1887

Chapter 22 : Varicella-Zoster Virus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Varicella-Zoster Virus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch22-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch22-2.gif

Abstract:

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiologic agent of two diseases, varicella (chickenpox) and zoster (shingles). Varicella, which occurs after the initial encounter with VZV, is a disease manifested by a pruritic rash accompanied by fever and other systemic signs and symptoms that are usually mild to moderate in nature. Most often, but not always, varicella is a self-limited infection of childhood. Live attenuated varicella vaccine was licensed for routine use in the United States in 1995 and after more than 20 years of use has changed the epidemiology of the disease, as the incidences of varicella and its complications have now significantly declined (1–3).

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

A suggested mechanism of VZV virion entry. ( ) The incoming virion initially attaches to cellular heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), facilitating specific interaction with cellular receptor, e.g., MPR ( ). This leads to receptor-mediated (clathrin-dependent) endocytosis ( ) and delivery to an endosomal compartment ( ). Within this structure, the virion is exposed to cofactors for membrane fusion, possibly including the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) and/or altered pH. ( ) Following triggered membrane fusion, the VZV nucleocapsid is delivered to the cytoplasm. Cholesterol may play a role at each stage. (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Putative route of intracellular transport and maturation of VZV in human embryonic lung fibroblasts. Structures are not drawn to scale. (Top) Nucleocapsids assemble in the nuclei of infected cells and bud through the nuclear envelope to reach the perinuclear cisterna-rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). A temporary, primary viral envelope is acquired from the inner nuclear membrane. This envelope fuses with the RER, delivering unenveloped nucleocapsids to the cytosol. The nucleocapsids move through the cytosol to reach the -Golgi network (TGN). (Bottom) The glycoproteins (gps) of the viral envelope are synthesized in the RER independently of the nucleocapsids and are integral membrane proteins. Tegument proteins are probably synthesized by free ribosomes and are transported to the Golgi stack, as are the gps. Virions receive their final envelope by wrapping the TGN-derived sac and are delivered to acidic structures, identified as prelysosomes. (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

VZV propagated in human embryonic lung fibroblasts after several days in culture. The specimen was stained with fluorescein-tagged monoclonal antibodies to gE of VZV. The arrow indicates gE in the -Golgi network, and the arrowheads indicate gE at the cell surface.

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Diagram showing proposed pathogenesis of varicella regarding events during the incubation period. (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Skin vesicle from a patient in the early stages of varicella. The vesicle has not been unroofed. (A) The specimen was stained with fluorescein-tagged monoclonal antibodies to gE of VZV. (B) Same specimen as in panel A, viewed by Nomarski interference contrast microscopy. V, vesicular space; S, outer surface of epidermis.

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Proposed pathogenesis of zoster. (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Varicella on day 5 in an otherwise healthy 2-year-old boy, showing the typical distribution of skin lesions.

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Hemorrhagic fatal varicella in a child with underlying lymphoma.

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Chronic VZV skin lesion in a child with underlying HIV infection.

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Chest radiograph of a patient with primary varicella pneumonia. (Courtesy of Walter Berdon.)

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

Zoster in a 10-year-old boy with underlying leukemia, showing the unilateral lumbar distribution of the skin lesions.

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

Kaplan-Meier product limit analysis of the probability of remaining free of zoster in 96 children with leukemia who had naturally acquired varicella before or after the diagnosis of leukemia. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.)

Citation: Gershon A, Gershon M. 2017. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p 459-480. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819439.ch22
1. Marin M, Zhang JX, Seward JF. 2011. Near elimination of varicella deaths in the US after implementation of the vaccination program. Pediatrics 128:214220.[PubMed]
2. Marin M, Güris D, Chaves SS, Schmid S, Seward JF Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2007. Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 56(RR-4):140.[PubMed]
3. Gershon A, Takahashi M, Seward JF,. 2013. Live attenuated varicella vaccine, p 837869. In Plotkin S, Orenstein W, Offit P (ed), Vaccines, 6th ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia.
4. Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Johnson GR, Schmader KE, Straus SE, Gelb LD, Arbeit RD, Simberkoff MS, Gershon AA, Davis LE, Weinberg A, Boardman KD, Williams HM, Zhang JH, Peduzzi PN, Beisel CE, Morrison VA, Guatelli JC, Brooks PA, Kauffman CA, Pachucki CT, Neuzil KM, Betts RF, Wright PF, Griffin MR, Brunell P, Soto NE, Marques AR, Keay SK, Goodman RP, Cotton DJ, Gnann JW Jr, Loutit J, Holodniy M, Keitel WA, Crawford GE, Yeh SS, Lobo Z, Toney JF, Greenberg RN, Keller PM, Harbecke R, Hayward AR, Irwin MR, Kyriakides TC, Chan CY, Chan IS, Wang WW, Annunziato PW, Silber JL Shingles Prevention Study Group. 2005. A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults. N Engl J Med 352:22712284.[PubMed]
5. Weller TH, Stoddard MB. 1952. Intranuclear inclusion bodies in cultures of human tissue inoculated with varicella vesicle fluid. J Immunol 68:311319.[PubMed]
6. Garland J. 1943. Varicella following exposure to herpes zoster. N Engl J Med 228:336337.
7. Hope-Simpson RE. 1965. The nature of herpes zoster: a long term study and a new hypothesis. Proc R Soc Med 58:920.[PubMed]
8. Gershon AA, Gershon MD. 2013. Pathogenesis and current approaches to control of varicella-zoster virus infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 26:728743.[PubMed]
9. Breuer J, Grose C, Norberg P, Tipples G, Schmid DS. 2010. A proposal for a common nomenclature for viral clades that form the species varicella-zoster virus: summary of VZV Nomenclature Meeting 2008, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 24–25 July 2008. J Gen Virol 91:821828.
10. Sergeev N, Rubtcova E, Chizikov V, Schmid DS, Loparev VN. 2006. New mosaic subgenotype of varicella-zoster virus in the USA: VZV detection and genotyping by oligonucleotide-microarray. J Virol Methods 136:816.[PubMed]
11. Yamanishi K. 2008. Molecular analysis of the Oka vaccine strain of varicella-zoster virus. J Infect Dis 197(Suppl 2):S45S48.[PubMed]
12. Parker SP, Quinlivan M, Taha Y, Breuer J. 2006. Genotyping of varicella-zoster virus and the discrimination of Oka vaccine strains by TaqMan real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 44:39113914.[PubMed]
13. Quinlivan ML, Jensen NJ, Radford KW, Schmid DS. 2012. Novel genetic variation identified at fixed loci in ORF62 of the Oka varicella vaccine and in a case of vaccine-associated herpes zoster. J Clin Microbiol 50:15331538.[PubMed]
14. Dumas AM, Geelen JLMC, Maris W, Van der Noordaa J. 1980. Infectivity and molecular weight of varicella-zoster virus. J Gen Virol 47:233235.
15. Hay J, Ruyechan WT. 1994. Varicella-zoster virus: a different kind of herpesvirus latency? Semin Virol 5:241248.
16. Kinchington PR, Bookey D, Turse SE. 1995. The transcriptional regulatory proteins encoded by varicella-zoster virus open reading frames (ORFs) 4 and 63, but not ORF 61, are associated with purified virus particles. J Virol 69:42744282.[PubMed]
17. Arvin A, Gilden D,. 2013. Molecular mechanisms of varicella zoster virus pathogenesis, p 20152057. In Knipe D,, Howley P (ed), Fields Virology, 6th ed. Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.
18. Wang Z-H, Gershon MD, Lungu O, Zhu Z, Gershon AA. 2000. Trafficking of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gI: T(338)-dependent retention in the trans-Golgi network, secretion, and mannose 6-phosphate-inhibitable uptake of the ectodomain. J Virol 74:66006613.[PubMed]
19. Wang Z-H, Gershon MD, Lungu O, Zhu Z, Mallory S, Arvin AM, Gershon AA. 2001. Essential role played by the C-terminal domain of glycoprotein I in envelopment of varicella-zoster virus in the trans-Golgi network: interactions of glycoproteins with tegument. J Virol 75:323340.[PubMed]
20. Zhu Z, Gershon MD, Hao Y, Ambron RT, Gabel CA, Gershon AA. 1995. Envelopment of varicella-zoster virus: targeting of viral glycoproteins to the trans-Golgi network. J Virol 69:79517959.[PubMed]
21. Zhu Z, Hao Y, Gershon MD, Ambron RT, Gershon AA. 1996. Targeting of glycoprotein I (gE) of varicella-zoster virus to the trans-Golgi network by a signal sequence (AYRV) and patch in the cytosolic domain of the molecule. J Virol 70:65636575.[PubMed]
22. Mallory S, Sommer M, Arvin AM. 1998. Analysis of the glycoproteins I and E of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) using deletional mutations of VZV cosmids. J Infect Dis 178(Suppl 1):S22S26.[PubMed]
23. Montalvo EA, Parmley RT, Grose C. 1985. Structural analysis of the varicella-zoster virus gp98-gp62 complex: posttranslational addition of N-linked and O-linked oligosaccharide moieties. J Virol 53:761770.[PubMed]
24. Olson JK, Grose C. 1998. Complex formation facilitates endocytosis of the varicella-zoster virus gE:gI Fc receptor. J Virol 72:15421551.[PubMed]
25. Yao Z, Grose C. 1994. Unusual phosphorylation sequence in the gpIV (gI) component of the varicella-zoster virus gpI-gpIV glycoprotein complex (VZV gE-gI complex). J Virol 68:42044211.[PubMed]
26. Zerboni L, Berarducci B, Rajamani J, Jones CD, Zehnder JL, Arvin A. 2011. Varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E is a critical determinant of virulence in the SCID mouse-human model of neuropathogenesis. J Virol 85:98111.[PubMed]
27. Wirgart BZ, Estrada V, Jackson W, Linde A, Grose C. 2006. A novel varicella-zoster virus gE mutation discovered in two Swedish isolates. J Clin Virol 37:134136.[PubMed]
28. Grose C, Tyler S, Peters G, Hiebert J, Stephens GM, Ruyechan WT, Jackson W, Storlie J, Tipples GA. 2004. Complete DNA sequence analyses of the first two varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (D150N) mutant viruses found in North America: evolution of genotypes with an accelerated cell spread phenotype. J Virol 78:67996807.[PubMed]
29. Heineman TC, Hall SL. 2002. Role of the varicella-zoster virus gB cytoplasmic domain in gB transport and viral egress. J Virol 76:591599.[PubMed]
30. Suzuki K, Akahori Y, Asano Y, Kurosawa Y, Shiraki K. 2007. Isolation of therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies for varicella-zoster virus and the effect of light chains on the neutralizing activity. J Med Virol 79:852862.[PubMed]
31. Sugano T, Tomiyama T, Matsumoto Y, Sasaki S, Kimura T, Forghani B, Masuho Y. 1991. A human monoclonal antibody against varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein III. J Gen Virol 72:20652073.[PubMed]
32. Grose C, Carpenter JE, Jackson W, Duus KM. 2010. Overview of varicella-zoster virus glycoproteins gC, gH and gL. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 342:113128.[PubMed]
33. Forghani B, Dupuis KW, Schmidt NJ. 1990. Epitopes functional in neutralization of varicella-zoster virus. J Clin Microbiol 28:25002506.[PubMed]
34. Wu L, Forghani B. 1997. Characterization of neutralizing domains on varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E defined by monoclonal antibodies. Arch Virol 142:349362.[PubMed]
35. Shiraki K, Daikoku T, Takemoto M, Yoshida Y, Suzuki K, Akahori Y, Okuno T, Kurosawa Y, Asano Y. 2011. Neutralizing anti-gH antibody of Varicella-zoster virus modulates distribution of gH and induces gene regulation, mimicking latency. J Virol 85:81728180.[PubMed]
36. Zhu Z, Gershon MD, Ambron R, Gabel C, Gershon AA. 1995. Infection of cells by varicella zoster virus: inhibition of viral entry by mannose 6-phosphate and heparin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:35463550.[PubMed]
37. Chen JJ, Zhu Z, Gershon AA, Gershon MD. 2004. Mannose 6-phosphate receptor dependence of varicella zoster virus infection in vitro and in the epidermis during varicella and zoster. Cell 119:915926.[PubMed]
38. Li Q, Ali MA, Cohen JI. 2006. Insulin degrading enzyme is a cellular receptor mediating varicella-zoster virus infection and cell-to-cell spread. Cell 127:305316.[PubMed]
39. Li Q, Ali MA, Wang K, Sayre D, Hamel FG, Fischer ER, Bennett RG, Cohen JI. 2010. Insulin degrading enzyme induces a conformational change in varicella-zoster virus gE, and enhances virus infectivity and stability. PLoS One 5:e11327.[PubMed]
40. Li Q, Krogmann T, Ali MA, Tang WJ, Cohen JI. 2007. The amino terminus of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E is required for binding to insulin-degrading enzyme, a VZV receptor. J Virol 81:85258532.[PubMed]
41. Hambleton S, Steinberg SP, Gershon MD, Gershon AA. 2007. Cholesterol dependence of varicella-zoster virion entry into target cells. J Virol 81:75487558.[PubMed]
42. Gershon AA, Sherman DL, Zhu Z, Gabel CA, Ambron RT, Gershon MD. 1994. Intracellular transport of newly synthesized varicella-zoster virus: final envelopment in the trans-Golgi network. J Virol 68:63726390.[PubMed]
43. Gershon AA, Chen J, Gershon MD. 2008. A model of lytic, latent, and reactivating varicella-zoster virus infections in isolated enteric neurons. J Infect Dis 197(Suppl 2):S61S65.[PubMed]
44. Kennedy PG, Grinfeld E, Gow JW. 1998. Latent varicella-zoster virus is located predominantly in neurons in human trigeminal ganglia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:46584662.[PubMed]
45. Kennedy PG, Cohrs RJ. 2010. Varicella-zoster virus human ganglionic latency: a current summary. J Neurovirol 16:411418.[PubMed]
46. Kennedy PGE, Grinfeld E, Bell JE. 2000. Varicella-zoster virus gene expression in latently infected and explanted human ganglia. J Virol 74:1189311898.[PubMed]
47. Hood C, Cunningham AL, Slobedman B, Arvin AM, Sommer MH, Kinchington PR, Abendroth A. 2006. Varicella-zoster virus ORF63 inhibits apoptosis of primary human neurons. J Virol 80:10251031.[PubMed]
48. Chen JJ, Gershon AA, Li ZS, Lungu O, Gershon MD, Gershon MD. 2003. Latent and lytic infection of isolated guinea pig enteric ganglia by varicella zoster virus. J Med Virol 70(Suppl 1):S71S78.[PubMed]
49. Cohrs RJ, Gilden DH. 2003. Varicella zoster virus transcription in latently-infected human ganglia. Anticancer Res 23(3A):20632069.[PubMed]
50. Cohrs RJ, Gilden DH, Kinchington PR, Grinfeld E, Kennedy PG. 2003. Varicella-zoster virus gene 66 transcription and translation in latently infected human Ganglia. J Virol 77:66606665.[PubMed]
51. Cohen JI, Krogmann T, Ross JP, Pesnicak L, Prikhod'ko EA. 2005. Varicella-zoster virus ORF4 latency-associated protein is important for establishment of latency. J Virol 79:69696975.[PubMed]
52. Mahalingam R, Wellish M, Cohrs R, Debrus S, Piette J, Rentier B, Gilden DH. 1996. Expression of protein encoded by varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 63 in latently infected human ganglionic neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:21222124.[PubMed]
53. Kennedy PG, Rovnak J, Badani H, Cohrs RJ. 2015. A comparison of HSV-1 and VZV latency and reactivation. J Gen Virol 96:15811602.
54. Stallings CL, Duigou GJ, Gershon AA, Gershon MD, Silverstein SJ. 2006. The cellular localization pattern of Varicella-Zoster virus ORF29p is influenced by proteasome-mediated degradation. J Virol 80:14971512.[PubMed]
55. Kinchington PR, Fite K, Turse SE. 2000. Nuclear accumulation of IE62, the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) major transcriptional regulatory protein, is inhibited by phosphorylation mediated by the VZV open reading frame 66 protein kinase. J Virol 74:22652277.[PubMed]
56. Zerboni L, Reichelt M, Jones CD, Zehnder JL, Ito H, Arvin AM. 2007. Aberrant infection and persistence of varicella-zoster virus in human dorsal root ganglia in vivo in the absence of glycoprotein I. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:1408614091.[PubMed]
57. Sedarati F, Margolis TP, Stevens JG. 1993. Latent infection can be established with drastically restricted transcription and replication of the HSV-1 genome. Virology 192:687691.[PubMed]
58. Zerboni L, Sobel RA, Ramachandran V, Rajamani J, Ruyechan W, Abendroth A, Arvin A. 2010. Expression of varicella-zoster virus immediate-early regulatory protein IE63 in neurons of latently infected human sensory ganglia. J Virol 84:34213430.[PubMed]
59. Zerboni L, Sobel RA, Lai M, Triglia R, Steain M, Abendroth A, Arvin A. 2012. Apparent expression of varicella-zoster virus proteins in latency resulting from reactivity of murine and rabbit antibodies with human blood group a determinants in sensory neurons. J Virol 86:578583.[PubMed]
60. Chen JJ, Gershon AA, Li Z, Cowles RA, Gershon MD. 2011. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infects and establishes latency in enteric neurons. J Neurovirol 17:578589.[PubMed]
61. Gershon AA, Chen J, Davis L, Krinsky C, Cowles R, Reichard R, Gershon M. 2012. Latency of varicella zoster virus in dorsal root, cranial, and enteric ganglia in vaccinated children. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 123:1733; discussion 33–15.
62. Zerboni L, Ku CC, Jones CD, Zehnder JL, Arvin AM. 2005. Varicella-zoster virus infection of human dorsal root ganglia in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:64906495.[PubMed]
63. Gan L, Wang M, Chen JJ, Gershon MD, Gershon AA. 2014. Infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells transmit latent varicella zoster virus infection to the guinea pig enteric nervous system. J Neurovirol 20:442456.[PubMed]
64. Gershon A, Chen J, LaRussa P, Steinberg S,. 2007. Varicella-zoster virus, p 15371548. In Murray PR, Baron E, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Pfaller M (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
65. Ross AH, Lencher E, Reitman G. 1962. Modification of chicken pox in family contacts by administration of gamma globulin. N Engl J Med 267:369376.[PubMed]
66. LaRussa P, Steinberg SP, Seeman MD, Gershon AA. 1985. Determination of immunity to varicella-zoster virus by means of an intradermal skin test. J Infect Dis 152:869875.[PubMed]
67. Junker AK, Angus E, Thomas EE. 1991. Recurrent varicella-zoster virus infections in apparently immunocompetent children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 10:569575.[PubMed]
68. Junker AK, Tilley P. 1994. Varicella-zoster virus antibody avidity and IgG-subclass patterns in children with recurrent chickenpox. J Med Virol 43:119124.[PubMed]
69. LaRussa PS, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Chartrand SA. 1990. Antibodies to varicella-zoster virus glycoproteins I, II, and III in leukemic and healthy children. J Infect Dis 162:627633.[PubMed]
70. Gershon AA, Steinberg SP National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study Group. 1990. Live attenuated varicella vaccine: protection in healthy adults compared with leukemic children. J Infect Dis 161:661666.[PubMed]
71. Cohrs RJ, Mehta SK, Schmid DS, Gilden DH, Pierson DL. 2008. Asymptomatic reactivation and shed of infectious varicella zoster virus in astronauts. J Med Virol 80:11161122.[PubMed]
72. Gershon AA, Steinberg SP. 1981. Antibody responses to varicella-zoster virus and the role of antibody in host defense. Am J Med Sci 282:1217.[PubMed]
73. Ljungman P, Wilczek H, Gahrton G, Gustavsson A, Lundgren G, Lönnqvist B, Ringdén O, Wahren B. 1986. Long-term acyclovir prophylaxis in bone marrow transplant recipients and lymphocyte proliferation responses to herpes virus antigens in vitro. Bone Marrow Transplant 1:185192.[PubMed]
74. Luby JP, Ramirez-Ronda C, Rinner S, Hull A, Vergne-Marini P. 1977. A longitudinal study of varicella-zoster virus infections in renal transplant recipients. J Infect Dis 135:659663.[PubMed]
75. Wilson A, Sharp M, Koropchak CM, Ting SF, Arvin AM. 1992. Subclinical varicella-zoster virus viremia, herpes zoster, and T lymphocyte immunity to varicella-zoster viral antigens after bone marrow transplantation. J Infect Dis 165:119126.[PubMed]
76. Gaillat J, Gajdos V, Launay O, Malvy D, Demoures B, Lewden L, Pinchinat S, Derrough T, Sana C, Caulin E, Soubeyrand B. 2011. Does monastic life predispose to the risk of Saint Anthony's fire (herpes zoster)? Clin Infect Dis 53:405410.[PubMed]
77. Gershon A,. 2011. Chickenpox, measles, and mumps, p 661705. In Remington J,, Klein J,, Wilson C,, Nizet V,, Maldonato Y (ed), Infections of the Fetus and Newborn Infant, 7th ed. Saunders, Philadelphia.
78. Donahue JG, Choo PW, Manson JE, Platt R. 1995. The incidence of herpes zoster. Arch Intern Med 155:16051609.[PubMed]
79. Feldman S, Chaudary S, Ossi M, Epp E. 1977. A viremic phase for herpes zoster in children with cancer. J Pediatr 91:597600.[PubMed]
80. Preblud SR. 1981. Age-specific risks of varicella complications. Pediatrics 68:1417.[PubMed]
81. Harger JH, Ernest JM, Thurnau GR, Moawad A, Momirova V, Landon MB, Paul R, Miodovnik M, Dombrowski M, Sibai B, Van Dorsten P National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Network of Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units. 2002. Risk factors and outcome of varicella-zoster virus pneumonia in pregnant women. J Infect Dis 185:422427.[PubMed]
82. Paryani SG, Arvin AM. 1986. Intrauterine infection with varicella-zoster virus after maternal varicella. N Engl J Med 314:15421546.[PubMed]
83. Choo PW, Donahue JG, Manson JE, Platt R. 1995. The epidemiology of varicella and its complications. J Infect Dis 172:706712.[PubMed]
84. Balfour HH Jr. 1988. Varicella zoster virus infections in immunocompromised hosts. A review of the natural history and management. Am J Med 85(2A):6873.[PubMed]
85. Brunell PA. 1989. Transmission of chickenpox in a school setting prior to the observed exanthem. Am J Dis Child 143:14511452.[PubMed]
86. Tsolia M, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Gelb L National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study Group. 1990. Live attenuated varicella vaccine: evidence that the virus is attenuated and the importance of skin lesions in transmission of varicella-zoster virus. J Pediatr 116:184189.[PubMed]
87. Ma H, Fontaine R Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2006. Varicella outbreak among primary school students—Beijing, China, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55(Suppl 1):3943.[PubMed]
88. Seward JF, Zhang JX, Maupin TJ, Mascola L, Jumaan AO. 2004. Contagiousness of varicella in vaccinated cases: a household contact study. JAMA 292:704708.[PubMed]
89. Paul N, Jacob ME. 2006. An outbreak of cadaver-acquired chickenpox in a health care setting. Clin Infect Dis 43:599601.[PubMed]
90. Gold E. 1966. Serologic and virus-isolation studies of patients with varicella or herpes-zoster infection. N Engl J Med 274:181185.[PubMed]
91. Ozaki T, Matsui Y, Asano Y, Okuno T, Yamanishi K, Takahashi M. 1989. Study of virus isolation from pharyngeal swabs in children with varicella. Am J Dis Child 143:14481450.[PubMed]
92. Trlifajová J, Bryndová D, Rýc M. 1984. Isolation of varicella-zoster virus from pharyngeal and nasal swabs in varicella patients. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 28:201206.[PubMed]
93. Grose C. 1981. Variation on a theme by Fenner: the pathogenesis of chickenpox. Pediatrics 68:735737.[PubMed]
94. Ku CC, Besser J, Abendroth A, Grose C, Arvin AM. 2005. Varicella-Zoster virus pathogenesis and immunobiology: new concepts emerging from investigations with the SCIDhu mouse model. J Virol 79:26512658.[PubMed]
95. Asano Y, Itakura N, Hiroishi Y, Hirose S, Nagai T, Ozaki T, Yazaki T, Yamanishi K, Takahashi M. 1985. Viremia is present in incubation period in nonimmunocompromised children with varicella. J Pediatr 106:6971.[PubMed]
96. Moffat JF, Stein MD, Kaneshima H, Arvin AM. 1995. Tropism of varicella-zoster virus for human CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and epidermal cells in SCID-hu mice. J Virol 69:52365242.[PubMed]
97. Abendroth A, Arvin A. 2001. Immune evasion mechanisms of varicella-zoster virus. Arch Virol Suppl 17:99107.[PubMed]
98. Abendroth A, Kinchington PR, Slobedman B. 2010. Varicella zoster virus immune evasion strategies. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 342:155171.[PubMed]
99. Abendroth A, Slobedman B, Lee E, Mellins E, Wallace M, Arvin AM. 2000. Modulation of major histocompatibility class II protein expression by varicella-zoster virus. J Virol 74:19001907.[PubMed]
100. Schaap A, Fortin JF, Sommer M, Zerboni L, Stamatis S, Ku CC, Nolan GP, Arvin AM. 2005. T-cell tropism and the role of ORF66 protein in pathogenesis of varicella-zoster virus infection. J Virol 79:1292112933.[PubMed]
101. Merigan TC, Rand KH, Pollard RB, Abdallah PS, Jordan GW, Fried RP. 1978. Human leukocyte interferon for the treatment of herpes zoster in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med 298:981987.[PubMed]
102. Weller TH. 1983. Varicella and herpes zoster. Changing concepts of the natural history, control, and importance of a not-so-benign virus. N Engl J Med 309:13621368, 1434–1440.[PubMed]
103. Esiri MM, Tomlinson AH. 1972. Herpes Zoster. Demonstration of virus in trigeminal nerve and ganglion by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. J Neurol Sci 15:3548.[PubMed]
104. Asano Y, Suga S, Yoshikawa T, Kobayashi I, Yazaki T, Shibata M, Tsuzuki K, Ito S. 1994. Experience and reason: twenty-year follow-up of protective immunity of the Oka strain live varicella vaccine. Pediatrics 94:524526.[PubMed]
105. Hayward AR. 2001. In vitro measurement of human T cell responses to varicella zoster virus antigen. Arch Virol Suppl 17:143149.[PubMed]
106. Smith JG, Levin M, Vessey R, Chan IS, Hayward AR, Liu X, Kaufhold RM, Clair J, Chalikonda I, Chan C, Bernard M, Wang WW, Keller P, Caulfield MJ. 2003. Measurement of cell-mediated immunity with a varicella-zoster virus-specific interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay: responses in an elderly population receiving a booster immunization. J Med Virol 70(Suppl 1):S38S41.[PubMed]
107. Arvin AM. 1992. Cell-mediated immunity to varicella-zoster virus. J Infect Dis 166(Suppl 1):S35S41.[PubMed]
108. Ihara T, Starr SE, Ito M, Douglas SD, Arbeter AM. 1984. Human polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against varicella-zoster virus-infected fibroblasts. J Virol 51:110116.[PubMed]
109. Bonanni P, Gershon A, Gershon M, Kulcsár A, Papaevangelou V, Rentier B, Sadzot-Delvaux C, Usonis V, Vesikari T, Weil-Olivier C, de Winter P, Wutzler P. 2013. Primary versus secondary failure after varicella vaccination: implications for interval between 2 doses. Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:e305e313.[PubMed]
110. Gershon A, LaRussa P, Steinberg S,. 1996. Varicella vaccine: use in immunocompromised patients, p 583594. In J. White RE (ed), Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, vol 10. Saunders, Philadelphia.
111. Michalik DE, Steinberg SP, Larussa PS, Edwards KM, Wright PF, Arvin AM, Gans HA, Gershon AA. 2008. Primary vaccine failure after 1 dose of varicella vaccine in healthy children. J Infect Dis 197:944949.[PubMed]
112. Dobbs K, Domínguez Conde C, Zhang SY, Parolini S, Audry M, Chou J, Haapaniemi E, Keles S, Bilic I, Okada S, Massaad MJ, Rounioja S, Alwahadneh AM, Serwas NK, Capuder K, Çiftçi E, Felgentreff K, Ohsumi TK, Pedergnana V, Boisson B, Haskoloğlu Ş, Ensari A, Schuster M, Moretta A, Itan Y, Patrizi O, Rozenberg F, Lebon P, Saarela J, Knip M, Petrovski S, Goldstein DB, Parrott RE, Savas B, Schambach A, Tabellini G, Bock C, Chatila TA, Comeau AM, Geha RS, Abel L, Buckley RH, İkincioğulları A, Al-Herz W, Helminen M, Doğu F, Casanova JL, Boztuğ K, Notarangelo LD. 2015. Inherited DOCK2 deficiency in patients with early-onset invasive infections. N Engl J Med 372:24092422.[PubMed]
113. Wilson GJ, Talkington DF, Gruber W, Edwards K, Dermody TS. 1995. Group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis following varicella in children: case reports and review. Clin Infect Dis 20:13331338.[PubMed]
114. Stone MJ, Hawkins CP. 2007. A medical overview of encephalitis. Neuropsychol Rehabil 17:429449.[PubMed]
115. Ilias A, Galanakis E, Raissaki M, Kalmanti M. 2006. Childhood encephalitis in Crete, Greece. J Child Neurol 21:910912.[PubMed]
116. Miravet E, Danchaivijitr N, Basu H, Saunders DE, Ganesan V. 2007. Clinical and radiological features of childhood cerebral infarction following varicella zoster virus infection. Dev Med Child Neurol 49:417422.[PubMed]
117. Fleisher G, Henry W, McSorley M, Arbeter A, Plotkin S. 1981. Life-threatening complications of varicella. Am J Dis Child 135:896899.[PubMed]
118. Edwards TS. 1989. Ophthalmic complications from varicella. J Pediatr Opththal 965:3744.
119. Sharman VL, Goodwin FJ. 1980. Hemolytic uremic syndrome following chicken pox. Clin Nephrol 14:4951.[PubMed]
120. Feldman S, Hughes WT, Daniel CB. 1975. Varicella in children with cancer: seventy-seven cases. Pediatrics 56:388397.[PubMed]
121. Gershon A, Mervish N, LaRussa P, Steinberg S, Lo S-H, Hodes D, Fikrig S, Bonagura V, Bakshi S. 1997. Varicella-zoster virus infection in children with underlying HIV infection. J Infect Dis 176:14961500.[PubMed]
122. Aronson JE, McSherry G, Hoyt L, Boland M, Oleske J, Connor E, Persaud D, Borkowsky W, Krasinski K, Bakshi S, Pitt J, Gershon A. 1992. Varicella does not appear to be a cofactor for human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 11:10041008.[PubMed]
123. Weber DM, Pellecchia JA. 1965. Varicella pneumonia: study of prevalence in adult men. JAMA 192:572573.[PubMed]
124. Triebwasser JH, Harris RE, Bryant RE, Rhoades ER. 1967. Varicella pneumonia in adults. Report of seven cases and a review of literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 46:409423.[PubMed]
125. Gilden DH, Dueland AN, Devlin ME, Mahalingam R, Cohrs R. 1992. Varicella-zoster virus reactivation without rash. J Infect Dis 166(Suppl 1):S30S34.[PubMed]
126. Gershon AA, Chen J, Gershon MD. 2015. Use of saliva to identify varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the gut. Clin Infect Dis 61:536544.[PubMed]
127. Papaevangelou V, Quinlivan M, Lockwood J, Papaloukas O, Sideri G, Critselis E, Papassotiriou I, Papadatos J, Breuer J. Subclinical. 2013. VZV reactivation in immunocompetent children hospitalized in the ICU associated with prolonged fever duration. Clin Micro Infect 19:E245251.
128. Mehta SK, Cohrs RJ, Forghani B, Zerbe G, Gilden DH, Pierson DL. 2004. Stress-induced subclinical reactivation of varicella zoster virus in astronauts. J Med Virol 72:174179.[PubMed]
129. Kalman CM, Laskin OL. 1986. Herpes zoster and zosteriform herpes simplex virus infections in immunocompetent adults. Am J Med 81:775778.[PubMed]
130. Gilden DH, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, LaGuardia JJ, Mahalingam R, Cohrs RJ. 2000. Neurologic complications of the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus. N Engl J Med 342:635645.[PubMed]
131. Liesegang TJ. 1991. Diagnosis and therapy of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Ophthalmology 98:12161229.[PubMed]
132. Franco-Paredes C, Bellehemeur T, Merchant A, Sanghi P, DiazGranados C, Rimland D. 2002. Aseptic meningitis and optic neuritis preceding varicella-zoster progressive outer retinal necrosis in a patient with AIDS. AIDS 16:10451049.[PubMed]
133. Reichman RC. 1978. Neurologic complications of varicella-zoster infections. Ann Intern Med 375:8996.
134. Nagel MA, Bennett JL, Khmeleva N, Choe A, Rempel A, Boyer PJ, Gilden D. 2013. Multifocal VZV vasculopathy with temporal artery infection mimics giant cell arteritis. Neurology 80:20172021.
135. Nagel MA, Russman AN, Feit H, Traktinskiy I, Khmeleva N, Schmid DS, Skarf B, Gilden D. 2013. VZV ischemic optic neuropathy and subclinical temporal artery infection without rash. Neurology 80:220222.[PubMed]
136. Gilden D, Nagel M. 2015. Varicella Zoster Virus in Temporal Arteries of Patients With Giant Cell Arteritis. J Infect Dis 212(Suppl 1):S37S39.[PubMed]
137. Rau R, Fitzhugh CD, Baird K, Cortez KJ, Li L, Fischer SH, Cowen EW, Balow JE, Walsh TJ, Cohen JI, Wayne AS. 2008. Triad of severe abdominal pain, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and disseminated varicella-zoster virus infection preceding cutaneous manifestations after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: utility of PCR for early recognition and therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:265268.[PubMed]
138. Vinzio S, Lioure B, Enescu I, Schlienger JL, Goichot B. 2005. Severe abdominal pain and inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion preceding varicella-zoster virus reactivation 10 months after autologous stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia. Bone Marrow Transplant 35:525527.[PubMed]
139. David DS, Tegtmeier BR, O'Donnell MR, Paz IB, McCarty TM. 1998. Visceral varicella-zoster after bone marrow transplantation: report of a case series and review of the literature. Am J Gastroenterol 93:810813.[PubMed]
140. Laforet EG, Lynch CL Jr. 1947. Multiple congenital defects following maternal varicella; report of a case. N Engl J Med 236:534537.[PubMed]
141. Sauerbrei A, Taut J, Zell R, Wutzler P. 2011. Resistance testing of clinical varicella-zoster virus strains. Antiviral Res 90:242247.[PubMed]
142. Bhalla P, Forrest GN, Gershon M, Zhou Y, Chen J, LaRussa P, Steinberg S, Gershon AA. 2015. Disseminated, persistent, and fatal infection due to the vaccine strain of varicella-zoster virus in an adult following stem cell transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 60:10681074.[PubMed]
143. Vázquez M, LaRussa PS, Gershon AA, Niccolai LM, Muehlenbein CE, Steinberg SP, Shapiro ED. 2004. Effectiveness over time of varicella vaccine. JAMA 291:851855.[PubMed]
144. Gershon AA, Raker R, Steinberg S, Topf-Olstein B, Drusin LM. 1976. Antibody to varicella-zoster virus in parturient women and their offspring during the first year of life. Pediatrics 58:692696.[PubMed]
145. Takahashi M, Otsuka T, Okuno Y, Asano Y, Yazaki T, Isomura S. 1974. Live vaccine used to prevent the spread of varicella in children in hospital. Lancet 2:12881290.[PubMed]
146. Marin M, Güris D, Chaves SS, Schmid S, Seward JF Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2007. Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 56(RR-4):140.[PubMed]
147. Ampofo K, Saiman L, LaRussa P, Steinberg S, Annunziato P, Gershon A. 2002. Persistence of immunity to live attenuated varicella vaccine in healthy adults. Clin Infect Dis 34:774779.[PubMed]
148. Vázquez M, LaRussa PS, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Freudigman K, Shapiro ED. 2001. The effectiveness of the varicella vaccine in clinical practice. N Engl J Med 344:955960.[PubMed]
149. Shapiro ED, Vazquez M, Esposito D, Holabird N, Steinberg SP, Dziura J, LaRussa PS, Gershon AA. 2011. Effectiveness of 2 doses of varicella vaccine in children. J Infect Dis 203:312315.[PubMed]
150. Chaves SS, Gargiullo P, Zhang JX, Civen R, Guris D, Mascola L, Seward JF. 2007. Loss of vaccine-induced immunity to varicella over time. N Engl J Med 356:11211129.[PubMed]
151. Baxter R, Ray P, Tran TN, Black S, Shinefield HR, Coplan PM, Lewis E, Fireman B, Saddier P. 2013. Long-term effectiveness of varicella vaccine: a 14-Year, prospective cohort study. Pediatrics 131:e1389e1396.[PubMed]
152. Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Gelb L, Galasso G, Borkowsky W, LaRussa P, Farrara A. 1984. Live attenuated varicella vaccine. Efficacy for children with leukemia in remission. JAMA 252:355362.[PubMed]
153. Levin MJ, Gershon AA, Weinberg A, Blanchard S, Nowak B, Palumbo P, Chan CY AIDS Clinical Trials Group 265 Team. 2001. Immunization of HIV-infected children with varicella vaccine. J Pediatr 139:305310.[PubMed]
154. Levin MJ, Gershon AA, Weinberg A, Song LY, Fentin T, Nowak B Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 265 Team. 2006. Administration of live varicella vaccine to HIV-infected children with current or past significant depression of CD4(+) T cells. J Infect Dis 194:247255.[PubMed]
155. Son M, Shapiro ED, LaRussa P, Neu N, Michalik DE, Meglin M, Jurgrau A, Bitar W, Vasquez M, Flynn P, Gershon AA. 2010. Effectiveness of varicella vaccine in children infected with HIV. J Infect Dis 201:18061810.[PubMed]
156. Weinberg A, Horslen SP, Kaufman SS, Jesser R, Devoll-Zabrocki A, Fleckten BL, Kochanowicz S, Seipel KR, Levin MJ. 2006. Safety and immunogenicity of varicella-zoster virus vaccine in pediatric liver and intestine transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 6:565568.[PubMed]
157. Hardy I, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, LaRussa P Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study Group. 1991. The incidence of zoster after immunization with live attenuated varicella vaccine. A study in children with leukemia. N Engl J Med 325:15451550.[PubMed]
158. Hambleton S, Steinberg SP, Larussa PS, Shapiro ED, Gershon AA. 2008. Risk of herpes zoster in adults immunized with varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis 197(Suppl 2):S196S199.[PubMed]
159. Weinmann S, Chun C, Schmid DS, Roberts M, Vandermeer M, Riedlinger K, Bialek SR, Marin M. 2013. Incidence and clinical characteristics of herpes zoster among children in the varicella vaccine era, 2005–2009. J Infect Dis 208:18591868.[PubMed]
160. Morrison VA, Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Schmader KE, Guatelli JC, Betts RF, Gelb LD, Pachucki CT, Keay SK, Menzies B, Griffin MR, Kauffman CA, Marques AR, Toney JF, Simberkoff MS, Serrao R, Arbeit RD, Gnann JW, Greenberg RN, Holodniy M, Keitel WA, Yeh SS, Davis LE, Crawford GE, Neuzil KM, Johnson GR, Zhang JH, Harbecke R, Chan IS, Keller PM, Williams HM, Boardman KD, Silber JL, Annunziato PW Shingles Prevention Study Group. 2013. Safety of zoster vaccine in elderly adults following documented herpes zoster. J Infect Dis 208:559563.[PubMed]