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Chapter 16 : Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production

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Abstract:

The ability of the Gram-positive, anaerobic rod to form resistant spores contributes to its survival in many environmental niches, including soil, waste water, feces, and foods ( ). In addition, sporulation and germination play a significant role when this important pathogen causes disease ( ). As introduced in the next section of this review, spores often facilitate the transmission of to hosts and then germinate to cause disease.

Citation: Li J, Paredes-Sabja D, Sarker M, McClane B. 2016. Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production, p 331-347. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0022-2015
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Figures

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Figure 1

Ultrastructure of spores. Transmission electron micrograph of a spore from strain H-6, a food poisoning strain. Components of spore shown include proteinaceous spore coat layers, the cortex region, and the core with ribosomes giving a granular appearance. The bar represents 1.0 µM. Reproduced with permission from reference .

Citation: Li J, Paredes-Sabja D, Sarker M, McClane B. 2016. Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production, p 331-347. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0022-2015
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Figure 2

Sporulation-associated sigma factors are required for sporulation. Shown are photomicrographs of sporulating cultures of SM101, a transformable derivative of a food poisoning strain, after growth for 8 h in Duncan-Strong sporulation medium. Also shown is the absence of sporulating cells in similar Duncan-Strong cultures of a or null mutant of SM101 (SM101:: or SM101::). This loss of sporulation was specifically due to inactivation of the or genes in those mutants since the effect was reversible by complementation, i.e., by adding back a wild-type or gene, respectively, to those mutants (SM101::Comp or SM101::Comp). Reproduced with permission from reference . Similar loss of sporulation was observed with or mutants of SM101 ( ).

Citation: Li J, Paredes-Sabja D, Sarker M, McClane B. 2016. Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production, p 331-347. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0022-2015
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Figure 3

Sporulation in . Working through unidentified intermediates, the Agr QS system and CcpA affect Spo0A expression or, possibly, phosphorylation to initiate sporulation. This triggers a cascade of sigma factors where SigF controls production of the three other sporulation-associated sigma factors. Two of these sigma factors (SigE and SigK) then regulate CPE production during sporulation. Compiled from references , and . Not shown in this drawing, SigE (and possibly SigK) can also regulate production of TpeL toxin ( ).

Citation: Li J, Paredes-Sabja D, Sarker M, McClane B. 2016. Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production, p 331-347. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0022-2015
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Figure 4

DNA binding properties of recombinant His6-tagged SASP4. (A) Electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) showing binding to biotin-labeled DNA by purified rSASP4 from F4969 (a CPE-positive non-foodborne human GI disease strain that forms sensitive spores and produces an SASP4 variant with a Gly at residue 36), SM101 or 01E809 (two CPE-positive food poisoning isolates that form resistant spores and produce an SASP4 variant with Asp at residue 36). (B) EMSAs showing binding by purified SM101 rSASP4 or rSASP2 to (left) AT-rich biotin-labeled DNA or (right) biotin-labeled GC-rich DNA. Reproduced with permission from references and .

Citation: Li J, Paredes-Sabja D, Sarker M, McClane B. 2016. Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production, p 331-347. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0022-2015
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Figure 5

Current model for the mechanism of action of CPE. CPE binds to claudin receptors to form small complexes. Those small complexes then oligomerize on the host cell surface to form an ∼450-kDa prepore known as CH-1. The prepore inserts into the membrane to form an active pore that alters host plasma membrane permeability for small molecules. As a result, calcium enters the cytoplasm and triggers either apoptosis (caused by low CPE doses, where there is a modest calcium influx) or oncosis (caused by high CPE doses, where there is a strong calcium influx). Reproduced with permission from reference .

Citation: Li J, Paredes-Sabja D, Sarker M, McClane B. 2016. Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production, p 331-347. In Driks A, Eichenberger P (ed), The Bacterial Spore: from Molecules to Systems. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0022-2015
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