Chapter 40 : Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses

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This chapter focuses on emergent paramyxoviruses that are associated with zoonotic disease. Hendra virus (HeV), Nipah virus (NiV), Menangle virus (MenPV), and Sosuga virus (SosPV) are known to have caused severe zoonotic infections, and Tioman virus (TioPV), Achimota virus (AchPV), and Mojiang virus (MojPV) are also suspected of causing them. These viruses, which have emerged or been detected over the last two decades, are potential threats to both livestock animals and humans (Table 1). In particular, HeV and NiV have caused fatal diseases in animals and humans, and outbreaks of NiV continue to occur almost annually. Molecular biological studies have made substantial contributions to the characterization of emergent zoonotic paramyxoviruses. Sequencing studies provide an accurate picture of the relative taxonomic position of these viruses and provide rapid diagnostic capabilities. In the case of outbreaks of NiV in Malaysia, Bangladesh, and India, molecular biological data quickly identified the etiologic agent present, and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and serologic assays were used to rapidly confirm NiV infections in humans and animals (1–4).

Citation: Anderson D, Wang L. 2017. Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses, p 949-966. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch40
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Image of FIGURE 1

Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the open reading frame of the N protein gene from selected viruses in the subfamily . The genus name is on the right. Abbreviations of virus names and sequence accession numbers are as follows: Achimota virus 1 (AchPV1) JX051319; Achimota virus 2 (AchPV2) JX051320; Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (AsaPV) EU156171; Avian paramyxovirus 6 (APMV6) AY029299; Bat paramyxovirus/Eid hel/GH-M74a/GHA/2009 (BPV-M74a) HQ660129; Beilong virus (BeiPV) DQ100461; Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (bPIV3) AF178654; Canine distemper virus (CDV) AF014953; Cedar virus (CedPV) JQ001776; Fer-de-lance paramyxovirus (FdlPV) NC_005084; Hendra virus (HeV) AF017149; Human parainfluenza virus 2 (hPIV2) AF533010; Human parainfluenza virus 3 (hPIV3) Z11575; J virus (JPV) AY900001; Menangle virus (MenPV) AF326114; Measles virus (MeV) AB016162; Mojiang virus (MojPV) KF278639; Mossman virus (MosPV) AY286409; Mumps virus (MuV) AB000388; Newcastle disease virus (NDV) AF077761; Nipah virus, Bangladesh strain (NiV-BD) AY988601; Nipah virus, Malaysian strain (NiV-MY) AJ627196; Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) AF052755; Rinderpest virus (RPV) Z30697; Salem virus (SalPV), AF237881; Sendai virus (SeV) M19661; Sosuga virus (SosPV) KF774436; Tioman virus (TioPV) AF298895; Tupaia paramyxovirus (TupPV) AF079780.

Citation: Anderson D, Wang L. 2017. Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses, p 949-966. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch40
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Image of FIGURE 2

Schematic representation of the genomes of viruses in the subfamily . Genomes are single-stranded, negative-sense RNA shown in the 3’-to-5’ (left-to-right) orientation. Boxes indicate protein-coding regions, and solid lines indicate noncoding regions. The genome, coding regions, and untranslated regions are drawn to scale. The six conserved genes present in all paramyxovirus genomes are indicated as follows: light shaded = RNA polymerase and nucleocapsid genes (N, P and L); slanted = envelope membrane protein genes (F and attachment protein); white = matrix protein (M). The dark shaded boxes represent genes which are not commonly shared among members of the subfamily. The scale at the bottom represents genome size in nucleotides.

Citation: Anderson D, Wang L. 2017. Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses, p 949-966. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch40
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Image of FIGURE 3

Schematic representation of the coding strategy found in the P protein gene of NiV. The predicted P protein mRNA is 2,704 nucleotides in length (nucleotides with asterisks indicate the location of the P protein gene sequence within the sequence with GenBank accession no. AF212302). The P protein is encoded by a faithful transcript of the viral genomic RNA from an opening reading frame beginning at nucleotide 106 of the mRNA. The RNA editing site is indicated by the vertical arrow. The addition of a nontemplated G nucleotide at the RNA editing site (nucleotide 1325) allows access to a different reading frame (–1 relative to P). The V protein contains the amino-terminal domain of the P protein (horizontal lines) joined to the cysteine-rich domain that is unique to the V protein (diagonal lines). The addition of two nontemplated G nucleotides at the RNA editing site produces the mRNA for the W protein in which the amino-terminal domain of P is joined to carboxyl-terminal domain unique for W (diagonal lines). The C protein (gray box) is expressed from an ORF that begins at nucleotide 128 (or 131) and overlaps P in the +1 frame.

Citation: Anderson D, Wang L. 2017. Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses, p 949-966. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch40
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Image of FIGURE 4

Range of the genus Pteropus (shaded area). Locations where human infections of henipaviruses have occurred are designated by stars.

Citation: Anderson D, Wang L. 2017. Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses, p 949-966. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch40
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