular lifestyle often avoid many challenges that are faced by their extracellular counterparts. However, upon entering the host cell, they have a new set of trials with which to contend. Upon phagocytic uptake or entry by receptor-mediated endocytosis, they immediately traffic to a degradative subcellular compartment. Successful intracellular pathogens have adopted different strategies to avoid trafficking of their initial phagosome along the endocytic pathway to fusion with the lysosome, a subcellular compartment that has specifically evolved to degrade them. In this chapter, we will compare the different molecular mechanisms employed by four intracellular pathogens that have adopted distinct vacuolar niches and lifestyles. Many vacuolar pathogens alter their initial phagosomal compartment to stall or exit the endocytic pathway and thereby avoid elimination. Yet a few species require at least some interaction with lysosomes for completion of their infectious cycle. In this chapter, we will compare the strategies employed by and to avoid lysosomal fusion with those of , whose vacuole interacts with lysosomes transiently, and , a bacterium adapted to growth in a compartment that closely resembles a terminal phagolysosome.

Citation: Case E, Samuel J. 2016. Contrasting Lifestyles Within the Host Cell, p 667-692. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed),

Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Fifth Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0014-2015
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Figure 1

Endosomal trafficking is coordinated by exchanges of lipids and Rab-GTPases. The normal endosomal pathway is illustrated here with major regulatory factors highlighted at each step. After uptake of a cargo, the phagosome fuses with early endosomes, acquiring Rab5, its effector EEA1, and VPS34, which coordinate the change in lipid profile of the endosomal membrane. Soon after, the compartment fuses with late endosomes, and Rab5 is exchanged for Rab7 and its effector RILP. LAMP and V-ATPases are also characteristic of the late endosome. Finally, the late endosome fuses with lysosomes, at which point the compartment is fully matured and highly degradative.

Citation: Case E, Samuel J. 2016. Contrasting Lifestyles Within the Host Cell, p 667-692. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed),

Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Fifth Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0014-2015
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Intracellular pathogens have evolved distinct trafficking pathways to arrive within their ideal replicative niche. Intracellular trafficking pathways are shown for (Mtb), (Chl), (Br), and (Cb). Key regulatory factors, such as Rab-GTPases, lipids, and bacterial factors are shown. sis fuses with early endosomes (EE) but inhibits fusion with late endosomes (LE) and replicates in a compartment (MCP) that is stalled at an early point along the endocytic pathway. Chl traffics away from the endosomal pathway and escapes to replicate in a Golgi-associated Inclusion. Br allows EE and LE fusion as well as limited lysosomal fusion before trafficking to the ER to replicate in rBCVs (replicative -containing vacuoles). Cb interacts with EE, autophagosomes, and LE and allows lysosomal fusion to arrive in the CCV (-containing vacuole), which resembles a terminal phagolysosome.

Citation: Case E, Samuel J. 2016. Contrasting Lifestyles Within the Host Cell, p 667-692. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed),

Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Fifth Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0014-2015
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