1887

Chapter 26 : Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8)

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch26-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch26-2.gif

Abstract:

Discovered in 1994, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV8) causes several human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphomas (PEL), and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV is commonly associated with cancers among AIDS patients but it is also a significant public health problem in developing countries for both HIV-infected and uninfected populations. KSHV is a gammaherpesvirus with unique features in its gene products, gene distribution and evolution, and mechanisms of cellular transformation. The epidemiology of KS in different risk groups and geographic regions parallels the prevalence of KSHV infection. While modes of transmission of KSHV are still to be fully determined, specific measures can be implemented to prevent its spread. Specific assays, including serologic and antigen immunohistochemistry tests, have been developed that allow detection of infected patients and patient tissues. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms for KSHV-related pathogenesis should facilitate the detection, prevention, and therapy of KSHV and its associated cancers.

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

A phylogenetic tree showing the alpha-, beta- and gammaherpesvirus subfamilies. KSHV belongs to the genus , also known as -2 herpesviruses, in the lymphotrophic gammaherpesvirus subfamily. Other related gammaherpesviruses are also associated with lymphoproliferative disorders, including EBV in humans and herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) in New World monkeys. Herpesviruses from the alphaherpesvirus (e.g., herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus) and betaherpesvirus subfamilies (e.g., cytomegalovirus and human herpesviruses 6 and 7) have not been found to cause tumors in humans. (From Moore et al. ( ) with permission.)

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Old World primate hosts and their gammaherpesviruses. It is evident from this phylogenetic tree that these are ancient viruses that have coevolved with their hosts. A second rhadinovirus, rhesus rhadinovirus, has been found widely distributed among primates including chimpanzees. It is likely that a human version of this virus exists but has not yet been found. (Courtesy of B. Damania, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.)

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Genomic map of KSHV sequenced from the BC-1 KSHV-infected PEL cell line. The viral genome contains a ~145 kb long unique coding region (LUR) flanked on both sides by reiterated terminal repeat (TR) units of high GC content (>85%). Conserved herpesvirus gene blocks (dark blue) are interspersed with blocks containing genes unique to KSHV and other Rhadinoviruses (light blue). These nonconserved regions contain numerous homologs to host cell genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, apoptosis, and immune regulation.

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

The global KSHV seroprevalence, subtype distribution, and migration. KSHV migration might be correlated with the major migrations of modern humans out of Africa over the past 100,000 years.

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Electron photomicrographs of KSHV virion formation and egress in a PEL cell line induced into lytic replication with TPA. A. Naked virus capsids are formed in the nucleus of the cell (NM, nuclear membrane). B. Virions budding through the nuclear membrane and becoming enveloped viruses. C. Transit of the virus through the cytoplasm (arrow). D. egress of the fully enveloped virus from the cell plasma membrane (PM). E. The insert shows a high magnification image of the virus with the capsid (C), tegument (T), and envelop (E). (Photos courtesy of Antonella Tosoni, University of Milan.)

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Schematic diagram of KSHV enveloped virus structure. The capsid is composed of hexons, pentons, and triplexes arranged in an icosahedral lattice that contains the virus genome. This is surrounded by an amorphous tegument layer composed of viral and cellular proteins and viral RNAs that are microinjected into the cell on infection. The bilayer envelope surrounding the tegument contains viral glycoproteins such as gB that act as receptor and entry proteins.

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Schematic illustration of mechanisms of KSHV latency and reactivation. Expression of KSHV latent products including LANA, vCyclin, vFLIP, and miRNAs enhance/maintain latency by inhibiting KSHV lytic replication, promoting cell survival, and facilitating the viral episome replication and segregation. Several cellular factors such as NF-κB, Hey1, SIRT1, KAP1, and IRF7 as well as cellular miRNAs inducing miR-1258 and miR-320d repress KSHV lytic replication. In contrast, several physiological factors including hypoxia, HIV infection, inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and ROS can induce RTA expression by activating specific cellular pathways and transcriptional factors including MEK/ERK, JNK, p38, AP-1, MSKs, Ets-1, Pin1, HIF1/2, PKC, and Notch. RTA interacts with several host proteins such as XBP-1, Notch, and C/EBPα, as well as viral proteins such as MTA and kb-ZIP to induce the expression of viral lytic genes and activation of the entire viral lytic transcriptional program.

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

KSHV seroprevalence increases linearly with numbers of recent sex partners in this population-based sampling of gay and bisexual men (sera collected in 1984) from San Francisco. This and related risk-factor data suggests that KSHV is sexually transmitted although the precise mechanism for transmission remains unclear. (From Martin et al., ( ) with permission.)

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Map of KS prevalence throughout Africa prior to the AIDS epidemic. This map was constructed from surveys performed by Denis Burkitt who first described Burkitt's lymphoma. It is evident that KS was hyperendemic throughout this continent. With the onset of the AIDS epidemic, a second epidemic of KSHV-related cancer has occurred and KS is the most commonly reported cancer in most sub-Saharan African countries.

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

A. Typical appearance of KS lesions on arm and chest for an AIDS patient. B. KS frequently involves mucosal surfaces, in this case sublingual palette. C. Disseminated skin KS occurring in a dermatomal distribution on the back of an AIDS patient. D. An AIDS patient's leg showing post-radiation hyperpigmentation, ulceration, and nodular KS lesions that have recurred within the radiated area. (Photos courtesy of Bruce Dezube, Beth Israel Deaconess, Boston, MA, and Susan E. Krown, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY.)

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

A. A photomicrograph of KS tumor infiltrating the duodenum on an AIDS patient. All forms of KS (both HIV+ and HIV−) have similar histologic appearances. Vascular clefts (arrows) within the tumor are filled with red cells, giving the tumor its characteristic reddish-brown appearance. A mononuclear infiltrate in the tumor can be present but cellular atypia or pleomorphism is generally uncommon in KS lesions (×40 magnification). B. Typical speckled nuclear staining pattern (brown) for LANA1 antigen can be seen in many cells of a skin KS tumor (×60 magnification). (Photos courtesy of Liron Pantanowitz, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.)

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

Antibody responses to KSHV infection are persistent for years after initial infection. This graph shows the reciprocal end-point titers for six men with AIDS who seroconverted to LANA1 IFA positivity at time 0. Antibody positivity remained stable for up to 8 years until the patients developed KS (marked with an X). Note that anti-LANA1 titers are plotted on a log scale and in some patients can be positive at 1:50,000 dilution or greater. (From Gao et al., ( ) with permission.)

Citation: Chang Y, Gao S, Moore P. 2017. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), p 549-574. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819439.ch26
1. Robey RC, Bower M. 2015. Facing up to the ongoing challenge of Kaposi's sarcoma. Curr Opin Infect Dis 28:314.[PubMed]
2. Mbulaiteye SM, Biggar RJ, Bakaki PM, Pfeiffer RM, Whitby D, Owor AM, Katongole-Mbidde E, Goedert JJ, Ndugwa CM, Engels EA. 2003. Human herpesvirus 8 infection and transfusion history in children with sickle-cell disease in Uganda. J Natl Cancer Inst 95:13301335.[PubMed]
3. Kaposi M. 1872. Idiopathic multiple pigmented sarcoma of the skin. Arch. Dermatol. Syphil. 4:265–273 English translation in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, New York, 1982; 32: 342347.[PubMed]
4. Oettle AG. 1962. Geographical and racial differences in the frequency of Kaposi's sarcoma as evidence of environmental or genetic causes. Acta Unio Int Contra Cancrum 18:330363.[PubMed]
5. Beral V, Peterman TA, Berkelman RL, Jaffe HW. 1990. Kaposi's sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection? Lancet 335:123128.[PubMed]
6. Chang Y, Cesarman E, Pessin MS, Lee F, Culpepper J, Knowles DM, Moore PS. 1994. Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Science 266:18651869.[PubMed]
7. Cesarman E, Chang Y, Moore PS, Said JW, Knowles DM. 1995. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-related body-cavity-based lymphomas. N Engl J Med 332:11861191.[PubMed]
8. Cesarman E, Moore PS, Rao PH, Inghirami G, Knowles DM, Chang Y. 1995. In vitro establishment and characterization of two acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma cell lines (BC-1 and BC-2) containing Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like (KSHV) DNA sequences. Blood 86:27082714.[PubMed]
9. Gao SJ, Kingsley L, Li M, Zheng W, Parravicini C, Ziegler J, Newton R, Rinaldo CR, Saah A, Phair J, Detels R, Chang Y, Moore PS. 1996. KSHV antibodies among Americans, Italians and Ugandans with and without Kaposi's sarcoma. Nat Med 2:925928.[PubMed]
10. Renne R, Zhong W, Herndier B, McGrath M, Abbey N, Kedes D, Ganem D. 1996. Lytic growth of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) in culture. Nat Med 2:342346.[PubMed]
11. Russo JJ, Bohenzky RA, Chien MC, Chen J, Yan M, Maddalena D, Parry JP, Peruzzi D, Edelman IS, Chang Y, Moore PS. 1996. Nucleotide sequence of the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV8). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:1486214867.[PubMed]
12. Moore PS, Gao SJ, Dominguez G, Cesarman E, Lungu O, Knowles DM, Garber R, Pellett PE, McGeoch DJ, Chang Y. 1996. Primary characterization of a herpesvirus agent associated with Kaposi's sarcomae. J Virol 70:549558.[PubMed]
13. Rose TM, Strand KB, Schultz ER, Schaefer G, Rankin GW Jr, Thouless ME, Tsai CC, Bosch ML. 1997. Identification of two homologs of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) in retroperitoneal fibromatosis of different macaque species. J Virol 71:41384144.[PubMed]
14. Desrosiers RC, Sasseville VG, Czajak SC, Zhang X, Mansfield KG, Kaur A, Johnson RP, Lackner AA, Jung JU. 1997. A herpesvirus of rhesus monkeys related to the human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol 71:97649769.[PubMed]
15. Alexander L, Denekamp L, Knapp A, Auerbach MR, Damania B, Desrosiers RC. 2000. The primary sequence of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus isolate 26–95: sequence similarities to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and rhesus monkey rhadinovirus isolate 17577. J Virol 74:33883398.[PubMed]
16. Bruce AG, Thouless ME, Haines AS, Pallen MJ, Grundhoff A, Rose TM. 2015. Complete genome sequence of Pig-tailed macaque rhadinovirus 2 and its evolutionary relationship with rhesus macaque rhadinovirus and human herpesvirus 8/Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol 89:38883909.[PubMed]
17. Searles RP, Bergquam EP, Axthelm MK, Wong SW. 1999. Sequence and genomic analysis of a Rhesus macaque rhadinovirus with similarity to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8. J Virol 73:30403053.[PubMed]
18. Lacoste V, Mauclère P, Dubreuil G, Lewis J, Georges-Courbot MC, Gessain A. 2001. A novel gamma 2-herpesvirus of the Rhadinovirus 2 lineage in chimpanzees. Genome Res 11:15111519.[PubMed]
19. Luppi M, Barozzi P, Schulz TF, Setti G, Staskus K, Trovato R, Narni F, Donelli A, Maiorana A, Marasca R, Sandrini S, Torelli G, Sheldon J. 2000. Bone marrow failure associated with human herpesvirus 8 infection after transplantation. N Engl J Med 343:13781385.[PubMed]
20. Poole LJ, Zong JC, Ciufo DM, Alcendor DJ, Cannon JS, Ambinder R, Orenstein JM, Reitz MS, Hayward GS. 1999. Comparison of genetic variability at multiple loci across the genomes of the major subtypes of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus reveals evidence for recombination and for two distinct types of open reading frame K15 alleles at the right-hand end. J Virol 73:66466660.[PubMed]
21. Zong JC, Ciufo DM, Alcendor DJ, Wan X, Nicholas J, Browning PJ, Rady PL, Tyring SK, Orenstein JM, Rabkin CS, Su IJ, Powell KF, Croxson M, Foreman KE, Nickoloff BJ, Alkan S, Hayward GS. 1999. High-level variability in the ORF-K1 membrane protein gene at the left end of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome defines four major virus subtypes and multiple variants or clades in different human populations. J Virol 73:41564170.[PubMed]
22. Hayward GS, Zong JC. 2007. Modern evolutionary history of the human KSHV genome. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 312:142.[PubMed]
23. Gao SJ, Zhang YJ, Deng JH, Rabkin CS, Flore O, Jenson HB. 1999. Molecular polymorphism of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (Human herpesvirus 8) latent nuclear antigen: evidence for a large repertoire of viral genotypes and dual infection with different viral genotypes. J Infect Dis 180:14661476.[PubMed]
24. Zhang YJ, Deng JH, Rabkin C, Gao SJ. 2000. Hot-spot variations of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent nuclear antigen and application in genotyping by PCR-RFLP. J Gen Virol 81:20492058.[PubMed]
25. Boulanger E, Duprez R, Delabesse E, Gabarre J, Macintyre E, Gessain A. 2005. Mono/oligoclonal pattern of Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) episomes in primary effusion lymphoma cells. Int J Cancer 115:511518.[PubMed]
26. Orenstein JM, Alkan S, Blauvelt A, Jeang KT, Weinstein MD, Ganem D, Herndier B. 1997. Visualization of human herpesvirus type 8 in Kaposi's sarcoma by light and transmission electron microscopy. AIDS 11:F35F45.[PubMed]
27. Trus BL, Heymann JB, Nealon K, Cheng N, Newcomb WW, Brown JC, Kedes DH, Steven AC. 2001. Capsid structure of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, a gammaherpesvirus, compared to those of an alphaherpesvirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and a betaherpesvirus, cytomegalovirus. J Virol 75:28792890.[PubMed]
28. Wu L, Lo P, Yu X, Stoops JK, Forghani B, Zhou ZH. 2000. Three-dimensional structure of the human herpesvirus 8 capsid. J Virol 74:96469654.[PubMed]
29. Nealon K, Newcomb WW, Pray TR, Craik CS, Brown JC, Kedes DH. 2001. Lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus results in the formation of multiple capsid species: isolation and molecular characterization of A, B, and C capsids from a gammaherpesvirus. J Virol 75:28662878.[PubMed]
30. Duda RL, Hendrix RW, Huang WM, Conway JF. 2006. Shared architecture of bacteriophage SPO1 and herpesvirus capsids. Curr Biol 16:R11R13.[PubMed]
31. Dai X, Gong D, Wu TT, Sun R, Zhou ZH. 2014. Organization of capsid-associated tegument components in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol 88:1269412702.[PubMed]
32. Bechtel JT, Winant RC, Ganem D. 2005. Host and viral proteins in the virion of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol 79:49524964.[PubMed]
33. Zhu FX, Chong JM, Wu L, Yuan Y. 2005. Virion proteins of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol 79:800811.[PubMed]
34. Bechtel J, Grundhoff A, Ganem D. 2005. RNAs in the virion of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol 79:1013810146.[PubMed]
35. Yoo SM, Zhou FC, Ye FC, Pan HY, Gao SJ. 2005. Early and sustained expression of latent and host modulating genes in coordinated transcriptional program of KSHV productive primary infection of human primary endothelial cells. Virology 343:4764.[PubMed]
36. Lin X, Li X, Liang D, Lan K. 2012. MicroRNAs and unusual small RNAs discovered in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus virions. J Virol 86:1271712730.[PubMed]
37. Desai PJ, Pryce EN, Henson BW, Luitweiler EM, Cothran J. 2012. Reconstitution of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus nuclear egress complex and formation of nuclear membrane vesicles by coexpression of ORF67 and ORF69 gene products. J Virol 86:594598.[PubMed]
38. Guo H, Wang L, Peng L, Zhou ZH, Deng H. 2009. Open reading frame 33 of a gammaherpesvirus encodes a tegument protein essential for virion morphogenesis and egress. J Virol 83:1058210595.[PubMed]
39. Subramanian R, Sehgal I, D'Auvergne O, Kousoulas KG. 2010. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus glycoproteins B and K8.1 regulate virion egress and synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor and viral interleukin-6 in BCBL-1 cells. J Virol 84:17041714.[PubMed]
40. Whitman AG, Dyson OF, Lambert PJ, Oxendine TL, Ford PW, Akula SM. 2007. Changes occurring on the cell surface during KSHV reactivation. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo) 56:2736.[PubMed]
41. Deng B, O'Connor CM, Kedes DH, Zhou ZH. 2007. Direct visualization of the putative portal in the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus capsid by cryoelectron tomography. J Virol 81:36403644.[PubMed]
42. Kudoh A, Fujita M, Kiyono T, Kuzushima K, Sugaya Y, Izuta S, Nishiyama Y, Tsurumi T. 2003. Reactivation of lytic replication from B cells latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus occurs with high S-phase cyclin-dependent kinase activity while inhibiting cellular DNA replication. J Virol 77:851861.[PubMed]
43. Moore PS,. 2007. KSHV manipulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis. In Arvin A, Campadelli-Fiume G, Mocarski E, Moore PS, Roizman B, Whitley R, Yamanishi K (ed), Human Herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis: Cambridge University Press.[PubMed]
44. Wu FY, Tang QQ, Chen H, ApRhys C, Farrell C, Chen J, Fujimuro M, Lane MD, Hayward GS. 2002. Lytic replication-associated protein (RAP) encoded by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus causes p21CIP-1-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest through CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:1068310688.[PubMed]
45. Han Z, Swaminathan S. 2006. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic gene ORF57 is essential for infectious virion production. J Virol 80:52515260.[PubMed]
46. Majerciak V, Pripuzova N, McCoy JP, Gao SJ, Zheng ZM. 2007. Targeted disruption of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 in the viral genome is detrimental for the expression of ORF59, K8alpha, and K8.1 and the production of infectious virus. J Virol 81:10621071.[PubMed]
47. Nekorchuk M, Han Z, Hsieh TT, Swaminathan S. 2007. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein enhances mRNA accumulation independently of effects on nuclear RNA export. J Virol 81:99909998.[PubMed]
48. Izumiya Y, Lin SF, Ellison TJ, Levy AM, Mayeur GL, Izumiya C, Kung HJ. 2003. Cell cycle regulation by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K-bZIP: direct interaction with cyclin-CDK2 and induction of G1 growth arrest. J Virol 77:96529661.[PubMed]
49. Glaunsinger B, Ganem D. 2004. Highly selective escape from KSHV-mediated host mRNA shutoff and its implications for viral pathogenesis. J Exp Med 200:391398.[PubMed]
50. Sarid R, Sato T, Bohenzky RA, Russo JJ, Chang Y. 1997. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a functional bcl-2 homologue. Nat Med 3:293298.[PubMed]
51. Feng P, Park J, Lee BS, Lee SH, Bram RJ, Jung JU. 2002. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus mitochondrial K7 protein targets a cellular calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand to modulate intracellular calcium concentration and inhibit apoptosis. J Virol 76:114911150.[PubMed]
52. Wang HW, Sharp TV, Koumi A, Koentges G, Boshoff C. 2002. Characterization of an anti-apoptotic glycoprotein encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus which resembles a spliced variant of human survivin. EMBO J 21:26022615.[PubMed]
53. Shin YC, Nakamura H, Liang X, Feng P, Chang H, Kowalik TF, Jung JU. 2006. Inhibition of the ATM/p53 signal transduction pathway by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus interferon regulatory factor 1. J Virol 80:22572266.[PubMed]
54. Pozharskaya VP, Weakland LL, Zimring JC, Krug LT, Unger ER, Neisch A, Joshi H, Inoue N, Offermann MK. 2004. Short duration of elevated vIRF-1 expression during lytic replication of human herpesvirus 8 limits its ability to block antiviral responses induced by alpha interferon in BCBL-1 cells. J Virol 78:66216635.[PubMed]
55. Greene W, Kuhne K, Ye F, Chen J, Zhou F, Lei X, Gao SJ. 2007. Molecular biology of KSHV in relation to AIDS-associated oncogenesis. Cancer Treat Res 133:69127.[PubMed]
56. Zhu Y, Haecker I, Yang Y, Gao SJ, Renne R. 2013. γ-Herpesvirus-encoded miRNAs and their roles in viral biology and pathogenesis. Curr Opin Virol 3:266275[PubMed]
57. Akula SM, Wang FZ, Vieira J, Chandran B. 2001. Human herpesvirus 8 interaction with target cells involves heparan sulfate. Virology 282:245255.[PubMed]
58. Akula SM, Pramod NP, Wang FZ, Chandran B. 2002. Integrin alpha3beta1 (CD 49c/29) is a cellular receptor for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) entry into the target cells. Cell 108:407419.[PubMed]
59. Garrigues HJ, Rubinchikova YE, Dipersio CM, Rose TM. 2008. Integrin alphaVbeta3 Binds to the RGD motif of glycoprotein B of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and functions as an RGD-dependent entry receptor. J Virol 82:15701580.[PubMed]
60. Hahn AS, Kaufmann JK, Wies E, Naschberger E, Panteleev-Ivlev J, Schmidt K, Holzer A, Schmidt M, Chen J, König S, Ensser A, Myoung J, Brockmeyer NH, Stürzl M, Fleckenstein B, Neipel F. 2012. The ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A2 is a cellular receptor for Kaposi's sarcoma–associated herpesvirus. Nat Med 18:961966. [PubMed]
61. Kaleeba JA, Berger EA. 2006. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus fusion-entry receptor: cystine transporter xCT. Science 311:19211924.[PubMed]
62. Krishnan HH, Sharma-Walia N, Streblow DN, Naranatt PP, Chandran B. 2006. Focal adhesion kinase is critical for entry of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus into target cells. J Virol 80:11671180.[PubMed]
63. Pan H, Xie J, Ye F, Gao SJ. 2006. Modulation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and replication by MEK/ERK, JNK, and p38 multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways during primary infection. J Virol 80:53715382.[PubMed]
64. Sharma-Walia N, Krishnan HH, Naranatt PP, Zeng L, Smith MS, Chandran B. 2005. ERK1/2 and MEK1/2 induced by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) early during infection of target cells are essential for expression of viral genes and for establishment of infection. J Virol 79:1030810329.[PubMed]
65. Xie J, Pan H, Yoo S, Gao SJ. 2005. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induction of AP-1 and interleukin 6 during primary infection mediated by multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. J Virol 79:1502715037.[PubMed]
66. Akula SM, Naranatt PP, Walia NS, Wang FZ, Fegley B, Chandran B. 2003. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) infection of human fibroblast cells occurs through endocytosis. J Virol 77:79787990.[PubMed]
67. Greene W, Gao SJ. 2009. Actin dynamics regulate multiple endosomal steps during Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus entry and trafficking in endothelial cells. PLoS Pathog 5:e1000512.[PubMed]
68. Raghu H, Sharma-Walia N, Veettil MV, Sadagopan S, Chandran B. 2009. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus utilizes an actin polymerization-dependent macropinocytic pathway to enter human dermal microvascular endothelial and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. J Virol 83:48954911.[PubMed]
69. Greene W, Zhang W, He M, Witt C, Ye F, Gao SJ. 2012. The ubiquitin/proteasome system mediates entry and endosomal trafficking of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in endothelial cells. PLoS Pathog 8:e1002703.[PubMed]
70. Naranatt PP, Krishnan HH, Smith MS, Chandran B. 2005. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus modulates microtubule dynamics via RhoA-GTP-diaphanous 2 signaling and utilizes the dynein motors to deliver its DNA to the nucleus. J Virol 79:11911206.[PubMed]
71. Grossmann C, Ganem D. 2008. Effects of NFkappaB activation on KSHV latency and lytic reactivation are complex and context-dependent. Virology 375:94102.[PubMed]
72. Cheng F, Sawant TV, Lan K, Lu C, Jung JU, Gao SJ. 2015. Screening of human kinome identifies MSK1/2-CREB1 as an essential pathway mediating KSHV lytic replication during primary infection. J Virol. 89:92629280.[PubMed]
73. Krishnan HH, Naranatt PP, Smith MS, Zeng L, Bloomer C, Chandran B. 2004. Concurrent expression of latent and a limited number of lytic genes with immune modulation and antiapoptotic function by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus early during infection of primary endothelial and fibroblast cells and subsequent decline of lytic gene expression. J Virol 78:36013620.[PubMed]
74. Gao SJ, Deng JH, Zhou FC. 2003. Productive lytic replication of a recombinant Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in efficient primary infection of primary human endothelial cells. J Virol 77:97389749.[PubMed]
75. Sun R, Lin SF, Staskus K, Gradoville L, Grogan E, Haase A, Miller G. 1999. Kinetics of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene expression. J Virol 73:22322242.[PubMed]
76. Zhu FX, Cusano T, Yuan Y. 1999. Identification of the immediate-early transcripts of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol 73:55565567.[PubMed]
77. Lukac DM, Renne R, Kirshner JR, Ganem D. 1998. Reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection from latency by expression of the ORF 50 transactivator, a homolog of the EBV R protein. Virology 252:304312.[PubMed]
78. Liang Y, Chang J, Lynch SJ, Lukac DM, Ganem D. 2002. The lytic switch protein of KSHV activates gene expression via functional interaction with RBP-Jkappa (CSL), the target of the Notch signaling pathway. Genes Dev 16:19771989.[PubMed]
79. Cohen A, Brodie C, Sarid R. 2006. An essential role of ERK signalling in TPA-induced reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Gen Virol 87:795802.[PubMed]
80. Davis DA, Rinderknecht AS, Zoeteweij JP, Aoki Y, Read-Connole EL, Tosato G, Blauvelt A, Yarchoan R. 2001. Hypoxia induces lytic replication of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Blood 97:32443250.[PubMed]
81. Deutsch E, Cohen A, Kazimirsky G, Dovrat S, Rubinfeld H, Brodie C, Sarid R. 2004. Role of protein kinase C delta in reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol 78:1018710192.[PubMed]
82. Xie J, Ajibade AO, Ye F, Kuhne K, Gao SJ. 2008. Reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from latency requires MEK/ERK, JNK and p38 multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Virology 371:139154.[PubMed]
83. Wilson SJ, Tsao EH, Webb BL, Ye H, Dalton-Griffin L, Tsantoulas C, Gale CV, Du MQ, Whitehouse A, Kellam P. 2007. X box binding protein XBP-1s transactivates the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF50 promoter, linking plasma cell differentiation to KSHV reactivation from latency. J Virol 81:1357813586.[PubMed]
84. Yu F, Harada JN, Brown HJ, Deng H, Song MJ, Wu TT, Kato-Stankiewicz J, Nelson CG, Vieira J, Tamanoi F, Chanda SK, Sun R. 2007. Systematic identification of cellular signals reactivating Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. PLoS Pathog 3:e44.[PubMed]
85. Günther T, Grundhoff A. 2010. The epigenetic landscape of latent Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genomes. PLoS Pathog 6:e1000935.[PubMed]
86. Toth Z, Maglinte DT, Lee SH, Lee HR, Wong LY, Brulois KF, Lee S, Buckley JD, Laird PW, Marquez VE, Jung JU. 2010. Epigenetic analysis of KSHV latent and lytic genomes. PLoS Pathog 6:e1001013.[PubMed]
87. Chen J, Ueda K, Sakakibara S, Okuno T, Parravicini C, Corbellino M, Yamanishi K. 2001. Activation of latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by demethylation of the promoter of the lytic transactivator. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:41194124.[PubMed]
88. Li Q, He M, Zhou F, Ye F, Gao SJ. 2014. Activation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) by inhibitors of class III histone deacetylases: identification of sirtuin 1 as a regulator of the KSHV life cycle. J Virol 88:63556367.[PubMed]
89. Lu F, Zhou J, Wiedmer A, Madden K, Yuan Y, Lieberman PM. 2003. Chromatin remodeling of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF50 promoter correlates with reactivation from latency. J Virol 77:1142511435.[PubMed]
90. Shin HJ, DeCotiis J, Giron M, Palmeri D, Lukac DM. 2014. Histone deacetylase classes I and II regulate Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus reactivation. J Virol 88:12811292.[PubMed]
91. Rossetto CC, Pari G. 2012. KSHV PAN RNA associates with demethylases UTX and JMJD3 to activate lytic replication through a physical interaction with the virus genome. PLoS Pathog 8:e1002680.[PubMed]
92. Rossetto CC, Tarrant-Elorza M, Verma S, Purushothaman P, Pari GS. 2013. Regulation of viral and cellular gene expression by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus polyadenylated nuclear RNA. J Virol 87:55405553.[PubMed]
93. Campbell M, Kim KY, Chang PC, Huerta S, Shevchenko B, Wang DH, Izumiya C, Kung HJ, Izumiya Y. 2014. A lytic viral long noncoding RNA modulates the function of a latent protein. J Virol 88:18431848.[PubMed]
94. Sun R, Liang D, Gao Y, Lan K. 2014. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded LANA interacts with host KAP1 to facilitate establishment of viral latency. J Virol 88:73317344.[PubMed]
95. Yada K, Do E, Sakakibara S, Ohsaki E, Ito E, Watanabe S, Ueda K. 2006. KSHV RTA induces a transcriptional repressor, HEY1 that represses rta promoter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 345:410418.[PubMed]
96. Yan Q, Ma X, Shen C, Cao X, Feng N, Qin D, Zeng Y, Zhu J, Gao SJ, Lu C. 2014. Inhibition of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic replication by HIV-1 Nef and cellular microRNA hsa-miR-1258. J Virol 88:49875000.[PubMed]
97. Ye FC, Zhou FC, Xie JP, Kang T, Greene W, Kuhne K, Lei XF, Li QH, Gao SJ. 2008. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent gene vFLIP inhibits viral lytic replication through NF-kappaB-mediated suppression of the AP-1 pathway: a novel mechanism of virus control of latency. J Virol 82:42354249.[PubMed]
98. Dittmer D, Lagunoff M, Renne R, Staskus K, Haase A, Ganem D. 1998. A cluster of latently expressed genes in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol 72:83098315.[PubMed]
99. Rivas C, Thlick AE, Parravicini C, Moore PS, Chang Y. 2001. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus LANA2 is a B-cell-specific latent viral protein that inhibits p53. J Virol 75:429438.[PubMed]
100. Sarid R, Wiezorek JS, Moore PS, Chang Y. 1999. Characterization and cell cycle regulation of the major Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) latent genes and their promoter. J Virol 73:14381446.[PubMed]
101. Chatterjee M, Osborne J, Bestetti G, Chang Y, Moore PS. 2002. Viral IL-6-induced cell proliferation and immune evasion of interferon activity. Science 298:14321435.[PubMed]
102. Chang H, Dittmer DP, Shin YC, Hong Y, Jung JU. 2005. Role of Notch signal transduction in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene expression. J Virol 79:1437114382.[PubMed]
103. Sarid R, Flore O, Bohenzky RA, Chang Y, Moore PS. 1998. Transcription mapping of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) genome in a body cavity-based lymphoma cell line (BC-1). J Virol 72:10051012.[PubMed]
104. Simpson GR, Schulz TF, Whitby D, Cook PM, Boshoff C, Rainbow L, Howard MR, Gao SJ, Bohenzky RA, Simmonds P, Lee C, de Ruiter A, Hatzakis A, Tedder RS, Weller IV, Weiss RA, Moore PS. 1996. Prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus infection measured by antibodies to recombinant capsid protein and latent immunofluorescence antigen. Lancet 348:11331138.[PubMed]
105. Pau CP, Lam LL, Spira TJ, Black JB, Stewart JA, Pellett PE, Respess RA. 1998. Mapping and serodiagnostic application of a dominant epitope within the human herpesvirus 8 ORF 65-encoded protein. J Clin Microbiol 36:15741577.[PubMed]
106. Lin SF, Sun R, Heston L, Gradoville L, Shedd D, Haglund K, Rigsby M, Miller G. 1997. Identification, expression, and immunogenicity of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded small viral capsid antigen. J Virol 71:30693076.[PubMed]
107. Laney AS, Peters JS, Manzi SM, Kingsley LA, Chang Y, Moore PS. 2006. Use of a multiantigen detection algorithm for diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection. J Clin Microbiol 44:37343741.[PubMed]
108. Cannon JS, Hamzeh F, Moore S, Nicholas J, Ambinder RF. 1999. Human herpesvirus 8-encoded thymidine kinase and phosphotransferase homologues confer sensitivity to ganciclovir. J Virol 73:47864793.[PubMed]
109. Friborg J Jr, Kong W, Hottiger MO, Nabel GJ. 1999. p53 inhibition by the LANA protein of KSHV protects against cell death. Nature 402:889894.[PubMed]
110. Lee H, Veazey R, Williams K, Li M, Guo J, Neipel F, Fleckenstein B, Lackner A, Desrosiers RC, Jung JU. 1998. Deregulation of cell growth by the K1 gene of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Nat Med 4:435440.[PubMed]
111. Pfeffer S, Sewer A, Lagos-Quintana M, Sheridan R, Sander C, Grässer FA, van Dyk LF, Ho CK, Shuman S, Chien M, Russo JJ, Ju J, Randall G, Lindenbach BD, Rice CM, Simon V, Ho DD, Zavolan M, Tuschl T. 2005. Identification of microRNAs of the herpesvirus family. Nat Methods 2:269276.[PubMed]
112. Gottwein E, Mukherjee N, Sachse C, Frenzel C, Majoros WH, Chi JT, Braich R, Manoharan M, Soutschek J, Ohler U, Cullen BR. 2007. A viral microRNA functions as an orthologue of cellular miR-155. Nature 450:10961099.[PubMed]
113. Skalsky RL, Samols MA, Plaisance KB, Boss IW, Riva A, Lopez MC, Baker HV, Renne R. 2007. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes an ortholog of miR-155. J Virol 81:1283612845.[PubMed]
114. Gottwein E, Corcoran DL, Mukherjee N, Skalsky RL, Hafner M, Nusbaum JD, Shamulailatpam P, Love CL, Dave SS, Tuschl T, Ohler U, Cullen BR. 2011. Viral microRNA targetome of KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma cell lines. Cell Host Microbe 10:515526.[PubMed]
115. Lei X, Zhu Y, Jones T, Bai Z, Huang Y, Gao SJ. 2012. A Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus microRNA and its variants target the transforming growth factor β pathway to promote cell survival. J Virol 86:1169811711.[PubMed]
116. Manzano M, Shamulailatpam P, Raja AN, Gottwein E. 2013. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a mimic of cellular miR-23. J Virol 87:1182111830.[PubMed]
117. Arias C, Weisburd B, Stern-Ginossar N, Mercier A, Madrid AS, Bellare P, Holdorf M, Weissman JS, Ganem D. 2014. KSHV 2.0: a comprehensive annotation of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome using next-generation sequencing reveals novel genomic and functional features. PLoS Pathog 10:e1003847.[PubMed]
118. Bai Z, Huang Y, Li W, Zhu Y, Jung JU, Lu C, Gao SJ. 2014. Genomewide mapping and screening of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) 3′ untranslated regions identify bicistronic and polycistronic viral transcripts as frequent targets of KSHV microRNAs. J Virol 88:377392.[PubMed]
119. Majerciak V, Ni T, Yang W, Meng B, Zhu J, Zheng ZM. 2013. A viral genome landscape of RNA polyadenylation from KSHV latent to lytic infection. PLoS Pathog 9:e1003749.[PubMed]
120. McClure LV, Kincaid RP, Burke JM, Grundhoff A, Sullivan CS. 2013. Comprehensive mapping and analysis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus 3′ UTRs identify differential posttranscriptional control of gene expression in lytic versus latent infection. J Virol 87:1283812849.[PubMed]
121. Zhu Y, Huang Y, Jung JU, Lu C, Gao SJ. 2014. Viral miRNA targeting of bicistronic and polycistronic transcripts. Curr Opin Virol 7:6672.[PubMed]
122. Maurer T, Ponte M, Leslie K. 2007. HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with a high CD4 count and a low viral load. N Engl J Med 357:13521353.[PubMed]
123. Guadalupe M, Pollock BH, Westbrook S, Redding S, Bullock D, Anstead G, Agan BK, Marconi VC, Barbieri S, Sankar V, Rebeles J, Flahive Y, Schoolfield J, Wang L, Lei X, Dow D, Yeh CK, Dang H, Infante AJ, Gao SJ. 2011. Risk factors influencing antibody responses to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent and lytic antigens in patients under antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 56:8390.[PubMed]
124. Bower M, Nelson M, Young AM, Thirlwell C, Newsom-Davis T, Mandalia S, Dhillon T, Holmes P, Gazzard BG, Stebbing J. 2005. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 23:52245228.[PubMed]
125. Dollard SC, Nelson KE, Ness PM, Stambolis V, Kuehnert MJ, Pellett PE, Cannon MJ. 2005. Possible transmission of human herpesvirus-8 by blood transfusion in a historical United States cohort. Transfusion 45:500503.[PubMed]
126. Hladik W, Dollard SC, Mermin J, Fowlkes AL, Downing R, Amin MM, Banage F, Nzaro E, Kataaha P, Dondero TJ, Pellett PE, Lackritz EM. 2006. Transmission of human herpesvirus 8 by blood transfusion. N Engl J Med 355:13311338.[PubMed]
127. Pellett PE, Wright DJ, Engels EA, Ablashi DV, Dollard SC, Forghani B, Glynn SA, Goedert JJ, Jenkins FJ, Lee TH, Neipel F, Todd DS, Whitby D, Nemo GJ, Busch MP Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. 2003. Multicenter comparison of serologic assays and estimation of human herpesvirus 8 seroprevalence among US blood donors. Transfusion 43:12601268.[PubMed]
128. Calabrò ML, Sheldon J, Favero A, Simpson GR, Fiore JR, Gomes E, Angarano G, Chieco-Bianchi L, Schulz TF. 1998. Seroprevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 in several regions of Italy. J Hum Virol 1:207213.[PubMed]
129. Fu B, Sun F, Li B, Yang L, Zeng Y, Sun X, Xu F, Rayner S, Guadalupe M, Gao SJ, Wang L. 2009. Seroprevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and risk factors in Xinjiang, China. J Med Virol 81:14221431. [PubMed]