1887

Chapter 44 : Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch44-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch44-2.gif

Abstract:

The family is the largest family of viruses and includes many known human, animal, and plant pathogens. The clinical diseases produced in humans range from acute febrile illnesses, such as sandfly fever, to more distinct clinical syndromes such as California encephalitis (CE), Rift Valley fever (RVF), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), which is also referred to in the literature as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Sandfly fever, RVF, and HFRS are common. Although most of the remaining diseases probably cause no more than a few hundred cases each year, some are associated with a high mortality rate (particularly CCHF and HCPS), and two (CE and HCPS) are endemic in North America.

Citation: Mertz G, Ahlm C, Jonsson C. 2017. Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, p 1059-1087. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Model for replication. The principal steps in replication are (1) attachment of Gn to integrin receptor; (2) entry and uncoating; (3) replication, cRNA synthesis from vRNA genome; (4) transcription, mRNA synthesis from vRNA genome; (5) replication, vRNA synthesis from cRNA template; (6) translation, L and M mRNA translated on free ribosomes and M translation on RER; N and RdRp and L, M, and S genomes move to Golgi; (7) packaging, assembly of genomic RNAs and proteins at Golgi (some evidence for New World viruses assembling on plasma membrane); and (8) budding. Virion release, Golgi vesicles release virion by budding with plasma membrane.

Citation: Mertz G, Ahlm C, Jonsson C. 2017. Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, p 1059-1087. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Distribution of and location of HPS cases as of 9 May 2006. Total cases (N = 438 in 30 states) (from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).

Citation: Mertz G, Ahlm C, Jonsson C. 2017. Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, p 1059-1087. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Peripheral blood smear from a patient with the cardiopulmonary stage of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Note the immunoblast with basophilic cytoplasm, prominent nucleolus, and high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio. Also note immature neutrophils. Courtesy of R. Feddersen.

Citation: Mertz G, Ahlm C, Jonsson C. 2017. Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, p 1059-1087. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Pulmonary histology in a patient who died from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Note the intra-alveolar and septal edema, interstitial infiltrates with mononuclear cells, and sparse hyaline membrane. In contrast to patients with ARDS, the hyaline membranes are largely devoid of inflammatory cells and cellular debris. Courtesy of Dr. K Nolte.

Citation: Mertz G, Ahlm C, Jonsson C. 2017. Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, p 1059-1087. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Clinical course and typical laboratory findings in severe hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Reprinted from reference ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Mertz G, Ahlm C, Jonsson C. 2017. Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, p 1059-1087. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Bilateral pulmonary edema in a patient with the cardiopulmonary stage of HCPS. Courtesy of L Ketai.

Citation: Mertz G, Ahlm C, Jonsson C. 2017. Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, p 1059-1087. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Flow diagram for the management of patients suspected of having hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the cardiopulmonary stage pending IgG and IgM antihantavirus antibody results. Reprinted from reference ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Mertz G, Ahlm C, Jonsson C. 2017. Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, p 1059-1087. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Survival without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation among ribavirin recipients versus placebo recipients in a trial of intravenous ribavirin therapy for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Solid line, ribavirin recipients (N = 10); broken line, placebo recipients (N = 13). Reprinted from reference ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Mertz G, Ahlm C, Jonsson C. 2017. Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, p 1059-1087. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Kaplan-Meier survival analysis by treatment arm and severity at entry. 1: significance between methylprednisolone and placebo arm. 2: significance between sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) >8 and ≤8 at entry. Reprinted from reference ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Mertz G, Ahlm C, Jonsson C. 2017. Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, p 1059-1087. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Worldwide distribution of CCHF virus. Reprinted from reference ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Mertz G, Ahlm C, Jonsson C. 2017. Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, p 1059-1087. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

Clinical and laboratory course of CCHF. Reprinted from reference ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Mertz G, Ahlm C, Jonsson C. 2017. Orthobunyaviruses, Phleboviruses Nairoviruses, and Hantaviruses, p 1059-1087. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819439.ch44
1. Liu Q, He B, Huang SY, Wei F, Zhu XQ. 2014. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, an emerging tick-borne zoonosis. Lancet Infect Dis 14:763772.[PubMed]
2. McMullan LK, Folk SM, Kelly AJ, MacNeil A, Goldsmith CS, Metcalfe MG, Batten BC, Albariño CG, Zaki SR, Rollin PE, Nicholson WL, Nichol ST. 2012. A new phlebovirus associated with severe febrile illness in Missouri. N Engl J Med 367:834841.[PubMed]
3. Savage HM, Godsey MS Jr, Lambert A, Panella NA, Burkhalter KL, Harmon JR, Lash RR, Ashley DC, Nicholson WL. 2013. First detection of heartland virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) from field collected arthropods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89:445452.[PubMed]
4. Bosco-Lauth AM, Panella NA, Root JJ, Gidlewski T, Lash RR, Harmon JR, Burkhalter KL, Godsey MS, Savage HM, Nicholson WL, Komar N, Brault AC. 2015. Serological investigation of heartland virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) exposure in wild and domestic animals adjacent to human case sites in Missouri 2012–2013. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92:11631167.[PubMed]
5. Riemersma KK, Komar N. 2015. Heartland virus neutralizing antibodies in vertebrate wildlife, United States, 2009–2014. Emerg Infect Dis 21:18301833.[PubMed]
6. Calisher CH,. 2001. History, classification and taxonomy of viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, p 117. In Eliott RM (ed), The Bunyaviridae. Plenum Press, New York.
7. Gonzalez-Scarano FaNN,. 1996. Bunyaviridae, p 14741505. In Strauss SE (ed), Fields virology, 3rd ed, vol 1. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia.
8. Bouloy M. 1991. Bunyaviridae: genome organization and replication strategies. Adv Virus Res 40:235275.[PubMed]
9. Schmaljohn CS. 1996. Bunyaviridae: the viruses and their replication, 3rd ed, vol 1. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia.
10. Elliott RM. 1990. Molecular biology of the Bunyaviridae. J Gen Virol 71:501522.[PubMed]
11. Freiberg AN, Sherman MB, Morais MC, Holbrook MR, Watowich SJ. 2008. Three-dimensional organization of Rift Valley fever virus revealed by cryoelectron tomography. J Virol 82:1034110348.[PubMed]
12. Battisti AJ, Chu YK, Chipman PR, Kaufmann B, Jonsson CB, Rossmann MG. 2011. Structural studies of Hantaan virus. J Virol 85:835841.[PubMed]
13. Huiskonen JT, Hepojoki J, Laurinmäki P, Vaheri A, Lankinen H, Butcher SJ, Grünewald K. 2010. Electron cryotomography of Tula hantavirus suggests a unique assembly paradigm for enveloped viruses. J Virol 84:48894897.[PubMed]
14. Bowden TA, Bitto D, McLees A, Yeromonahos C, Elliott RM, Huiskonen JT. 2013. Orthobunyavirus ultrastructure and the curious tripodal glycoprotein spike. PLoS Pathog 9:e1003374.[PubMed]
15. Bird BH, Khristova ML, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Nichol ST. 2007. Complete genome analysis of 33 ecologically and biologically diverse Rift Valley fever virus strains reveals widespread virus movement and low genetic diversity due to recent common ancestry. J Virol 81:28052816.[PubMed]
16. Chizhikov VE, Spiropoulou CF, Morzunov SP, Monroe MC, Peters CJ, Nichol ST. 1995. Complete genetic characterization and analysis of isolation of Sin Nombre virus. J Virol 69:81328136.[PubMed]
17. Honig JE, Osborne JC, Nichol ST. 2004. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome L RNA segment and encoded protein. Virology 321:2935.[PubMed]
18. Kinsella E, Martin SG, Grolla A, Czub M, Feldmann H, Flick R. 2004. Sequence determination of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus L segment. Virology 321:2328.[PubMed]
19. Sanchez AJ, Vincent MJ, Nichol ST. 2002. Characterization of the glycoproteins of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Virol 76:72637275.[PubMed]
20. Flick R, Flick K, Feldmann H, Elgh F. 2003. Reverse genetics for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Virol 77:59976006.[PubMed]
21. Elliott RM, Blakqori G, van Knippenberg IC, Koudriakova E, Li P, McLees A, Shi X, Szemiel AM. 2013. Establishment of a reverse genetics system for Schmallenberg virus, a newly emerged orthobunyavirus in Europe. J Gen Virol 94:851859.[PubMed]
22. Rezelj VV, Överby AK, Elliott RM. 2015. Generation of mutant Uukuniemi viruses lacking the nonstructural protein NSs by reverse genetics indicates that NSs is a weak interferon antagonist. J Virol 89:48494856.[PubMed]
23. Brennan B, Li P, Zhang S, Li A, Liang M, Li D, Elliott RM. 2015. Reverse genetics system for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. J Virol 89:30263037.[PubMed]
24. Gavrilovskaya IN, Shepley M, Shaw R, Ginsberg MH, Mackow ER. 1998. beta3 Integrins mediate the cellular entry of hantaviruses that cause respiratory failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:70747079.[PubMed]
25. Gavrilovskaya INBE, Brown EJ, Ginsberg MH, Mackow ER. 1999. Cellular entry of hantaviruses which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is mediated by beta3 integrins. J Virol 73:39513959.[PubMed]
26. Krautkrämer E, Zeier M. 2008. Hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome enters from the apical surface and requires decay-accelerating factor (DAF/CD55). J Virol 82:42574264.[PubMed]
27. Jonsson CB, Schmaljohn CS. 2001. Replication of hantaviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 256:1532.[PubMed]
28. Ramanathan HN, Chung DH, Plane SJ, Sztul E, Chu YK, Guttieri MC, McDowell M, Ali G, Jonsson CB. 2007. Dynein-dependent transport of the hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein to the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment. J Virol 81:86348647.[PubMed]
29. Jin H, Elliott RM. 1991. Expression of functional Bunyamwera virus L protein by recombinant vaccinia viruses. J Virol 65:41824189.[PubMed]
30. Lopez N, Muller R, Prehaud C, Bouloy M. 1995. The L protein of Rift Valley fever virus can rescue viral ribonucleoproteins and transcribe synthetic genome-like RNA molecules. J Virol 69:39723979.[PubMed]
31. Dubey S, Salamin N, Ohdachi SD, Barrière P, Vogel P. 2007. Molecular phylogenetics of shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae) reveal timing of transcontinental colonizations. Mol Phylogenet Evol 44:126137.[PubMed]
32. Guo WP, Lin XD, Wang W, Tian JH, Cong ML, Zhang HL, Wang MR, Zhou RH, Wang JB, Li MH, Xu J, Holmes EC, Zhang YZ. 2013. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents. PLoS Pathog 9:e1003159.[PubMed]
33. Hoogstraal H. 1979. The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa. J Med Entomol 15:307417.[PubMed]
34. Watts DM, Ksiazek TG, Linthicum KJ, Hoogstral H. 1988. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, vol 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
35. Elliott LH. , et al 1994. Isolation of the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51:102108.[PubMed]
36. Lee HW, Lee PW, Johnson KM. 1978. Isolation of the etiologic agent of Korean Hemorrhagic fever. J Infect Dis 137:298308.[PubMed]
37. Lee HW, Baek LJ, Johnson KM. 1982. Isolation of Hantaan virus, the etiologic agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever, from wild urban rats. J Infect Dis 146:638644.[PubMed]
38. Lee PW, Amyx HL, Gajdusek DC, Yanagihara RT, Goldgaber D, Gibbs CJ Jr. 1982. New hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome–related virus in rodents in the United States. Lancet 2:1405.[PubMed]
39. Niklasson B, Le Duc J. 1984. Isolation of the nephropathia epidemica agent in Sweden. Lancet 1:10121013.[PubMed]
40. Schmaljohn AL, Li D, Negley DL, Bressler DS, Turell MJ, Korch GW, Ascher MS, Schmaljohn CS. 1995. Isolation and initial characterization of a newfound hantavirus from California. Virology 206:963972.[PubMed]
41. Martinez-Valdebenito C, Calvo M, Vial C, Mansilla R, Marco C, Palma RE, Vial PA, Valdivieso F, Mertz G, Ferrés M. 2014. Person-to-person household and nosocomial transmission of andes hantavirus, Southern Chile, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis 20:16291636.[PubMed]
42. Houck MA, Qin H, Roberts HR. 2001. Hantavirus transmission: potential role of ectoparasites. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 1:7579.[PubMed]
43. Douglass RJ, Wilson T, Semmens WJ, Zanto SN, Bond CW, Van Horn RC, Mills JN. 2001. Longitudinal studies of Sin Nombre virus in deer mouse–dominated ecosystems of Montana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65:3341.[PubMed]
44. Hinson ER, Shone SM, Zink MC, Glass GE, Klein SL. 2004. Wounding: the primary mode of Seoul virus transmission among male Norway rats. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:310317.[PubMed]
45. Kallio ER, Poikonen A, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O, Henttonen H, Koskela E, Mappes T. 2006. Maternal antibodies postpone hantavirus infection and enhance individual breeding success. Proc Biol Sci 273:27712776.[PubMed]
46. Kallio ER, Klingström J, Gustafsson E, Manni T, Vaheri A, Henttonen H, Vapalahti O, Lundkvist A. 2006. Prolonged survival of Puumala hantavirus outside the host: evidence for indirect transmission via the environment. J Gen Virol 87:21272134.[PubMed]
47. Hardestam J, Simon M, Hedlund KO, Vaheri A, Klingström J, Lundkvist A. 2007. Ex vivo stability of the rodent-borne Hantaan virus in comparison to that of arthropod-borne members of the Bunyaviridae family. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:25472551.[PubMed]
48. LeDuc JW. 1987. Epidemiology and ecology of the California serogroup viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 37(Suppl):60S68S.[PubMed]
49. Watts DM, Thompson WH, Yuill TM, DeFoliart GR, Hanson RP. 1974. Overwintering of La Crosse virus in Aedes triseriatus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 23:694700.[PubMed]
50. Thompson WH, Kalfayan B, Anslow RO. 1965. Isolation of California encephalitis group virus from a fatal human illness. Am J Epidemiol 81:245253.[PubMed]
51. Balfour HH Jr, Siem RA, Bauer H, Quie PG. 1973. California arbovirus (La Crosse) infections. I. Clinical and laboratory findings in 66 children with meningoencephalitis. Pediatrics 52:680691.[PubMed]
52. Kalfayan B. 1983. Pathology of La Crosse virus infection in Humans. AR Liss, New York.
53. Chun RW, Thompson WH, Grabow JD, Matthews CG. 1968. California arbovirus encephalitis in children. Neurology 18:369375.[PubMed]
54. Hilty MD, Haynes RE, Azimi PH, Cramblett HG. 1972. California encephalitis in children. Am J Dis Child 124:530533.[PubMed]
55. Grabow JD, Matthews CG, Chun RW, Thompson WH. 1969. The electroencephalogram and clinical sequelae of California arbovirus encephalitis. Neurology 19:394404.[PubMed]
56. Cramblett HG, Stegmiller H, Spencer C. 1966. California encephalitis virus infections in children. Clinical and laboratory studies. JAMA 198:108112.[PubMed]
57. Griot C, Pekosz A, Lukac D, Scherer SS, Stillmock K, Schmeidler D, Endres MJ, Gonzalez-Scarano F, Nathanson N. 1993. Polygenic control of neuroinvasiveness in California serogroup bunyaviruses. J Virol 67:38613867.[PubMed]
58. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1993. Outbreak of acute illness—southwestern United States, 1993. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 42:421424.[PubMed]
59. Duchin JS, Koster FT, Peters CJ, Simpson GL, Tempest B, Zaki SR, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Nichol S, Umland ET, Moolenaar RL, Reef SE, Nolte KB, Gallaher MM, Butler JC, Breiman RF The Hantavirus Study Group. 1994. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: a clinical description of 17 patients with a newly recognized disease. N Engl J Med 330:949955.[PubMed]
60. Hjelle B, Jenison S, Mertz G, Koster F, Foucar K. 1994. Emergence of hantaviral disease in the southwestern United States. West J Med 161:467473.[PubMed]
61. Childs JE, Ksiazek TG, Spiropoulou CF, Krebs JW, Morzunov S, Maupin GO, Gage KL, Rollin PE, Sarisky J, Enscore RE, Frey JK, Peters CJ, Nichol ST. 1994. Serologic and genetic identification of Peromyscus maniculatus as the primary rodent reservoir for a new hantavirus in the southwestern United States. J Infect Dis 169:12711280.[PubMed]
62. Hjelle B, Jenison S, Torrez-Martinez N, Yamada T, Nolte K, Zumwalt R, MacInnes K, Myers G. 1994. A novel hantavirus associated with an outbreak of fatal respiratory disease in the southwestern United States: evolutionary relationships to known hantaviruses. J Virol 68:592596.[PubMed]
63. Jenison S, Yamada T, Morris C, Anderson B, Torrez-Martinez N, Keller N, Hjelle B. 1994. Characterization of human antibody responses to four corners hantavirus infections among patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. J Virol 68:30003006.[PubMed]
64. Nichol ST, Spiropoulou CF, Morzunov S, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Feldmann H, Sanchez A, Childs J, Zaki S, Peters CJ. 1993. Genetic identification of a hantavirus associated with an outbreak of acute respiratory illness. Science 262:914917.[PubMed]
65. Nerurkar VR, Song JW, Song KJ, Nagle JW, Hjelle B, Jenison S, Yanagihara R. 1994. Genetic evidence for a hantavirus enzootic in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) captured a decade before the recognition of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Virology 204:563568.[PubMed]
66. Wilson C, Hjelle B, Jenison S. 1994. Probable hantavirus pulmonary syndrome that occurred in New Mexico in 1975. Ann Intern Med 120:813.[PubMed]
67. Knust B, Rollin PE. 2013. Twenty-year summary of surveillance for human hantavirus infections, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 19:19341937.[PubMed]
68. Ravkov EV, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, Nichol ST. 1995. Genetic and serologic analysis of Black Creek Canal virus and its association with human disease and Sigmodon hispidus infection. Virology 210:482489.[PubMed]
69. Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Elliott LH, Ravkov EV, Martin ML, Morzunov S, Livingstone W, Monroe M, Glass G, Ruo S, Khan AS, Childs JE, Nichol ST, Peters CJ. 1995. Isolation of Black Creek canal virus, a new hantavirus from Sigmodon hispidus in Florida. J Med Virol 46:3539.[PubMed]
70. Hjelle B, Krolikowski J, Torrez-Martinez N, Chavez-Giles F, Vanner C, Laposata E. 1995. Phylogenetically distinct hantavirus implicated in a case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the northeastern United States. J Med Virol 46:2127.[PubMed]
71. Hjelle B, Lee SW, Song W, Torrez-Martinez N, Song JW, Yanagihara R, Gavrilovskaya I, Mackow ER. 1995. Molecular linkage of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome to the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus: genetic characterization of the M genome of New York virus. J Virol 69:81378141.[PubMed]
72. Song JW, Baek LJ, Gajdusek DC, Yanagihara R, Gavrilovskaya I, Luft BJ, Mackow ER, Hjelle B. 1994. Isolation of pathogenic hantavirus from white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). Lancet 344:1637.[PubMed]
73. Morzunov SP, Feldmann H, Spiropoulou CF, Semenova VA, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, Nichol ST. 1995. A newly recognized virus associated with a fatal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Louisiana. J Virol 69:19801983.[PubMed]
74. Torrez-Martinez N, Hjelle B. 1995. Enzootic of Bayou hantavirus in rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) in 1983. Lancet 346:780781.[PubMed]
75. Ferres M, Vial P, Marco C, Yanez L, Godoy P, Castillo C, Hjelle B, Delgado I, Lee SJ, Mertz GJ Andes Virus Household Contacts Study Group. 2007. Prospective evaluation of household contacts of persons with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in chile. J Infect Dis 195:15631571.[PubMed]
76. Padula PJ, Edelstein A, Miguel SD, López NM, Rossi CM, Rabinovich RD. 1998. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome outbreak in Argentina: molecular evidence for person-to-person transmission of Andes virus. Virology 241:323330.[PubMed]
77. Wells RM, Sosa Estani S, Yadon ZE, Enria D, Padula P, Pini N, Mills JN, Peters CJ, Segura EL. 1997. An unusual hantavirus outbreak in southern Argentina: person-to-person transmission? Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Study Group for Patagonia. Emerg Infect Dis 3:171174.[PubMed]
78. Vincent MJ, Quiroz E, Gracia F, Sanchez AJ, Ksiazek TG, Kitsutani PT, Ruedas LA, Tinnin DS, Caceres L, Garcia A, Rollin PE, Mills JN, Peters CJ, Nichol ST. 2000. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Panama: identification of novel hantaviruses and their likely reservoirs. Virology 277:1419.[PubMed]
79. Gonzalez-Capri S, Elder M, Cacace ML, Cortes J, Romero Bruno M, Farace MI, Padula PJ. 2007. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina, 1995–2006. Abstract S1-03, p 22 Abstracts of the VII International Conference on HFRS, HPS and Hantavirus, abstr VII International Conference on HFRS, HPS and Hantavirus, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
80. Hjelle B, Chavez-Giles F, Torrez-Martinez N, Yates T, Sarisky J, Webb J, Ascher M. 1994. Genetic identification of a novel hantavirus of the harvest mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis. J Virol 68:67516754.[PubMed]
81. Hjelle B, Anderson B, Torrez-Martinez N, Song W, Gannon WL, Yates TL. 1995. Prevalence and geographic genetic variation of hantaviruses of New World harvest mice (Reithrodontomys): identification of a divergent genotype from a Costa Rican Reithrodontomys mexicanus. Virology 207:452459.[PubMed]
82. Hjelle B, Torrez-Martinez N, Koster FT. 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome-related virus from Bolivia. Lancet 347:57.[PubMed]
83. Song W, Torrez-Martinez N, Irwin W, Harrison FJ, Davis R, Ascher M, Jay M, Hjelle B. 1995. Isla Vista virus: a genetically novel hantavirus of the California vole Microtus californicus. J Gen Virol 76:31953199.[PubMed]
84. Torrez-Martinez N, Song W, Hjelle B. 1995. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the M genomic segment of El Moro Canyon hantavirus: antigenic distinction from four corners hantavirus. Virology 211:336338.[PubMed]
85. Armstrong LR, Zaki SR, Goldoft MJ, Todd RL, Khan AS, Khabbaz RF, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ. 1995. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome associated with entering or cleaning rarely used, rodent-infested structures. J Infect Dis 172:1166.[PubMed]
86. Zeitz PS, Butler JC, Cheek JE, Samuel MC, Childs JE, Shands LA, Turner RE, Voorhees RE, Sarisky J, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Chapman L, Reef SE, Komatsu KK, Dalton C, Krebs JW, Maupin GO, Gage K, Sewell CM, Breiman RF, Peters J. 1995. A case-control study of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome during an outbreak in the southwestern United States. J Infect Dis 171:864870.[PubMed]
87. Armien B, Pascale JM, Bayard V, Munoz C, Mosca I, Guerrero G, Armien A, Quiroz E, Castillo Z, Zaldivar Y, Gracia F, Hjelle B, Koster F. 2004. High seroprevalence of hantavirus infection on the Azuero peninsula of Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:682687.[PubMed]
88. Childs JE. , et al 1995. A household-based, case-control study of environmental factors associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the southwestern United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52:393397.[PubMed]
89. Hjelle B, Glass GE. 2000. Outbreak of hantavirus infection in the Four Corners region of the United States in the wake of the 1997–1998 El Nino–southern oscillation. J Infect Dis 181:15691573.[PubMed]
90. Núñez JJ, Fritz CL, Knust B, Buttke D, Enge B, Novak MG, Kramer V, Osadebe L, Messenger S, Albariño CG, Ströher U, Niemela M, Amman BR, Wong D, Manning CR, Nichol ST, Rollin PE, Xia D, Watt JP, Vugia DJ Yosemite Hantavirus Outbreak Investigation Team. 2014. Hantavirus infections among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis 20:386393.[PubMed]
91. Lázaro ME, Cantoni GE, Calanni LM, Resa AJ, Herrero ER, Iacono MA, Enria DA, González Cappa SM. 2007. Clusters of hantavirus infection, southern Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis 13:104110.[PubMed]
92. Martinez VP, Bellomo C, San Juan J, Pinna D, Forlenza R, Elder M, Padula PJ. 2005. Person-to-person transmission of Andes virus. Emerg Infect Dis 11:18481853.[PubMed]
93. Castillo C, Villagra E, Sanhueza L, Ferres M, Mardones J, Mertz GJ. 2004. Prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus among family and health care worker contacts of persons with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome: lack of evidence for nosocomial transmission of Andes virus to health care workers in Chile. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:302304.[PubMed]
94. Chu YK, Rossi C, Leduc JW, Lee HW, Schmaljohn CS, Dalrymple JM. 1994. Serological relationships among viruses in the Hantavirus genus, family Bunyaviridae. Virology 198:196204.[PubMed]
95. LeDuc JW. 1989. Epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever viruses. Rev Infect Dis 11(Suppl 4):S730S735.[PubMed]
96. McCormick JB, Sasso DR, Palmer EL, Kiley MP. 1982. Morphological identification of the agent of Korean haemorrhagic fever (Hantaan virus) as a member of the Bunyaviridae. Lancet 1:765768.[PubMed]
97. Schmaljohn CS, Dalrymple JM. 1983. Analysis of Hantaan virus RNA: evidence for a new genus of bunyaviridae. Virology 131:482491.[PubMed]
98. Schmaljohn CS, Hasty S, Dalrymple J, LeDuc J, Lee H, von Bonsdorff C, Brummer-Korvenkontio M, Vaheri A, Tsai T, Regnery H , et al 1985. Antigenic and genetic properties of viruses linked to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Science 227:10411044.[PubMed]
99. Xiao R, Yang S, Koster F, Ye C, Stidley C, Hjelle B. 2006. Sin Nombre viral RNA load in patients with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. J Infect Dis 194:14031409.[PubMed]
100. LeDuc JW, Childs JE, Glass GE, Watson AJ. 1993. Hantaan (Korean hemorrhagic fever) and related rodent zoonoses. Oxford University Press, New York.
101. Gligić A, Frusić M, Obradović M, Stojanović R, Hlaca D, Gibbs CJ Jr, Yanagihara R, Calisher CH, Gajdusek DC. 1989. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Yugoslavia: antigenic characterization of hantaviruses isolated from Apodemus flavicollis and Clethrionomys glareolus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41:109115.[PubMed]
102. Gligic A, Dimkovic N, Xiao S-Y, Buckle GJ, Jovanovic D, Velimirovic D, Stojanovic R, Obradovic M, Diglisic G, Micic J, Asher DM, LeDuc JW, Yanagihara R, Carleton Gajdusek D. 1992. Belgrade virus: a new hantavirus causing severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Yugoslavia. J Infect Dis 166:113120.[PubMed]
103. Childs JE, Korch GW, Glass GE, LeDuc JW, Shah KV. 1987. Epizootiology of Hantavirus infections in Baltimore: isolation of a virus from Norway rats, and characteristics of infected rat populations. Am J Epidemiol 126:5568.[PubMed]
104. LeDuc JW. , et al 1986. Global survey of antibody to Hantaan-related viruses among peridomestic rodents. Bull World Health Organ 64:139144.[PubMed]
105. Xiao SY, Leduc JW, Chu YK, Schmaljohn CS. 1994. Phylogenetic analyses of virus isolates in the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Virology 198:205217.[PubMed]
106. Brummer-Korvenkontio M, Vaheri A, Hovi T, von Bonsdorff CH, Vuorimies J, Manni T, Penttinen K, Oker-Blom N, Lähdevirta J. 1980. Nephropathia epidemica: detection of antigen in bank voles and serologic diagnosis of human infection. J Infect Dis 141:131134.[PubMed]
107. Niklasson B, Hornfeldt B, Mullaart M, Settergren B, Tkachenko E, Myasnikov YuA, Ryltceva EV, Leschinskaya E, Malkin A, Dzagurova T. 1993. An epidemiologic study of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Bashkirtostan (Russia) and Sweden. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48:670675.[PubMed]
108. Yanagihara R, Goldgaber D, Lee PW, Amyx HL, Gajdusek DC, Gibbs CJ Jr, Svedmyr A. 1984. Propagation of nephropathia epidemica virus in cell culture. Lancet 1:1013.[PubMed]
109. Chen HX, Qiu FX, Dong BJ, Ji SZ, Li YT, Wang Y, Wang HM, Zuo GF, Tao XX, Gao SY. 1986. Epidemiological studies on hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China. J Infect Dis 154:394398.[PubMed]
110. Ruo SL, Li YL, Tong Z, Ma QR, Liu ZL, Tang YW, Ye KL, McCormick JB, Fisher-Hoch SP, Xu ZY. 1994. Retrospective and prospective studies of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in rural China. J Infect Dis 170:527534.[PubMed]
111. Xu ZY, Guo CS, Wu YL, Zhang XW, Liu K. 1985. Epidemiological studies of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: analysis of risk factors and mode of transmission. J Infect Dis 152:137144.[PubMed]
112. Clement J, McKenna P, Colson P, Damoiseaux P, Penalba C, Halin P, Lombart D, Guenno BL, Camprasse MA, Guilbaut JC, Lanoux P, Hoen B, Rollin PE, Coudrier D, Sureau P. 1994. Hantavirus epidemic in Europe, 1993. Lancet 343:114116.[PubMed]
113. Groen J, Gerding MN, Jordans JG, Clement JP, Nieuwenhuijs JH, Osterhaus AD. 1995. Hantavirus infections in The Netherlands: epidemiology and disease. Epidemiol Infect 114:373383.[PubMed]
114. Ahlm C, Linderholm M, Juto P, Stegmayr B, Settergren B. 1994. Prevalence of serum IgG antibodies to Puumala virus (haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) in northern Sweden. Epidemiol Infect 113:129136.[PubMed]
115. Vapalahti O, Mustonen J, Lundkvist A, Henttonen H, Plyusnin A, Vaheri A. 2003. Hantavirus infections in Europe. Lancet Infect Dis 3:653661[CrossRef].[PubMed]
116. Olsson GE, Dalerum F, Hörnfeldt B, Elgh F, Palo TR, Juto P, Ahlm C. 2003. Human hantavirus infections, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis 9:13951401.[PubMed]
117. Tsai TF. 1987. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: mode of transmission to humans. Lab Anim Sci 37:428430.[PubMed]
118. Makary P, Kanerva M, Ollgren J, Virtanen MJ, Vapalahti O, Lyytikäinen O. 2010. Disease burden of Puumala virus infections, 1995–2008. Epidemiol Infect 138:14841492.[PubMed]
119. Lloyd G, Bowen ET, Jones N, Pendry A. 1984. HFRS outbreak associated with laboratory rats in UK. Lancet 1:11751176.[PubMed]
120. Sinisalo M, Vapalahti O, Ekblom-Kullberg S, Laine O, Mäkelä S, Rintala H, Vaheri A. 2010. Headache and low platelets in a patient with acute leukemia. J Clin Virol 48:159161.[PubMed]
121. Settergren B, Juto P, Trollfors B, Wadell G, Norrby SR. 1989. Clinical characteristics of nephropathia epidemica in Sweden: prospective study of 74 cases. Rev Infect Dis 11:921927.[PubMed]
122. Kawamata J, Yamanouchi T, Dohmae K, Miyamoto H, Takahaski M, Yamanishi K, Kurata T, Lee HW. 1987. Control of laboratory acquired hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Japan. Lab Anim Sci 37:431436.[PubMed]
123. Lee HW, Johnson KM. 1982. Laboratory-acquired infections with Hantaan virus, the etiologic agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever. J Infect Dis 146:645651.[PubMed]
124. Vial PA, Valdivieso F, Mertz G, Castillo C, Belmar E, Delgado I, Tapia M, Ferrés M. 2006. Incubation period of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis 12:12711273.[PubMed]
125. Rasmuson J, Andersson C, Norrman E, Haney M, Evander M, Ahlm C. 2011. Time to revise the paradigm of hantavirus syndromes? Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by European hantavirus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 30:685690.[PubMed]
126. Terajima M, Hendershot JD III, Kariwa H, Koster FT, Hjelle B, Goade D, DeFronzo MC, Ennis FA. 1999. High levels of viremia in patients with the Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. J Infect Dis 180:20302034.[PubMed]
127. Gu XS. , et al 1990. Isolation of a strain of Hantaan virus from peritoneal exudate cells of a patient with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Chin Med J (Engl) 103:455459.[PubMed]
128. Juto P, Elgh F, Ahlm C, Alexeyev OA, Edlund K, Lundkvist A, Wadell G. 1997. The first human isolate of Puumala virus in Scandinavia as cultured from phytohemagglutinin stimulated leucocytes. J Med Virol 53:150156.[PubMed]
129. Galeno H, Mora J, Villagra E, Fernandez J, Hernandez J, Mertz GJ, Ramirez E. 2002. First human isolate of Hantavirus (Andes virus) in the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis 8:657661.[PubMed]
130. Hung T, Zhou JY, Tang YM, Zhao TX, Baek LJ, Lee HW. 1992. Identification of Hantaan virus-related structures in kidneys of cadavers with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Arch Virol 122:187199.[PubMed]
131. Zaki SR. , et al 1995. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Pathogenesis of an emerging infectious disease. Am J Pathol 146:552579.[PubMed]
132. Nolte KB, Feddersen RM, Foucar K, Zaki SR, Koster FT, Madar D, Merlin TL, McFeeley PJ, Umland ET, Zumwalt RE. 1995. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the United States: a pathological description of a disease caused by a new agent. Hum Pathol 26:110120.[PubMed]
133. Hjelle B, Spiropoulou CF, Torrez-Martinez N, Morzunov S, Peters CJ, Nichol ST. 1994. Detection of Muerto Canyon virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. J Infect Dis 170:10131017.[PubMed]
134. Lukes RJ. 1954. The pathology of thirty-nine fatal cases of epidemic hemorrhagic fever. Am J Med 16:639650.[PubMed]
135. Hullinghorst RL, Steer A. 1953. Pathology of epidemic hemorrhagic fever. Ann Intern Med 38:77101.[PubMed]
136. Bruno P, Hassell LH, Brown J, Tanner W, Lau A. 1990. The protean manifestations of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: a retrospective review of 26 cases from Korea. Ann Intern Med 113:385391.[PubMed]
137. Kessler WH. 1953. Gross anatomic features found in 27 autopsies of epidemic hemorrhagic fever. Ann Intern Med 38:7376.[PubMed]
138. Rasmuson J, Lindqvist P, Sörensen K, Hedström M, Blomberg A, Ahlm C. 2013. Cardiopulmonary involvement in Puumala hantavirus infection. BMC Infect Dis 13:501.[PubMed]
139. Mertz GJ, Hjelle BL, Williams TM, Koster FT. 1999. Host responses in the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome. Elsevier, New York.
140. Saggioro FP, Rossi MA, Duarte MI, Martin CC, Alves VA, Moreli ML, Figueiredo LT, Moreira JE, Borges AA, Neder L. 2007. Hantavirus infection induces a typical myocarditis that may be responsible for myocardial depression and shock in hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. J Infect Dis 195:15411549.[PubMed]
141. Gupta S, Braun M, Tischler ND, Stoltz M, Sundström KB, Björkström NK, Ljunggren HG, Klingström J. 2013. Hantavirus-infection confers resistance to cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated apoptosis. PLoS Pathog 9:e1003272.[PubMed]
142. Bharadwaj M, Nofchissey R, Goade D, Koster F, Hjelle B. 2000. Humoral immune responses in the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. J Infect Dis 182:4348.[PubMed]
143. Pettersson L, Thunberg T, Rocklöv J, Klingström J, Evander M, Ahlm C. 2014. Viral load and humoral immune response in association with disease severity in Puumala hantavirus-infected patients—implications for treatment. Clin Microbiol Infect 20:235241.[PubMed]
144. Mackow ER, Ginsberg MH, Gavrilovskaya IN,. 1999. β 3 integrins mediate cellular entry of pathogenic hantaviruses, p 113–123. In Saluzzo J.F., and Dodet B. (ed), Factors in the emergence and control of rodent-born viral diseases. Elsevier, New York.
145. Koster FT, and Jenison S,. 1996. The Hantaviruses, p 21402147. In S.L. Gorbach, Bartlett J. G., and Blacklow N. R. (ed), Infectious diseases, 2nd ed. The W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA.