Chapter 5 : –Bacteria Interactions: Their Impact on Human Disease

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species are the most common commensal fungus that coexists with hundreds of species of bacteria in the human body. Between 24 and 70% of humans harbor species in various body niches, including the oral and vaginal mucosa and the skin ( ). Out of over 150 species, is the principal pathogenic species that causes infections, especially in patient populations with immune dysfunction due to HIV infection, malignancy, immunosuppressive therapy, and organ transplantation. Therefore, these opportunistic infections of in topical or systemic forms have become widespread and account for 8 to 10% of bloodstream infections in hospitals ( ). Nearly 70% of denture wearers experience denture stomatitis, or inflammation of oral mucosa covered by denture prostheses, with being a primary etiological factor ( ). Almost 75% of the female population has experienced an episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis at least once in their lifetime, and many have recurring episodes ( ). In many of these conditions, there is a phenotypic change for from harmless commensal to invasive pathogen. Adhesion to various surfaces, morphogenesis, phenotypic and genotypic switching, and production of lytic enzymes are major virulence mechanisms facilitating this conversion ( ). However, properties of the host are also commiserate in enabling to act as an invasive pathogen since compromise in the interleukin-17 (IL-17)/Th17 arm of the host immune response (e.g., AIDS, Job’s syndrome, etc.) or an imbalance in the host microbiome ( ) both can contribute to candidiasis ( ). During this shift, commensal or transient organisms living with species in various locations may play diverse roles in the process of pathogenesis; environmental bacteria may also be introduced via catheters, cannulae, and prosthetic appliances and interact with the already present . Such interactions may be detrimental to the health of the human host, leading to mortality.

Citation: Allison D, Willems H, Jayatilake J, Bruno V, Peters B, Shirtliff M. 2016. –Bacteria Interactions: Their Impact on Human Disease, p 103-136. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0030-2016
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Figure 1

Schematic showing the interdependent relationships required for development of human disease. Infection is influenced by microbe–microbe interactions, microbe–host interactions, antimicrobial host defenses, and environmental factors. Significant changes in any of these factors can lead to the development of or predisposition to infection. For example, microbes lacking virulence factors may become apathogenic. Similarly, host immunodeficiencies will encourage infectious processes. It is now becoming increasingly appreciated that intermicrobial interactions and environmental cues also determine infection outcomes such that specific microbial populations under certain conditions may enhance or predict disease progression ( ).

Citation: Allison D, Willems H, Jayatilake J, Bruno V, Peters B, Shirtliff M. 2016. –Bacteria Interactions: Their Impact on Human Disease, p 103-136. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0030-2016
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Figure 2

strain DAY185 stained with a combination of calcofluor white (blue)/Syto9 (green) and imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy ( ).

Citation: Allison D, Willems H, Jayatilake J, Bruno V, Peters B, Shirtliff M. 2016. –Bacteria Interactions: Their Impact on Human Disease, p 103-136. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0030-2016
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Figure 3

Scanning electron micrographs of a polymicrobial biofilm formed on discs of hydroxyapatite. This shows the affinity of to the hyphal elements as the streptococcal chains wrap around the hyphae. Small perforations are evident on the surfaces of the hydroxyapatite due to the highly acidic local microenvironment induced by the acidogenic bacterial species, ( ). Bar = 10 mm.

Citation: Allison D, Willems H, Jayatilake J, Bruno V, Peters B, Shirtliff M. 2016. –Bacteria Interactions: Their Impact on Human Disease, p 103-136. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0030-2016
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Figure 4

We and others have previously reported the association of with hyphae during polymicrobial biofilm growth. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy confirmed these findings and demonstrated a three-dimensionally distributed pattern of hyphal attachment. Not only can be found bordering the basal layer of the hyphae-substratum interface, but bacterial cells are also seen attached to the upper portion of the hyphal surface. The precise architectural details and spatial arrangement cannot be fully appreciated like those in the cryo-SEM image of a dual species biofilm on PVC catheter disks.

Citation: Allison D, Willems H, Jayatilake J, Bruno V, Peters B, Shirtliff M. 2016. –Bacteria Interactions: Their Impact on Human Disease, p 103-136. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0030-2016
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Figure 5

Images of biofilm probed with TAMRA-labeled universal yeast probe and FlTC-labeled probe and TAMRA-labeled probe and FITC-labeled probe ( ).

Citation: Allison D, Willems H, Jayatilake J, Bruno V, Peters B, Shirtliff M. 2016. –Bacteria Interactions: Their Impact on Human Disease, p 103-136. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0030-2016
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Figure 6

Infection of CD-1 mouse tongue tissue b alone, DAY185 + (DAY185+SA), or als3 mutant + + SA) and subsequently stained by PNA-FISH or hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Monomicrobial (green) infections were confined to the epithelial surface but were noninvasive as confirmed by a lack of inflammatory infiltrate by H&E staining. Coinfection with DAY185+SA showed staphylococci attached to the hyphal surface of (red) and in some instances where hyphae had pierced the epithelial layer, (green) could be seen coembedded within the epithelium (white arrow). However, coinfection with Δ +SA demonstrated a fully invasive infection with relatively few staphylococci seen attached to the hyphae and an absence of epithelial coinvasion ( ).

Citation: Allison D, Willems H, Jayatilake J, Bruno V, Peters B, Shirtliff M. 2016. –Bacteria Interactions: Their Impact on Human Disease, p 103-136. In Kudva I, Cornick N, Plummer P, Zhang Q, Nicholson T, Bannantine J, Bellaire B (ed), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0030-2016
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