1887

Chapter 14 : Animal Models for the Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Prevention of Infection by

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Animal Models for the Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Prevention of Infection by , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819323/9781555816759_Chap14-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819323/9781555816759_Chap14-2.gif

Abstract:

Anthrax is primarily a zoonotic disease caused by the Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium , which occurs in domesticated and wild animals, primarily herbivores. is found throughout the world and exists in the soil as the dormant, highly resistant spore form. Animals become infected when they ingest spores while grazing on contaminated land or ingesting spore-laden feed, although mechanical spreading by flies or vultures from one animal environmental locus to another could be possible ( ). Humans are incidental and relatively rare hosts that, in natural settings, become infected by contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products ( ). These infections occur most often in agricultural settings and lesser-developed countries. Before the development of effective vaccines and disinfection practices, industrial exposures were also common in European and North American countries. The latter were associated with the processing of animal materials (hides, hair, wool, and bones), as illustrated by the highly lethal illness known as woolsorter’s disease. This disease occurred after inhalation of spore-laden dust and aerosols in wool and textile mills in England and the industrialized regions of the northeastern United States ( ).

Citation: Welkos S, Bozue J, Twenhafel N, Cote C. 2016. Animal Models for the Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Prevention of Infection by , p 269-311. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0001-2012
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819323.chap14
1. Davies JC . 1983. A major epidemic of anthrax in Zimbabwe. Part II. Cent Afr J Med 29 : 812.[PubMed]
2. De Vos V . 1990. The ecology of anthrax in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Salisbury Med Bull 87 : 2630.
3. Turnbull P . 2008. Anthrax in Humans and Animals, 4th ed. WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland.
4. Brachman P,, Friedlander A,, Grabenstein J, . 2008. Anthrax vaccine, p 111126. In Plotkin S,, Orenstein W,, Offit P (ed), Vaccines, 5th ed. Saunders Elsevier Press, Philadelphia, PA.
5. Friedlander A,, Little S,, Gurwith M, . 2009. Anthrax vaccines, p 851863. In Levine MM,, Dougan G,, Good MF,, Liu MA (ed), New Generation Vaccines, 4th ed. Informa Healthcare, New York, NY.
6. Laforce FM . 1978. Woolsorters’ disease in England. Bull N Y Acad Med 54 : 956963.[PubMed]
7. Purcell BK,, Worsham PL,, Friedlander AM, . 2007. Anthrax, p 6990. In Dembek ZF (ed), Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Borden Institute, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC.
8. Plotkin SA,, Brachman PS,, Utell M,, Bumford FH,, Atchison MM . 1960. An epidemic of inhalation anthrax, the first in the twentieth century. I. Clinical features. Am J Med 29 : 9921001.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
9. Cieslak TJ,, Henretig FM . 2001. Medical consequences of biological warfare: the Ten Commandments of management. Mil Med 166 : 1112.[PubMed]
10. Bell DM,, Kozarsky PE,, Stephens DS . 2002. Clinical issues in the prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of anthrax. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 222225.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
11. Bell JH,, Fee E,, Brown TM . 2002. Anthrax and the wool trade. 1902. Am J Public Health 92 : 754757.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
12. Dixon TC,, Meselson M,, Guillemin J,, Hanna PC . 1999. Anthrax. N Engl J Med 341 : 815826.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
13. Guarner J,, Del Rio C, . 2011. Pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of anthrax in humans, p 251268. In Bergman NH (ed), Bacillus anthracis and anthrax. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
14. Holty JE,, Bravata DM,, Liu H,, Olshen RA,, McDonald KM,, Owens DK . 2006. Systematic review: a century of inhalational anthrax cases from 1900 to 2005. Ann Intern Med 144 : 270280.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
15. Holty JE,, Kim RY,, Bravata DM . 2006. Anthrax: a systematic review of atypical presentations. Ann Emerg Med 48 : 200211.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
16. Inglesby TV,, O’Toole T,, Henderson DA,, Bartlett JG,, Ascher MS,, Eitzen E,, Friedlander AM,, Gerberding J,, Hauer J,, Hughes J,, McDade J,, Osterholm MT,, Parker G,, Perl TM,, Russell PK,, Tonat K . 2002. Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: updated recommendations for management. JAMA 287 : 22362252.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
17. Beatty ME,, Ashford DA,, Griffin PM,, Tauxe RV,, Sobel J . 2003. Gastrointestinal anthrax: review of the literature. Arch Intern Med 163 : 25272531.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
18. Mock M,, Fouet A . 2001. Anthrax. Annu Rev Microbiol 55 : 647671.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
19. Grinberg LM,, Abramova FA,, Yampolskaya OV,, Walker DH,, Smith JH . 2001. Quantitative pathology of inhalational anthrax I: quantitative microscopic findings. Mod Pathol 14 : 482495.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
20. ProMED-mail . 2005. Anthrax, human-Russia (Northern Osetia). http://www.promedmail.org. Accessed 14 September 2005.
21. Mayo L,, Dionne-Odom J,, Talbot EA,, Adamski C,, Bean C,, Daly ER . 2009. Gastrointestinal anthrax after an animal-hide drumming event – New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 59 : 872877.
22. ProMED-mail . 2009. Anthrax, human, 2006-UK. http://www.promedmail.org. Accessed 21 April 2009.
23. ProMED-mail . 2010. Anthrax-United Kingdom: (Scotland). http://www.promedmail.org. Accessed 29 January 2010.
24. Ringertz SH,, Hoiby EA,, Jensenius M,, Maehlen J,, Caugant DA,, Myklebust A,, Fossum K . 2000. Injectional anthrax in a heroin skin-popper. Lancet 356 : 15741575.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
25. Walsh J,, Fraser G,, Hunt B,, Husband B,, Nalluswami K,, Pollard K . 2006. Inhalation anthrax associated with dried animal hides – Pennsylvania and New York City, 2006. MMWR Morb MortalWkly Rep 55 : 280282.[PubMed]
26. Abramova AA,, Grinberg LM . 1993. Pathology of anthrax sepsis according to materials of the infectious outbreak in 1979 in Sverdlovsk (microscopic changes). Arkh Patol 55 : 1823. (In Russian.) [PubMed]
27. Guarner J,, Jernigan JA,, Shieh WJ,, Tatti K,, Flannagan LM,, Stephens DS,, Popovic T,, Ashford DA,, Perkins BA,, Zaki SR . 2003. Pathology and pathogenesis of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax. Am J Pathol 163 : 701709.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
28. Jernigan JA,, Stephens DS,, Ashford DA,, Omenaca C,, Topiel MS,, Galbraith M,, Tapper M,, Fisk TL,, Zaki S,, Popovic T,, Meyer RF,, Quinn CP,, Harper SA,, Fridkin SK,, Sejvar JJ,, Shepard CW,, McConnell M,, Guarner J,, Shieh WJ,, Malecki JM,, Gerberding JL,, Hughes JM,, Perkins BA . 2001. Bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: the first 10 cases reported in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 933944.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
29. Keim P,, Smith KL,, Keys C,, Takahashi H,, Kurata T,, Kaufmann A . 2001. Molecular investigation of the Aum Shinrikyo anthrax release in Kameido, Japan. J Clin Microbiol 39 : 45664567.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
30. Meselson M,, Guillemin J,, Hugh-Jones M,, Langmuir A,, Popova I,, Shelokov A,, Yampolskaya O . 1994. The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979. Science 266 : 12021208.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
31. Zilinskas RA . 1997. Iraq’s biological weapons. The past as future? JAMA 278 : 418424.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
32. Koch R . 1938. Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen. Med Classics 2 : 787820.
33. Pasteur L . 1881. De l’attenuation des virus et de leur retour à la virulence. C R Acad Sci Agric Bulg 1881, 92 : 429435.
34. Pasteur L,, Chamberland,, Roux . 2002. Summary report of the experiments conducted at Pouilly-le-Fort, near Melun, on the anthrax vaccination, 1881. Yale J Biol Med 75 : 5962.[PubMed]
35. Turnbull PCB,, Shadomy SV, . 2011. Anthrax from 5000 BC to AD2010, p 116. In Bergman NH (ed), Bacillus anthracis and anthrax. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. [PubMed]
36. Buchner H,, Merkel F,, Enderlen E . 1888. Arch Hyg (Berlin) 8 : 145.
37. Young GA,, Zelle MR,, Lincoln RE . 1946. Respiratory pathogenecity of Bacillus anthracis spores. I. Methods of study and observation on pathogenesis. J Infect Dis 79 : 233246.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
38. Barnes JM . 1947. The development of anthrax following the administration of spores by inhalation. Br J Exp Pathol 28 : 385393.
39. Ross JM . 1957. The pathogenesis of anthrax following the administration of spores by the respiratory route. J Pathol Bacteriol 73 : 485494.[CrossRef]
40. Albrink WS,, Goodlow RJ . 1959. Experimental inhalation anthrax in the chimpanzee. Am J Pathol 35 : 10551065.[PubMed]
41. Henderson DW,, Peacock S,, Belton FC . 1956. Observations on the prophylaxis of experimental pulmonary anthrax in the monkey. J Hyg (Lond) 54 : 2836.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
42. Lincoln RE,, Hodges DR,, Klein F,, Mahlandt BG,, Jones WI Jr,, Haines BW,, Rhian MA,, Walker JS . 1965. Role of the lymphatics in the pathogenesis of anthrax. J Infect Dis 115 : 481494.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
43. Abramova FA,, Grinberg LM,, Yampolskaya OV,, Walker DH . 1993. Pathology of inhalational anthrax in 42 cases from the Sverdlovsk outbreak of 1979. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90 : 22912294.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
44. Albrink WS,, Brooks SM,, Biron RE,, Kopel M . 1960. Human inhalation anthrax. A report of three fatal cases. Am J Pathol 36 : 457471.[PubMed]
45. Brachman PS,, Plotkin SA,, Bumford FH,, Atchison MM . 1960. An epidemic of inhalation anthrax: the first in the twentieth century. II. Epidemiology. Am J Hyg 72 : 623.[PubMed]
46. Grinberg LM,, Abramova AA . 1993. Pathology of anthrax sepsis according to materials of the infectious outbreak in 1979 in Sverdlovsk (various aspects of morpho-, patho- and thanatogenesis). Arkh Patol 55 : 2326. (In Russian.)[PubMed]
47. Bail O . 1914. Changes to bacteria inside the animal body. IX. Regarding the correlation between capsule formation, spore formation and infectiousness of the anthrax bacillus. Zentb Bakteriol 75 : 159173.
48. Shlyakhov EN,, Rubinstein E . 1994. Human live anthrax vaccine in the former USSR. Vaccine 12 : 727730.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
49. Turnbull PC . 1991. Anthrax vaccines: past, present and future. Vaccine 9 : 533539.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
50. Keppie J,, Smith H,, Harris-Smith PW . 1953. The chemical basis of the virulence of bacillus anthracis. II. Some biological properties of bacterial products. Br J Exp Pathol 34 : 486496.[PubMed]
51. Keppie J,, Smith H,, Harris-Smith PW . 1955. The chemical basis of the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. III. The role of the terminal bacteraemia in death of guinea-pigs from anthrax. Br J Exp Pathol 36 : 315322.[PubMed]
52. Evans DG,, Shoesmith JG . 1954. Production of toxin by Bacillus anthracis. Lancet 263 : 136. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(54)90984-8. [CrossRef]
53. Lincoln RE,, Walker JS,, Klein F,, Rosenwald AJ,, Jones WI Jr . 1967. Value of field data for extrapolation in anthrax. Fed Proc 26 : 15581562.[PubMed]
54. Abalakin VA,, Cherkasskii BL . 1978. Use of inbred mice as a model for the indication and differentiation of Bacillus-anthracis strains. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 146147. (In Russian.)[PubMed]
55. Welkos SL,, Keener TJ,, Gibbs PH . 1986. Differences in susceptibility of inbred mice to Bacillus anthracis . Infect Immun 51 : 795800.[PubMed]
56. Coleman ME,, Thran B,, Morse SS,, Hugh-Jones M,, Massulik S . 2008. Inhalation anthrax: dose response and risk analysis. Biosecur Bioterror 6 : 147160.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
57. Bartrand TA,, Weir MH,, Haas CN . 2008. Dose-response models for inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores: interspecies comparisons. Risk Anal 28 : 11151124.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
58. Brookmeyer R,, Johnson E,, Barry S . 2005. Modelling the incubation period of anthrax. Stat Med 24 : 531542.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
59. Cohen M,, Whalen T . 2007. Implications of low level human exposure to respirable B. anthracis . Appl Biosafety 12 : 109115.
60. Glassman HN . 1966. Industrail inhalational anthrax. Discussion. Bacteriol Rev 30 : 657659.[PubMed]
61. Webb GF,, Blaser MJ . 2002. Mailborne transmission of anthrax: Modeling and implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99 : 70277032.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
62. Wilkening DA . 2006. Sverdlovsk revisited: modeling human inhalation anthrax. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103 : 75897594.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
63. Wilkening DA . 2008. Modeling the incubation period of inhalational anthrax. Med Decis Making 28 : 593605.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
64. Nelson M,, Stagg AJ,, Stevens DJ,, Brown MA,, Pearce PC,, Simpson AJ,, Lever MS . 2011. Post-exposure therapy of inhalational anthrax in the common marmoset. Int J Antimicrob Agents 38 : 6064.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
65. Twenhafel NA,, Leffel E,, Pitt ML . 2007. Pathology of inhalational anthrax infection in the african green monkey. Vet Pathol 44 : 716721.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
66. Liu S,, Miller-Randolph S,, Crown D,, Moayeri M,, Sastalla I,, Okugawa S,, Leppla SH . 2010. Anthrax toxin targeting of myeloid cells through the CMG2 receptor is essential for establishment of Bacillus anthracis infections in mice. Cell Host Microbe 8 : 455462.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
67. McAllister RD,, Singh Y,, du Bois WD,, Potter M,, Boehm T,, Meeker ND,, Fillmore PD,, Anderson LM,, Poynter ME,, Teuscher C . 2003. Susceptibility to anthrax lethal toxin is controlled by three linked quantitative trait loci. Am J Pathol 163 : 17351741.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
68. Moayeri M,, Crown D,, Newman ZL,, Okugawa S,, Eckhaus M,, Cataisson C,, Liu S,, Sastalla I,, Leppla SH . 2010. Inflammasome sensor Nlrp1b-dependent resistance to anthrax is mediated by caspase-1, IL-1 signaling and neutrophil recruitment. PLoS Pathog 6 : e1001222. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001222. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
69. Terra JK,, Cote CK,, France B,, Jenkins AL,, Bozue JA,, Welkos SL,, LeVine SM,, Bradley KA . 2010. Cutting edge: resistance to Bacillus anthracis infection mediated by a lethal toxin sensitive allele of Nalp1b/Nlrp1b. J Immunol 184 : 1720.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
70. Watters JW,, Dietrich WF . 2001. Genetic, physical, and transcript map of the Ltxs1 region of mouse chromosome 11. Genomics 73 : 223231.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
71. Yadav JS,, Pradhan S,, Kapoor R,, Bangar H,, Burzynski BB,, Prows DR,, Levin L . 2011. Multigenic control and sex bias in host susceptibility to spore-induced pulmonary anthrax in mice. Infect Immun 79 : 32043215.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
72. Hau J, . 2008. Animal models for human diseases, p 38. In Conn PM (ed), Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research. Humana Press, Inc., Towota, NJ. [CrossRef]
73. Phipps AJ,, Premanandan C,, Barnewall RE,, Lairmore MD . 2004. Rabbit and nonhuman primate models of toxin-targeting human anthrax vaccines. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 68 : 617629.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
74. Cote CK,, Rea KM,, Norris SL,, van Rooijen N,, Welkos SL . 2004. The use of a model of in vivo macrophage depletion to study the role of macrophages during infection with Bacillus anthracis spores. Microb Pathog 37 : 169175.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
75. Cote CK,, van Rooijen N,, Welkos SL . 2006. The roles of macrophages and neutrophils in the early host response to Bacillus anthracis spores using a mouse model of infection. Infect Immun 74 : 469480.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
76. Dumetz F,, Jouvion G,, Khun H,, Glomski IJ,, Corre JP,, Rougeaux C,, Tang WJ,, Mock M,, Huerre M,, Goossens PL . 2011. Noninvasive imaging technologies reveal edema toxin as a key virulence factor in anthrax. Am J Pathol 178 : 25232535.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
77. Heine HS,, Bassett J,, Miller L,, Hartings JM,, Ivins BE,, Pitt ML,, Fritz D,, Norris SL,, Byrne WR . 2007. Determination of antibiotic efficacy against Bacillus anthracis in a mouse aerosol challenge model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51 : 13731379.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
78. Lyons CR,, Lovchik J,, Hutt J,, Lipscomb MF,, Wang E,, Heninger S,, Berliba L,, Garrison K . 2004. Murine model of pulmonary anthrax: kinetics of dissemination, histopathology, and mouse strain susceptibility. Infect Immun 72 : 48014809.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
79. Glomski IJ,, Dumetz F,, Jouvion G,, Huerre MR,, Mock M,, Goossens PL . 2008. Inhaled non-capsulated Bacillus anthracis in A/J mice: nasopharynx and alveolar space as dual portals of entry, delayed dissemination, and specific organ targeting. Microbes Infect 10 : 13981404.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
80. Cleret A,, Quesnel-Hellmann A,, Vallon-Eberhard A,, Verrier B,, Jung S,, Vidal D,, Mathieu J,, Tournier JN . 2007. Lung dendritic cells rapidly mediate anthrax spore entry through the pulmonary route. J Immunol 178 : 79948001.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
81. Duong S,, Chiaraviglio L,, Kirby JE . 2006. Histopathology in a murine model of anthrax. Int J Exp Pathol 87 : 131137.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
82. Glomski IJ,, Corre JP,, Mock M,, Goossens PL . 2007. Noncapsulated toxinogenic Bacillus anthracis presents a specific growth and dissemination pattern in naive and protective antigen-immune mice. Infect Immun 75 : 47544761.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
83. Glomski IJ,, Piris-Gimenez A,, Huerre M,, Mock M,, Goossens PL . 2007. Primary involvement of pharynx and Peyer’s patch in inhalational and intestinal anthrax. PLoS Pathog 3 : e76. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030076. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
84. Loving CL,, Kennett M,, Lee GM,, Grippe VK,, Merkel TJ . 2007. Murine aerosol challenge model of anthrax. Infect Immun 75 : 26892698.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
85. Loving CL,, Khurana T,, Osorio M,, Lee GM,, Kelly VK,, Stibitz S,, Merkel TJ . 2009. Role of anthrax toxins in dissemination, disease progression, and induction of protective adaptive immunity in the mouse aerosol challenge model. Infect Immun 77 : 255265.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
86. Heninger S,, Drysdale M,, Lovchik J,, Hutt J,, Lipscomb MF,, Koehler TM,, Lyons CR . 2006. Toxin-deficient mutants of Bacillus anthracis are lethal in a murine model for pulmonary anthrax. Infect Immun 74 : 60676074.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
87. Welkos SL . 1991. Plasmid-associated virulence factors of non-toxigenic (pX01-) Bacillus anthracis . Microb Pathog 10 : 183198.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
88. Welkos SL,, Vietri NJ,, Gibbs PH . 1993. Non-toxigenic derivatives of the Ames strain of Bacillus anthracis are fully virulent for mice: role of plasmid pX02 and chromosome in strain-dependent virulence. Microb Pathog 14 : 381388.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
89. Friedlander AM,, Welkos SL,, Ivins BE . 2002. Anthrax vaccines. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 271 : 3360.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
90. Ivins BE,, Ezzell JW Jr,, Jemski J,, Hedlund KW,, Ristroph JD,, Leppla SH . 1986. Immunization studies with attenuated strains of Bacillus anthracis. Infect Immun 52 : 454458.[PubMed]
91. Fellows PF,, Linscott MK,, Ivins BE,, Pitt ML,, Rossi CA,, Gibbs PH,, Friedlander AM . 2001. Efficacy of a human anthrax vaccine in guinea pigs, rabbits, and rhesus macaques against challenge by Bacillus anthracis isolates of diverse geographical origin. Vaccine 19 : 32413247.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
92. Waterston RH,, Lindblad-Toh K,, Birney E,, Rogers J,, Abril JF,, Agarwal P,, Agarwala R,, Ainscough R,, Alexandersson M,, An P,, Antonarakis SE,, Attwood J,, Baertsch R,, Bailey J,, Barlow K,, Beck S,, Berry E,, Birren B,, Bloom T,, Bork P,, Botcherby M,, Bray N,, Brent MR,, Brown DG,, Brown SD,, Bult C,, Burton J,, Butler J,, Campbell RD,, Carninci P,, Cawley S,, Chiaromonte F,, Chinwalla AT,, Church DM,, Clamp M,, Clee C,, Collins FS,, Cook LL,, Copley RR,, Coulson A,, Couronne O,, Cuff J,, Curwen V,, Cutts T,, Daly M,, David R,, Davies J,, Delehaunty KD,, Deri J,, Dermitzakis ET,, Dewey C,, Dickens NJ,, Diekhans M,, Dodge S,, Dubchak I,, Dunn DM,, Eddy SR,, Elnitski L,, Emes RD,, Eswara P,, Eyras E,, Felsenfeld A,, Fewell GA,, Flicek P,, Foley K,, Frankel WN,, Fulton LA,, Fulton RS,, Furey TS,, Gage D,, Gibbs RA,, Glusman G,, Gnerre S,, Goldman N,, Goodstadt L,, Grafham D,, Graves TA,, Green ED,, Gregory S,, Guigó R,, Guyer M,, Hardison RC,, Haussler D,, Hayashizaki Y,, Hillier LW,, Hinrichs A,, Hlavina W,, Holzer T,, Hsu F,, Hua A,, Hubbard T,, Hunt A,, Jackson I,, Jaffe DB,, Johnson LS,, Jones M,, Jones TA,, Joy A,, Kamal M,, Karlsson EK,, Karolchik D,, Kasprzyk A,, Kawai J,, Keibler E,, Kells C,, Kent WJ,, Kirby A,, Kolbe DL,, Korf I,, Kucherlapati RS,, Kulbokas EJ,, Kulp D,, Landers T,, Leger JP,, Leonard S,, Letunic I,, Levine R,, Li J,, Li M,, Lloyd C,, Lucas S,, Ma B,, Maglott DR,, Mardis ER,, Matthews L,, Mauceli E,, Mayer JH,, McCarthy M,, McCombie WR,, McLaren S,, McLay K,, McPherson JD,, Meldrim J,, Meredith B,, Mesirov JP,, Miller W,, Miner TL,, Mongin E,, Montgomery KT,, Morgan M,, Mott R,, Mullikin JC,, Muzny DM,, Nash WE,, Nelson JO,, Nhan MN,, Nicol R,, Ning Z,, Nusbaum C,, O’Connor MJ,, Okazaki Y,, Oliver K,, Overton-Larty E,, Pachter L,, Parra G,, Pepin KH,, Peterson J,, Pevzner P,, Plumb R,, Pohl CS,, Poliakov A,, Ponce TC,, Ponting CP,, Potter S,, Quail M,, Reymond A,, Roe BA,, Roskin KM,, Rubin EM,, Rust AG,, Santos R,, Sapojnikov V,, Schultz B,, Schultz J,, Schwartz MS,, Schwartz S,, Scott C,, Seaman S,, Searle S,, Sharpe T,, Sheridan A,, Shownkeen R,, Sims S,, Singer JB,, Slater G,, Smit A,, Smith DR,, Spencer B,, Stabenau A,, Stange-Thomann N,, Sugnet C,, Suyama M,, Tesler G,, Thompson J,, Torrents D,, Trevaskis E,, Tromp J,, Ucla C,, Ureta-Vidal A,, Vinson JP,, Von Niederhausern AC,, Wade CM,, Wall M,, Weber RJ,, Weiss RB,, Wendl MC,, West AP,, Wetterstrand K,, Wheeler R,, Whelan S,, Wierzbowski J,, Willey D,, Williams S,, Wilson RK,, Winter E,, Worley KC,, Wyman D,, Yang S,, Yang SP,, Zdobnov EM,, Zody MC,, Lander ES . 2002. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome. Nature 420 : 520562.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
93. Haley PJ . 2003. Species differences in the structure and function of the immune system. Toxicology 188 : 4971.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
94. Mestas J,, Hughes CC . 2004. Of mice and not men: differences between mouse and human immunology. J Immunol 172 : 27312738.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
95. Mizgerd JP,, Skerrett SJ . 2008. Animal models of human pneumonia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 294 : L387L398.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
96. Deziel MR,, Heine H,, Louie A,, Kao M,, Byrne WR,, Basset J,, Miller L,, Bush K,, Kelly M,, Drusano GL . 2005. Effective antimicrobial regimens for use in humans for therapy of Bacillus anthracis infections and postexposure prophylaxis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 50995106.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
97. Castelan-Vega J,, Corvette L,, Sirota L,, Arciniega J . 2011. Reduction of immunogenicity of anthrax vaccines subjected to thermal stress, as measured by a toxin neutralization assay. Clin Vaccine Immunol 18 : 349351.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
98. Little SF,, Webster WM,, Ivins BE,, Fellows PF,, Norris SL,, Andrews GP . 2004. Development of an in vitro-based potency assay for anthrax vaccine. Vaccine 22 : 28432852.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
99. Albrecht MT,, Li H,, Williamson ED,, LeButt CS,, Flick-Smith HC,, Quinn CP,, Westra H,, Galloway D,, Mateczun A,, Goldman S,, Groen H,, Baillie LW . 2007. Human monoclonal antibodies against anthrax lethal factor and protective antigen act independently to protect against Bacillus anthracis infection and enhance endogenous immunity to anthrax. Infect Immun 75 : 54255433.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
100. Williamson ED,, Duchars MG,, Kohberger R . 2010. Predictive models and correlates of protection for testing biodefence vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines 9 : 527537.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
101. Beedham RJ,, Turnbull PC,, Williamson ED . 2001. Passive transfer of protection against Bacillus anthracis infection in a murine model. Vaccine 19 : 44094416.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
102. Welkos S,, Becker D,, Friedlander A,, Trotter R . 1989. Pathogenesis and host response to Bacillus anthracis: a mouse model. Salisbury Med Bull 87 : 4952.
103. Welkos SL,, Friedlander AM . 1988. Pathogenesis and genetic control of resistance to the Sterne strain of Bacillus anthracis . Microb Pathog 4 : 5369.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
104. Welkos SL,, Trotter RW,, Becker DM,, Nelson GO . 1989. Resistance to the Sterne strain of B. anthracis: phagocytic cell responses of resistant and susceptible mice. Microb Pathog 7 : 1535.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
105. Harvill ET,, Osorio M,, Loving CL,, Lee GM,, Kelly VK,, Merkel TJ . 2008. Anamnestic protective immunity to Bacillus anthracis is antibody mediated but independent of complement and Fc receptors. Infect Immun 76 : 21772182.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
106. Pickering AK,, Osorio M,, Lee GM,, Grippe VK,, Bray M,, Merkel TJ . 2004. Cytokine response to infection with Bacillus anthracis spores. Infect Immun 72 : 63826389.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
107. Sanz P,, Teel LD,, Alem F,, Carvalho HM,, Darnell SC,, O’Brien AD . 2008. Detection of Bacillus anthracis spore germination in vivo by bioluminescence imaging. Infect Immun 76 : 10361047.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
108. Kang TJ,, Basu S,, Zhang L,, Thomas KE,, Vogel SN,, Baillie L,, Cross AS . 2008. Bacillus anthracis spores and lethal toxin induce IL-1beta via functionally distinct signaling pathways. Eur J Immunol 38 : 15741584.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
109. Popov SG,, Popova TG,, Grene E,, Klotz F,, Cardwell J,, Bradburne C,, Jama Y,, Maland M,, Wells J,, Nalca A,, Voss T,, Bailey C,, Alibek K . 2004. Systemic cytokine response in murine anthrax. Cell Microbiol 6 : 225233.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
110. Harvill ET,, Lee G,, Grippe VK,, Merkel TJ . 2005. Complement depletion renders C57BL/6 mice sensitive to the Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain. Infect Immun 73 : 44204422.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
111. Gleiser CA,, Berdjis CC,, Hartman HA,, Gochenour WS . 1963. Pathology of experimental respiratory anthrax in Macaca mulatta . Br J Exp Pathol 44 : 416426.[PubMed]
112. Bozue J,, Cote CK,, Moody KL,, Welkos SL . 2007. Fully virulent Bacillus anthracis does not require the immunodominant protein, BclA, for pathogenesis. Infect Immun 75 : 508511.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
113. Friedlander AM,, Welkos SL,, Pitt ML,, Ezzell JW,, Worsham PL,, Rose KJ,, Ivins BE,, Lowe JR,, Howe GB,, Mikesell P . 1993. Postexposure prophylaxis against experimental inhalation anthrax. J Infect Dis 167 : 12391243.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
114. Fritz DL,, Jaax NK,, Lawrence WB,, Davis KJ,, Pitt ML,, Ezzell JW,, Friedlander AM . 1995. Pathology of experimental inhalation anthrax in the rhesus monkey. Lab Invest 73 : 691702.[PubMed]
115. Guidi-Rontani C . 2002. The alveolar macrophage: the Trojan horse of Bacillus anthracis . Trends Microbiol 10 : 405409.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
116. Guidi-Rontani C,, Weber-Levy M,, Labruyere E,, Mock M . 1999. Germination of Bacillus anthracis spores within alveolar macrophages. Mol Microbiol 31 : 917.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
117. Carr KA,, Lybarger SR,, Anderson EC,, Janes BK,, Hanna PC . 2010. The role of Bacillus anthracis germinant receptors in germination and virulence. Mol Microbiol 75 : 365375.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
118. McKevitt MT,, Bryant KM,, Shakir SM,, Larabee JL,, Blanke SR,, Lovchik J,, Lyons CR,, Ballard JD . 2007. Effects of endogenous D-alanine synthesis and autoinhibition of Bacillus anthracis germination on in vitro and in vivo infections. Infect Immun 75 : 57265734.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
119. Cote CK,, Bozue J,, Twenhafel N,, Welkos SL . 2009. Effects of altering the germination potential of Bacillus anthracis spores by exogenous means in a mouse model. J Med Microbiol 58 : 816825.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
120. Fisher N,, Shetron-Rama L,, Herring-Palmer A,, Heffernan B,, Bergman N,, Hanna P . 2006. The dltABCD operon of Bacillus anthracis sterne is required for virulence and resistance to peptide, enzymatic, and cellular mediators of innate immunity. J Bacteriol 188 : 13011309.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
121. Cendrowski S,, MacArthur W,, Hanna P . 2004. Bacillus anthracis requires siderophore biosynthesis for growth in macrophages and mouse virulence. Mol Microbiol 51 : 407417.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
122. Chung MC,, Popova TG,, Jorgensen SC,, Dong L,, Chandhoke V,, Bailey CL,, Popov SG . 2008. Degradation of circulating von Willebrand factor and its regulator ADAMTS13 implicates secreted Bacillus anthracis metalloproteases in anthrax consumptive coagulopathy. J Biol Chem 283 : 95319542.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
123. Chung MC,, Popova TG,, Millis BA,, Mukherjee DV,, Zhou W,, Liotta LA,, Petricoin EF,, Chandhoke V,, Bailey C,, Popov SG . 2006. Secreted neutral metalloproteases of Bacillus anthracis as candidate pathogenic factors. J Biol Chem 281 : 3140831418.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
124. Cowan GJ,, Atkins HS,, Johnson LK,, Titball RW,, Mitchell TJ . 2007. Immunisation with anthrolysin O or a genetic toxoid protects against challenge with the toxin but not against Bacillus anthracis . Vaccine 25 : 71977205.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
125. Heffernan BJ,, Thomason B,, Herring-Palmer A,, Shaughnessy L,, McDonald R,, Fisher N,, Huffnagle GB,, Hanna P . 2006. Bacillus anthracis phospholipases C facilitate macrophage-associated growth and contribute to virulence in a murine model of inhalation anthrax. Infect Immun 74 : 37563764.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
126. Honsa ES,, Fabian M,, Cardenas AM,, Olson JS,, Maresso AW . 2011. The five near-iron transporter (NEAT) domain anthrax hemophore, IsdX2, scavenges heme from hemoglobin and transfers heme to the surface protein IsdC. J Biol Chem 286 : 3365233660.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
127. Honsa ES,, Maresso AW . 2011. Mechanisms of iron import in anthrax. Biometals 24 : 533545.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
128. Mosser EM,, Rest RF . 2006. The Bacillus anthracis cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, Anthrolysin O, kills human neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. BMC Microbiol 6 : 56. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-6-56. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
129. Mukherjee DV,, Tonry JH,, Kim KS,, Ramarao N,, Popova TG,, Bailey C,, Popov S,, Chung MC . 2011. Bacillus anthracis protease InhA increases blood-brain barrier permeability and contributes to cerebral hemorrhages. PLoS One 6 : e17921. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017921. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
130. Shannon JG,, Ross CL,, Koehler TM,, Rest RF . 2003. Characterization of anthrolysin O, the Bacillus anthracis cholesterol-dependent cytolysin. Infect Immun 71 : 31833189.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
131. Shatalin K,, Gusarov I,, Avetissova E,, Shatalina Y,, McQuade LE,, Lippard SJ,, Nudler E . 2008. Bacillus anthracis-derived nitric oxide is essential for pathogen virulence and survival in macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 : 10091013.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
132. Bozue J,, Moody KL,, Cote CK,, Stiles BG,, Friedlander AM,, Welkos SL,, Hale ML . 2007. Bacillus anthracis spores of the bclA mutant exhibit increased adherence to epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells but not to macrophages. Infect Immun 75 : 44984505.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
133. Brahmbhatt TN,, Janes BK,, Stibitz ES,, Darnell SC,, Sanz P,, Rasmussen SB,, O’Brien AD . 2007. Bacillus anthracis exosporium protein BclA affects spore germination, interaction with extracellular matrix proteins, and hydrophobicity. Infect Immun 75 : 52335239.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
134. Oliva C,, Turnbough CL Jr,, Kearney JF . 2009. CD14-Mac-1 interactions in Bacillus anthracis spore internalization by macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106 : 1395713962.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
135. Sylvestre P,, Couture-Tosi E,, Mock M . 2002. A collagen-like surface glycoprotein is a structural component of the Bacillus anthracis exosporium. Mol Microbiol 45 : 169178.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
136. Flick-Smith HC,, Walker NJ,, Gibson P,, Bullifent H,, Hayward S,, Miller J,, Titball RW,, Williamson ED . 2002. A recombinant carboxy-terminal domain of the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis protects mice against anthrax infection. Infect Immun 70 : 16531656.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
137. Flick-Smith HC,, Waters EL,, Walker NJ,, Miller J,, Stagg AJ,, Green M,, Williamson ED . 2005. Mouse model characterisation for anthrax vaccine development: comparison of one inbred and one outbred mouse strain. Microb Pathog 38 : 3340.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
138. Welkos SL,, Friedlander AM . 1988. Comparative safety and efficacy against Bacillus anthracis of protective antigen and live vaccines in mice. Microb Pathog 5 : 127139.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
139. Brahmbhatt TN,, Darnell SC,, Carvalho HM,, Sanz P,, Kang TJ,, Bull RL,, Rasmussen SB,, Cross AS,, O’Brien AD . 2007. Recombinant exosporium protein BclA of Bacillus anthracis is effective as a booster for mice primed with suboptimal amounts of protective antigen. Infect Immun 75 : 52405247.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
140. Cybulski RJ Jr,, Sanz P,, McDaniel D,, Darnell S,, Bull RL,, O’Brien AD . 2008. Recombinant Bacillus anthracis spore proteins enhance protection of mice primed with suboptimal amounts of protective antigen. Vaccine 26 : 49274939.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
141. Duc le H,, Hong HA,, Atkins HS,, Flick-Smith HC,, Durrani Z,, Rijpkema S,, Titball RW,, Cutting SM . 2007. Immunization against anthrax using Bacillus subtilis spores expressing the anthrax protective antigen. Vaccine 25 : 346355.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
142. Galen JE,, Zhao L,, Chinchilla M,, Wang JY,, Pasetti MF,, Green J,, Levine MM . 2004. Adaptation of the endogenous Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi clyA-encoded hemolysin for antigen export enhances the immunogenicity of anthrax protective antigen domain 4 expressed by the attenuated live-vector vaccine strain CVD 908-htrA. Infect Immun 72 : 70967106.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
143. Garmory HS,, Titball RW,, Griffin KF,, Hahn U,, Bohm R,, Beyer W . 2003. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing a chromosomally integrated copy of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen gene protects mice against an anthrax spore challenge. Infect Immun 71 : 38313836.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
144. Lee JS,, Groebner JL,, Hadjipanayis AG,, Negley DL,, Schmaljohn AL,, Welkos SL,, Smith LA,, Smith JF . 2006. Multiagent vaccines vectored by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon elicits immune responses to Marburg virus and protection against anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin in mice. Vaccine 24 : 68866892.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
145. Lee JS,, Hadjipanayis AG,, Welkos SL . 2003. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-vectored vaccines protect mice against anthrax spore challenge. Infect Immun 71 : 14911496.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
146. Stokes MG,, Titball RW,, Neeson BN,, Galen JE,, Walker NJ,, Stagg AJ,, Jenner DC,, Thwaite JE,, Nataro JP,, Baillie LW,, Atkins HS . 2007. Oral administration of a Salmonella enterica-based vaccine expressing Bacillus anthracis protective antigen confers protection against aerosolized B. anthracis . Infect Immun 75 : 18271834.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
147. Tan Y,, Hackett NR,, Boyer JL,, Crystal RG . 2003. Protective immunity evoked against anthrax lethal toxin after a single intramuscular administration of an adenovirus-based vaccine encoding humanized protective antigen. Hum Gene Ther 14 : 16731682.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
148. Zeng M,, Xu Q,, Hesek ED,, Pichichero ME . 2006. N-fragment of edema factor as a candidate antigen for immunization against anthrax. Vaccine 24 : 662670.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
149. Vergis JM,, Cote CK,, Bozue J,, Alem F,, Ventura CL,, Welkos SL,, O’Brien AD . 2013. Immunization of mice with formalin-inactivated spores from avirulent Bacillus cereus strains provides significant protection from challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames. Clin Vacc Immunol 20 : 5665. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
150. Basu S,, Kang T,, Whitford M,, Meldorf M,, Lowry I,, Cross A . 2009. Mechanisms of an anti-PA antibody (Valortim) that mediate protection against B. anthracis infection, abstr Bacillus-ACT: The International Conference on Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis , Santa Fe, NM, 30 August to 3 September, 2009.
151. Basu S,, Kang TJ,, Langermann S,, Riddle V,, Lowy I,, Cross AS . 2007. A monoclonal antibody that neutralizes lethal toxin mediates the killing of B. anthracis by murine macrophages, abstr Bacillus-ACT: The International Conference on Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis , Oslo, Norway, 17 to 21 June 2007.
152. Mett V,, Chichester JA,, Stewart ML,, Musiychuk K,, Bi H,, Reifsnyder CJ,, Hull AK,, Albrecht MT,, Goldman S,, Baillie LW,, Yusibov V . 2011. A non-glycosylated, plant-produced human monoclonal antibody against anthrax protective antigen protects mice and non-human primates from B. anthracis spore challenge. Hum Vaccin 7(Suppl): 183190.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
153. Cote CK,, Rossi CA,, Kang AS,, Morrow PR,, Lee JS,, Welkos SL . 2005. The detection of protective antigen (PA) associated with spores of Bacillus anthracis and the effects of anti-PA antibodies on spore germination and macrophage interactions. Microb Pathog 38 : 209225.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
154. Welkos S,, Friedlander A,, Weeks S,, Little S,, Mendelson I . 2002. In-vitro characterisation of the phagocytosis and fate of anthrax spores in macrophages and the effects of anti-PA antibody. J Med Microbiol 51 : 821831.[PubMed]
155. Welkos S,, Little S,, Friedlander A,, Fritz D,, Fellows P . 2001. The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by anthrax spores. Microbiology 147 : 16771685.[PubMed]