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Chapter 31 :

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Abstract:

The family includes the human torque teno virus (TTV) and related small nonenveloped viruses with circular single-stranded DNA genomes. Viruses of this family frequently or ubiquitously infect humans and a range of other mammalian species. Infections are characterized by their lifelong persistence and great genetic variability. Despite the original claimed association between anellovirus infection and hepatitis in humans when first discovered in 1997, no evidence convincingly links infections with anelloviruses to clinical disease.

Citation: Simmonds P, Sharp C. 2017. , p 701-711. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch31
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FIGURE 1

Diversity of anelloviruses infecting humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammalian species. Sequence divergence of different anellovirus genera in the ORF1 protein-coding sequence. An alignment of ORF1-coding sequences between positions 1–862 (numbered from the start of the reading frame of the TA278 [NC_002076] reference sequence) was created using MUSCLE, and a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed using the optimal model (LG distances + F + G). The tree was bootstrap resampled to indicate robustness of groupings; values of greater than or equal to 70% are shown. Genera have been labelled according to the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) classification, although several sequences currently classified as members of do not cluster phylogenetically with other members of this genus (indicated by the dotted line). Sequences from nonhuman primates, such as the chimpanzee and monkey species (•, ♦), were frequently interspersed within the human-derived variants, while those from nonprimate mammalian species (e.g., pig, cat, dog, and rodent) formed separate groupings.

Citation: Simmonds P, Sharp C. 2017. , p 701-711. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch31
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Alignment of sequences from the untranslated region of anelloviruses infecting humans and other species. Alignment of nucleotide sequences from the UTR of classified anelloviruses. Highly conserved regions are indicated in gray-shaded boxes, including the putative TATA box at position 85 in the prototype TTV sequence, TA278 (NC_002076). Symbols: “.”: sequence identity with prototype TTV sequence; “-”: gap introduced to preserve alignment of homologous nucleotide sites.

Citation: Simmonds P, Sharp C. 2017. , p 701-711. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch31
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Genome organization of anelloviruses. Genome organization of representative anelloviruses showing arrangement of genes on the antigenomic strand. Closed arrows represent the principal open reading frames in each virus. The genome organizations of two other small circular ssDNA viruses (chicken anemia virus and porcine circovirus 2) are shown for comparison.

Citation: Simmonds P, Sharp C. 2017. , p 701-711. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch31
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