1887

Chapter 5 : Viral Hepatitis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Viral Hepatitis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch5-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch5-2.gif

Abstract:

Viral hepatitis describes a characteristic clinical syndrome resulting from necro-inflammatory pathology of the liver that is caused by one of the recognized hepatitis viruses. There are five established human hepatotropic hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Acute hepatitis can also be a manifestation of other systemic viral infections, including herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) and yellow fever. Although the human hepatitis viruses can all cause the syndrome of acute hepatitis, they have distinct virology, phylogeny, routes of transmission, and risk of chronicity. In this chapter, we discuss the typical clinical syndromes and pathological features of viral hepatitis due to the hepatitis viruses A-E (Table 1), as well as the diagnostic evaluation of patients presenting with suspected viral hepatitis.

Citation: Valaydon Z, Locarnini S, Thompson A. 2017. Viral Hepatitis, p 61-73. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch5
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Viral hepatitis. Top long arrow shows focal steatosis and bottom arrows show portal inflammation. Source: Prof Richard Williams, Anatomical Pathologist, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne.

Citation: Valaydon Z, Locarnini S, Thompson A. 2017. Viral Hepatitis, p 61-73. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819439.ch5
1. Payen JL, Rongières M. 2002. History of hepatitis. I. From jaundice to viruses. Rev Prat 52:20972100.[PubMed]
2. Lurman A. 1885. Eine icterus epidemic. Berl Klin Woschenschr 22:2023.
3. Freeman G. 1946. Epidemiology and incubation period of jaundice following yellow fever vaccination. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26:1532.[PubMed]
4. Norman JE, Beebe GW, Hoofnagle JH, Seeff LB. 1993. Mortality follow-up of the 1942 epidemic of hepatitis B in the U.S. Army. Hepatology 18:790797.[PubMed]
5. Maccallum FO, Bauer DJ. 1944. Homologous serum jaundice transmission experiments with human volunteers. Lancet 243(6298):622627.
6. Maccallum FO. 1946. Homologous serum hepatitis. Proc R Soc Med 39:655657.
7. Krugman S, Giles JP, Hammond J. 1967. Infectious hepatitis. Evidence for two distinctive clinical, epidemiological, and immunological types of infection. JAMA 200:365373.[PubMed]
8. Krugman S, Giles JP, Hammond J. 1967. Infectious hepatitis. Evidence for two distinctive clinical, epidemiological, and immunological types of infection. JAMA 200:365373.[PubMed]
9. Krugman S, Giles JP, Hammond J. 1984. Landmark article May 1, 1967: Infectious hepatitis. Evidence for two distinctive clinical, epidemiological, and immunological types of infection. JAMA 252:393401.[PubMed]
10. “Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee.” In http://exhibits.hsl.virginia.edu/badblood/. 1996, May 20. Retrieved 2008, December 4.
11. Prince AM. 1968. An antigen detected in the blood during the incubation period of serum hepatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 60:814821.[PubMed]
12. Blumberg BS, Alter HJ, Visnich S. 1965. A “new” antigen in leukemia sera. JAMA 191:541546.[PubMed]
13. Dane DS, Cameron CH, Briggs M. 1970. Virus-like particles in serum of patients with Australia-antigen-associated hepatitis. Lancet 1:695698.[PubMed]
14. Magnius LO, Espmark JA. 1972. New specificities in Australia antigen positive sera distinct from the Le Bouvier determinants. J Immunol 109:10171021.[PubMed]
15. Bonino F, Rosina F, Rizzetto M, Rizzi R, Chiaberge E, Tardanico R, Callea F, Verme G. 1986. Chronic hepatitis in HBsAg carriers with serum HBV-DNA and anti-HBe. Gastroenterology 90:12681273.[PubMed]
16. Carman WF, Jacyna MR, Hadziyannis S, Karayiannis P, McGarvey MJ, Makris A, Thomas HC. 1989. Mutation preventing formation of hepatitis B e antigen in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Lancet 2:588591.[PubMed]
17. Yang H-I, Lu S-N, Liaw Y-F, You SL, Sun CA, Wang LY, Hsiao CK, Chen PJ, Chen DS, Chen CJ Taiwan Community-Based Cancer Screening Project Group. 2002. Hepatitis B e antigen and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med 347:168174.[PubMed]
18. Iloeje UH, Yang HI, Su J, Jen CL, You SL, Chen CJ Risk Evaluation of Viral Load Elevation and Associated Liver Disease/Cancer-In HBV (the REVEAL-HBV) Study Group. 2006. Predicting cirrhosis risk based on the level of circulating hepatitis B viral load. Gastroenterology 130:678686.[PubMed]
19. Chen CJ, Yang HI, Su J, Jen CL, You SL, Lu SN, Huang GT, Iloeje UH REVEAL-HBV Study Group. 2006. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma across a biological gradient of serum hepatitis B virus DNA level. JAMA 295:6573.[PubMed]
20. Lai CL, Chien RN, Leung NW, Chang TT, Guan R, Tai DI, Ng KY, Wu PC, Dent JC, Barber J, Stephenson SL, Gray DF Asia Hepatitis Lamivudine Study Group. 1998. A one-year trial of lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 339:6168.[PubMed]
21. Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Harley EJ, Zang EA, Oleszko WR, William DC, Sadovsky R, Morrison JM, Kellner A. 1980. Hepatitis B vaccine: demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United States. N Engl J Med 303:833841.[PubMed]
22. Cockayne EA. 1912. Catarrhal jaundice, sporadic and epidemic, and its relation to acute yellow atrophy of the liver. Q J Med (6):129.
23. Blumer G. 1923. Infectious jaundice in the United States. JAMA 81:353358.
24. Feinstone SM, Kapikian AZ, Purceli RH. 1973. Hepatitis A: detection by immune electron microscopy of a viruslike antigen associated with acute illness. Science 182:10261028.[PubMed]
25. Rizzetto M, Canese MG, Aricò S, Crivelli O, Trepo C, Bonino F, Verme G. 1977. Immunofluorescence detection of new antigen-antibody system (delta/anti-delta) associated to hepatitis B virus in liver and in serum of HBsAg carriers. Gut 18:9971003.[PubMed]
26. Feinstone SM, Kapikian AZ, Purcell RH, Alter HJ, Holland PV. 1975. Transfusion-associated hepatitis not due to viral hepatitis type A or B. N Engl J Med 292:767770.[PubMed]
27. Alter HJ, Prince AM. 1988. Transfusion-associated non-A, non-B hepatitis: an assessment of the causative agent and its clinical impact. Transfus Med Rev 2:288293.[PubMed]
28. Choo QL, Kuo G, Weiner AJ, Overby LR, Bradley DW, Houghton M. 1989. Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science 244:359362.[PubMed]
29. Gower E, Estes C, Blach S, Razavi-Shearer K, Razavi H. 2014. Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol 61(Suppl):S45S57.[PubMed]
30. Lavanchy D. 2009. The global burden of hepatitis C. Liver Int 29(Suppl 1):7481.[PubMed]
31. Lohmann V, Körner F, Koch J, Herian U, Theilmann L, Bartenschlager R. 1999. Replication of subgenomic hepatitis C virus RNAs in a hepatoma cell line. Science 285:110113.[PubMed]
33. Viswanathan R. 2013. Infectious hepatitis in Delhi (1955–56): a critical study-epidemiology. 1957. Natl Med J India 26:362377.[PubMed]
34. Balayan MS, Andjaparidze AG, Savinskaya SS, Ketiladze ES, Braginsky DM, Savinov AP, Poleschuk VF. 1983. Evidence for a virus in non-A, non-B hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Intervirology 20:2331.[PubMed]
35. Reyes GR, Purdy MA, Kim JP, Luk KC, Young LM, Fry KE, Bradley DW. 1990. Isolation of a cDNA from the virus responsible for enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Science 247:13351339.[PubMed]
36. Lee GH, Tan BH, Teo EC, Lim SG, Dan YY, Wee A, Aw PP, Zhu Y, Hibberd ML, Tan CK, Purdy MA, Teo CG. 2015. Chronic infection with camelid hepatitis E virus in a liver-transplant recipient who regularly consumes camel meat and milk. Gastroenterology 150:355.e3357.e3.[PubMed]
37. Kamar N, Izopet J, Tripon S, Bismuth M, Hillaire S, Dumortier J, Radenne S, Coilly A, Garrigue V, D'Alteroche L, Buchler M, Couzi L, Lebray P, Dharancy S, Minello A, Hourmant M, Roque-Afonso AM, Abravanel F, Pol S, Rostaing L, Mallet V. 2014. Ribavirin for chronic hepatitis E virus infection in transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 370:11111120.[PubMed]
38. <WHO | Hepatitis A.pdf>.
39. Chitambar SD, Chadha MS, Joshi MS, Arankalle VA. 1999. Prevalence of hepatitis a antibodies in western Indian population: changing pattern. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 30:273276.[PubMed]
40. Jacobsen KH, Koopman JS. 2004. Declining hepatitis A seroprevalence: a global review and analysis. Epidemiol Infect 132:10051022.[PubMed]
41. Nelson NP, Murphy TV. 2013. Hepatitis A: the changing epidemiology of hepatitis A. Clin Liver Dis Hoboken 2:227230.[PubMed]
42. Mirazo S, Ramos N, Mainardi V, Gerona S, Arbiza J. 2014. Transmission, diagnosis, and management of hepatitis E: an update. Hepat Med 6:4559.[PubMed]
43. Kamar N, Bendall R, Legrand-Abravanel F, Xia NS, Ijaz S, Izopet J, Dalton HR. 2012. Hepatitis E. Lancet 379:24772488.[PubMed]
44. Pavio N, Mansuy JM. 2010. Hepatitis E in high-income countries. Curr Opin Infect Dis 23:521527.[PubMed]
45. Kumar S, Subhadra S, Singh B, Panda BK. 2013. Hepatitis E virus: the current scenario. Int J Infect Dis 17:e228e233.[PubMed]
46. Wasley A, Miller JT, Finelli L Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2007. Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis—United States, 2005. MMWR Surveill Summ 56:124.[PubMed]
47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Viral Hepatitis. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Statistics/index.htm. 2014.
48. Zakaria S, Fouad R, Shaker O, Zaki S, Hashem A, El-Kamary SS, Esmat G, Zakaria S. 2007. Changing patterns of acute viral hepatitis at a major urban referral center in Egypt. Clin Infect Dis 44:e30e36.[PubMed]
49. Lavanchy D. 2004. Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and current and emerging prevention and control measures. J Viral Hepat 11:97107.[PubMed]
50. Maynard JE. Hepatitis B: global importance and need for control. Vaccine, 1990. 8(Suppl): p. S18-20; discussion S21-13.
51. Coursaget P, Yvonnet B, Chotard J, Vincelot P, Sarr M, Diouf C, Chiron JP, Diop-Mar I. 1987. Age- and sex-related study of hepatitis B virus chronic carrier state in infants from an endemic area (Senegal). J Med Virol 22:15.[PubMed]
52. Okamoto H, Tsuda F, Sakugawa H, Sastrosoewignjo RI, Imai M, Miyakawa Y, Mayumi M. 1988. Typing hepatitis B virus by homology in nucleotide sequence: comparison of surface antigen subtypes. J Gen Virol 69:25752583.[PubMed]
53. Taylor JM. 2006. Hepatitis delta virus. Virology 344:7176.[PubMed]
54. Rizzetto M, Ciancio A. 2012. Epidemiology of hepatitis D. Semin Liver Dis 32:211219.[PubMed]
55. Chen GH, Zhang MD, Huang W. 1990. Hepatitis delta virus superinfection in Guangzhou area. Chin Med J (Engl) 103:451454.[PubMed]
56. Gaeta GB, Stroffolini T, Chiaramonte M, Ascione T, Stornaiuolo G, Lobello S, Sagnelli E, Brunetto MR, Rizzetto M. 2000. Chronic hepatitis D: a vanishing disease? An Italian multicenter study. Hepatology 32:824827.[PubMed]
57. Wedemeyer H, Manns MP. 2010. Epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of hepatitis D: update and challenges ahead. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:3140.[PubMed]
58. Wu JC, Choo KB, Chen CM, Chen TZ, Huo TI, Lee SD. 1995. Genotyping of hepatitis D virus by restriction-fragment length polymorphism and relation to outcome of hepatitis D. Lancet 346:939941.[PubMed]
59. <WHO | Hepatitis C.pdf>.
60. Shepard CW, Finelli L, Alter MJ. 2005. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis 5:558567.[PubMed]
61. Mohd Hanafiah K, Groeger J, Flaxman AD, Wiersma ST. 2013. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: new estimates of age-specific antibody to HCV seroprevalence. Hepatology 57:13331342.[PubMed]
62. Frank C, Mohamed MK, Strickland GT, Lavanchy D, Arthur RR, Magder LS, El Khoby T, Abdel-Wahab Y, Aly Ohn ES, Anwar W, Sallam I. 2000. The role of parenteral antischistosomal therapy in the spread of hepatitis C virus in Egypt. Lancet 355:887891.[PubMed]
63. Simmonds P, Bukh J, Combet C, Deléage G, Enomoto N, Feinstone S, Halfon P, Inchauspé G, Kuiken C, Maertens G, Mizokami M, Murphy DG, Okamoto H, Pawlotsky JM, Penin F, Sablon E, Shin-I T, Stuyver LJ, Thiel HJ, Viazov S, Weiner AJ, Widell A. 2005. Consensus proposals for a unified system of nomenclature of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepatology 42:962973.[PubMed]
64. Kanwal F, Kramer JR, Ilyas J, Duan Z, El-Serag HB. 2014. HCV genotype 3 is associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in a national sample of U.S. Veterans with HCV. Hepatology 60:98105.[PubMed]
65. Casanova JL, Abel L. 2004. The human model: a genetic dissection of immunity to infection in natural conditions. Nat Rev Immunol 4:5566.[PubMed]
66. Thomas DL, Thio CL, Martin MP, Qi Y, Ge D, O'Huigin C, Kidd J, Kidd K, Khakoo SI, Alexander G, Goedert JJ, Kirk GD, Donfield SM, Rosen HR, Tobler LH, Busch MP, McHutchison JG, Goldstein DB, Carrington M. 2009. Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus. Nature 461:798801.[PubMed]
67. Tillmann HL, Thompson AJ, Patel K, Wiese M, Tenckhoff H, Nischalke HD, Lokhnygina Y, Kullig U, Göbel U, Capka E, Wiegand J, Schiefke I, Güthoff W, Grüngreiff K, König I, Spengler U, McCarthy J, Shianna KV, Goldstein DB, McHutchison JG, Timm J, Nattermann J. 2010. A polymorphism near IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus and jaundice. Gastroenterology, 139:15861592.
68. Popper H. 1972. The pathology of viral hepatitis. Can Med Assoc J 106:447452.[PubMed]
69. Gordon SC, Reddy KR, Schiff L, Schiff ER. 1984. Prolonged intrahepatic cholestasis secondary to acute hepatitis A. Ann Intern Med 101:635637.[PubMed]
70. Tong MJ, el-Farra NS, Grew MI. 1995. Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A: recent experience in a community teaching hospital. J Infect Dis 171(Suppl 1):S15S18.[PubMed]
71. Glikson M, Galun E, Oren R, Tur-Kaspa R, Shouval D. 1992. Relapsing hepatitis A. Review of 14 cases and literature survey. Medicine (Baltimore) 71:1423.[PubMed]
72. Schiff ER. 1992. Atypical clinical manifestations of hepatitis A. Vaccine 10(Suppl 1):S18S20.[PubMed]
73. Han SH. 2004. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis B. Clin Liver Dis 8:403418.[PubMed]
74. Jayakumar S, Chowdhury R, Ye C, Karvellas CJ. 2013. Fulminant viral hepatitis. Crit Care Clin 29:677697.[PubMed]
75. Narang A, Gupta P, Kar P, Chakravarty A. 1996. A prospective study of delta infection in fulminant hepatic failure. J Assoc Physicians India 44:246247.[PubMed]
76. Shinde N, Patil T, Deshpande A, Gulhane R, Patil M, Bansod Y. 2014. Clinical profile, maternal and fetal outcomes of acute hepatitis e in pregnancy. Ann Med Health Sci Res 4(Suppl 2):S133S139.[PubMed]
77. Nagappan R, Parkin G, Simpson I, Sievert W. 2002. Fulminant hepatic failure from herpes simplex in pregnancy. Med J Aust 176:595596.[PubMed]
78. Allen RH, Tuomala RE. 2005. Herpes simplex virus hepatitis causing acute liver dysfunction and thrombocytopenia in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 106:11871189.[PubMed]
79. Thompson AJ, Nguyen T, Iser D, Ayres A, Jackson K, Littlejohn M, Slavin J, Bowden S, Gane EJ, Abbott W, Lau GK, Lewin SR, Visvanathan K, Desmond PV, Locarnini SA. 2010. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen titers: disease phase influences correlation with viral load and intrahepatic hepatitis B virus markers. Hepatology 51:19331944.[PubMed]
80. Lok AS, Lai CL, Wu PC. 1988. Prevalence of isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen in an area endemic for hepatitis B virus infection: implications in hepatitis B vaccination programs. Hepatology 8:766770.[PubMed]
81. Witt MD, Lewis RJ, Rieg G, Seaberg EC, Rinaldo CR, Thio CL. 2013. Predictors of the isolated hepatitis B core antibody pattern in HIV-infected and -uninfected men in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 56:606612.[PubMed]
82. Gessoni G, Beggio S, Barin P, Favarato M, Galli C, Valverde S, Nata MB, Salvadego MM, Marchiori G. 2014. Significance of anti-HBc only in blood donors: a serological and virological study after hepatitis B vaccination. Blood Transfus 12(Suppl 1):s63s68.[PubMed]
83. Wu WC, Su CW, Yang JY, Lin SF, Chen JY, Wu JC. 2014. Application of serologic assays for diagnosing acute hepatitis E in national surveillance of a nonendemic area. J Med Virol 86:720728.[PubMed]
84. Fabrizi F, Donato F, Messa P. 2014. Hepatitis C virus infection and glomerular disease. Minerva Urol Nefrol 66:139149.[PubMed]
85. Roggendorf M, Viazov S. 2003. Health care workers and hepatitis B. J Hepatol 39(Suppl 1):S89S92.[PubMed]
86. Mahoney FJ, Stewart K, Hu H, Coleman P, Alter MJ. 1997. Progress toward the elimination of hepatitis B virus transmission among health care workers in the United States. Arch Intern Med 157:26012605.[PubMed]
87. Gunson RN, Shouval D, Roggendorf M, Zaaijer H, Nicholas H, Holzmann H, de Schryver A, Reynders D, Connell J, Gerlich WH, Marinho RT, Tsantoulas D, Rigopoulou E, Rosenheim M, Valla D, Puro V, Struwe J, Tedder R, Aitken C, Alter M, Schalm SW, Carman WF European Consensus Group. 2003. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in health care workers (HCWs): guidelines for prevention of transmission of HBV and HCV from HCW to patients. J Clin Virol 27:213230.[PubMed]
88. Schillie S, Murphy TV, Sawyer M, Ly K, Hughes E, Jiles R, de Perio MA, Reilly M, Byrd K, Ward JW Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2013. CDC guidance for evaluating health-care personnel for hepatitis B virus protection and for administering postexposure management. MMWR Recomm Rep 62(RR-10):119.[PubMed]
89. Sookoian S. 2006. Liver disease during pregnancy: acute viral hepatitis. Ann Hepatol 5:231236.[PubMed]
90. Patra S, Kumar A, Trivedi SS, Puri M, Sarin SK. 2007. Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E virus infection. Ann Intern Med 147:2833.[PubMed]
91. Khuroo MS, Kamili S, Jameel S. 1995. Vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus. Lancet 345:10251026.[PubMed]
92. Stevens CE, Beasley RP, Tsui J, Lee WC. 1975. Vertical transmission of hepatitis B antigen in Taiwan. N Engl J Med 292:771774.[PubMed]
93. Visvanathan K, Dusheiko G, Giles M, Wong ML, Phung N, Walker S, Le S, Lim SG, Gane E, Ngu M, Hardikar W, Cowie B, Bowden S, Strasser S, Levy M, Sasaduesz J. 2015. Managing HBV in pregnancy. Prevention, prophylaxis, treatment and follow-up: position paper produced by Australian, UK and New Zealand key opinion leaders. Gut 65:340350.[PubMed]
94. Wang J, Zhu Q, Zhang X. 2002. Effect of delivery mode on maternal-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus by immunoprophylaxis. Chin Med J (Engl) 115:15101512.[PubMed]
95. Hill JB, Sheffield JS, Kim MJ, Alexander JM, Sercely B, Wendel GD. 2002. Risk of hepatitis B transmission in breast-fed infants of chronic hepatitis B carriers. Obstet Gynecol 99:10491052.[PubMed]
96. Zanetti AR, Tanzi E, Newell ML. 1999. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. J Hepatol 31(Suppl 1):96100.[PubMed]
97. Ohto H, Terazawa S, Sasaki N, Sasaki N, Hino K, Ishiwata C, Kako M, Ujiie N, Endo C, Matsui A, Okamoto H, Mishiro S The Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Collaborative Study Group. 1994. Transmission of hepatitis C virus from mothers to infants. N Engl J Med 330:744750.[PubMed]
98. Delotte J, Barjoan EM, Berrébi A, Laffont C, Benos P, Pradier C, Bongain A ALHICE Study Group. 2014. Obstetric management does not influence vertical transmission of HCV infection: results of the ALHICE group study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 27:664670.[PubMed]
99. Danta M, Semmo N, Fabris P, Brown D, Pybus OG, Sabin CA, Bhagani S, Emery VC, Dusheiko GM, Klenerman P. 2008. Impact of HIV on host-virus interactions during early hepatitis C virus infection. J Infect Dis 197:15581566.[PubMed]
100. Rutschmann OT, Negro F, Hirschel B, Hadengue A, Anwar D, Perrin LH. 1998. Impact of treatment with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors on hepatitis C viremia in patients coinfected with HIV. J Infect Dis 177:783785.[PubMed]
101. Drake A, Mijch A, Sasadeusz J. 2004. Immune reconstitution hepatitis in HIV and hepatitis B coinfection, despite lamivudine therapy as part of HAART. Clin Infect Dis 39:129132.[PubMed]
102. Bräu N, Salvatore M, Ríos-Bedoya CF, Fernández-Carbia A, Paronetto F, Rodríguez-Orengo JF, Rodríguez-Torres M. 2006. Slower fibrosis progression in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with successful HIV suppression using antiretroviral therapy. J Hepatol 44:4755.[PubMed]
103. American College of O, Gynecologists: ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 86: Viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Obstetrics and gynecology 2007, 110:941956.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Clinical and epidemiological features of viral hepatitis

Citation: Valaydon Z, Locarnini S, Thompson A. 2017. Viral Hepatitis, p 61-73. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch5
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Common serological patterns of viral hepatitis

Citation: Valaydon Z, Locarnini S, Thompson A. 2017. Viral Hepatitis, p 61-73. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch5
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Screening for HBV and HCV is recommended in people with the following risk factors

Citation: Valaydon Z, Locarnini S, Thompson A. 2017. Viral Hepatitis, p 61-73. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch5
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Differential diagnoses for acute liver injury

Citation: Valaydon Z, Locarnini S, Thompson A. 2017. Viral Hepatitis, p 61-73. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch5

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error