1887

Chapter 50 : Hepatitis E Virus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Hepatitis E Virus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch50-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch50-2.gif

Abstract:

Hepatitis E was recognized as a disease in 1980 following a large outbreak of unexplained hepatitis in Kashmir, India, in 1978. The outbreak affected 52,000 individuals, mostly young adults, with a self-limiting hepatitis similar to hepatitis A (1). However, this was not hepatitis A, because there was a very high mortality rate in afflicted pregnant women. Further, most of those infected had previously been exposed to HAV (2). In 1983, the causative virus was discovered by electron microscopy in the stool of a scientist from the former USSR who drank a pooled fecal extract from Soviet troops with unexplained hepatitis serving in Afghanistan (3). The viral genome was sequenced and given the name HEV in 1990 (4). Many of the historical outbreaks of unexplained hepatitis in Asia and other developing areas were subsequently found in retrospect to be caused by HEV (5, 6).

Citation: Dalton H, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2017. Hepatitis E Virus, p 1209-1229. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch50
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 1.

Family —Phylogenetic tree based on full-length sequences of HEV strains (neighbor joining method and bootstrap analysis).

Citation: Dalton H, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2017. Hepatitis E Virus, p 1209-1229. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch50
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 2.

Hepatitis E virus genome.

Citation: Dalton H, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2017. Hepatitis E Virus, p 1209-1229. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch50
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3.
FIGURE 3.

Hepatitis E virus replication cycle.

Citation: Dalton H, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2017. Hepatitis E Virus, p 1209-1229. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch50
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 4.

Sources and possible routes of infection.

Citation: Dalton H, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2017. Hepatitis E Virus, p 1209-1229. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch50
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5.
FIGURE 5.

Anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in rural Bangladesh by age. The red line shows the seroprevalence using the AFRIMS assay. The black line shows the seroprevalence (same samples) using a validated Chinese assay, producing seroprevalence estimates an order of magnitude higher.

Citation: Dalton H, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2017. Hepatitis E Virus, p 1209-1229. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch50
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6.
FIGURE 6.

Laboratory-confirmed cases of HEV in several European countries. The vast majority of infections were locally acquired and caused by HEV3.

Citation: Dalton H, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2017. Hepatitis E Virus, p 1209-1229. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch50
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.
FIGURE 7.

European “hot-spots” with high incidence/prevalence of HEV, include southern and northeastern France and the Netherlands (see main text). Very recent data show a huge incidence in the Czech Republic ( ) and a seroprevalence in blood donors in Abruzzo, Italy of nearly 50% ( ).

Citation: Dalton H, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2017. Hepatitis E Virus, p 1209-1229. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch50
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8.
FIGURE 8.

Symptomatic and asymptomatic HEV.

Citation: Dalton H, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2017. Hepatitis E Virus, p 1209-1229. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch50
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9.
FIGURE 9.

Kinetics of hepatitis E virus markers during an acute infection.

Citation: Dalton H, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2017. Hepatitis E Virus, p 1209-1229. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch50
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10.
FIGURE 10.

Flow diagram for diagnosis of acute hepatitis E virus infection.

Citation: Dalton H, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2017. Hepatitis E Virus, p 1209-1229. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch50
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819439.ch50
1. Khuroo MS. 2011. Discovery of hepatitis E: the epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis 30 years down the memory lane. Virus Res 161:314.[PubMed]
2. Khuroo MS. 1980. Study of an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis. Possibility of another human hepatitis virus distinct from post-transfusion non-A, non-B type. Am J Med 68:818824.[PubMed]
3. Balayan MS, Andjaparidze AG, Savinskaya SS, Ketiladze ES, Braginsky DM, Savinov AP, Poleschuk VF. 1983. Evidence for a virus in non-A, non-B hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Intervirology 20:2331.[PubMed]
4. Reyes GR, Purdy MA, Kim JP, Luk KC, Young LM, Fry KE, Bradley DW. 1990. Isolation of a cDNA from the virus responsible for enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Science 247:13351339.[PubMed]
5. Wong DC, Purcell RH, Sreenivasan MA, Prasad SR, Pavri KM. 1980. Epidemic and endemic hepatitis in India: evidence for a non-A, non-B hepatitis virus aetiology. Lancet 16:876879.[PubMed]
6. Teo CG. 2012. Fatal outbreaks of jaundice in pregnancy and the epidemic history of hepatitis E. Epidemiol Infect 140:767787.[PubMed]
7. Kamar N, Bendall R, Legrand-Abravanel F, Xia NS, Ijaz S, Izopet J, Dalton HR. 2012. Hepatitis E. Lancet 379:24772488.[PubMed]
8. Smith DB, Simmonds P, Jameel S, Emerson SU, Harrison TJ, Meng XJ, Okamoto H, Van der Poel WH, Purdy MA International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Hepeviridae Study Group. 2014. Consensus proposals for classification of the family Hepeviridae. J Gen Virol 95:22232232.[PubMed]
9. Lu L, Li C, Hagedorn CH. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of global hepatitis E virus sequences: genetic diversity, subtypes and zoonosis. Rev Med Virol 16:536.[PubMed]
10. Smith DB, Simmonds P, Izopet J, Oliveira-Filho EF, Ulrich RG, Johne R, Koenig M, Jameel S, Harrison TJ, Meng XJ, Okamoto H, Van der Poel WH, Purdy MA. 2016. Proposed reference sequences for hepatitis E virus subtypes. J Gen Virol 97:537542.[PubMed]
11. Bouquet J, Tessé S, Lunazzi A, Eloit M, Rose N, Nicand E, Pavio N. 2011. Close similarity between sequences of hepatitis E virus recovered from humans and swine, France, 2008–2009. Emerg Infect Dis 17:20182025.[PubMed]
12. Ijaz S, Said B, Boxall E, Smit E, Morgan D, Tedder RS. 2014. Indigenous hepatitis E in England and wales from 2003 to 2012: evidence of an emerging novel phylotype of viruses. J Infect Dis 209:12121218.[PubMed]
13. Lhomme S, Abravanel F, Dubois M, Chapuy-Regaud S, Sandres-Saune K, Mansuy JM, Rostaing L, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2015. Temporal evolution of the distribution of hepatitis E virus genotypes in Southwestern France. Infect Genet Evol 35:5055.[PubMed]
14. Takahashi M, Tanaka T, Takahashi H, Hoshino Y, Nagashima S, Jirintai,, Mizuo H, Yazaki Y, Takagi T, Azuma M, Kusano E, Isoda N, Sugano K, Okamoto H. 2010. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) strains in serum samples can replicate efficiently in cultured cells despite the coexistence of HEV antibodies: characterization of HEV virions in blood circulation. J Clin Microbiol 48:11121125.[PubMed]
15. Feng Z, Lemon SM. 2014. Peek-a-boo: membrane hijacking and the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis. Trends Microbiol 22:5964.[PubMed]
16. Koonin EV, Gorbalenya AE, Purdy MA, Rozanov MN, Reyes GR, Bradley DW. 1992. Computer-assisted assignment of functional domains in the nonstructural polyprotein of hepatitis E virus: delineation of an additional group of positive-strand RNA plant and animal viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:82598263.[PubMed]
17. Kenney SP, Meng XJ. 2015. The lysine residues within the human ribosomal protein S17 sequence naturally inserted into the viral nonstructural protein of a unique strain of hepatitis E virus are important for enhanced virus replication. J Virol 89:37933803.[PubMed]
18. Lhomme S, Abravanel F, Dubois M, Sandres-Saune K, Mansuy JM, Rostaing L, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2014. Characterization of the polyproline region of the hepatitis E virus in immunocompromised patients. J Virol 88:1201712025.[PubMed]
19. Nguyen HT, Torian U, Faulk K, Mather K, Engle RE, Thompson E, Bonkovsky HL, Emerson SU. 2012. A naturally occurring human/hepatitis E recombinant virus predominates in serum but not in faeces of a chronic hepatitis E patient and has a growth advantage in cell culture. J Gen Virol 93:526530.[PubMed]
20. Purdy MA, Lara J, Khudyakov YE. 2012. The hepatitis E virus polyproline region is involved in viral adaptation. PLoS One 7:e35974.[PubMed]
21. Shukla P, Nguyen HT, Faulk K, Mather K, Torian U, Engle RE, Emerson SU. 2012. Adaptation of a genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to efficient growth in cell culture depends on an inserted human gene segment acquired by recombination. J Virol 86:56975707.[PubMed]
22. Shukla P, Nguyen HT, Torian U, Engle RE, Faulk K, Dalton HR, Bendall RP, Keane FE, Purcell RH, Emerson SU. 2011. Cross-species infections of cultured cells by hepatitis E virus and discovery of an infectious virus-host recombinant. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:24382443.[PubMed]
23. Lhomme S, Garrouste C, Kamar N, Saune K, Abravanel F, Mansuy JM, Dubois M, Rostaing L, Izopet J. 2014. Influence of polyproline region and macro domain genetic heterogeneity on HEV persistence in immunocompromised patients. J Infect Dis 209:300303.[PubMed]
24. Nair VP, Anang S, Subramani C, Madhvi A, Bakshi K, Srivastava A, Shalimar,, Nayak B, Ranjith Kumar CT, Surjit M. 2016. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced synthesis of a novel viral factor mediates efficient replication of genotype-1 hepatitis E virus. PLoS Pathog 12:e1005521.[PubMed]
25. Zafrullah M, Ozdener MH, Kumar R, Panda SK, Jameel S. 1999. Mutational analysis of glycosylation, membrane translocation, and cell surface expression of the hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein. J Virol 73:40744082.[PubMed]
26. Guu TS, Liu Z, Ye Q, Mata DA, Li K, Yin C, Zhang J, Tao YJ. 2009. Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly and receptor binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:1299212997.[PubMed]
27. Yamashita T, Mori Y, Miyazaki N, Cheng RH, Yoshimura M, Unno H, Shima R, Moriishi K, Tsukihara T, Li TC, Takeda N, Miyamura T, Matsuura Y. 2009. Biological and immunological characteristics of hepatitis E virus-like particles based on the crystal structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:1298612991.[PubMed]
28. Xing L, Li TC, Mayazaki N, Simon MN, Wall JS, Moore M, Wang CY, Takeda N, Wakita T, Miyamura T, Cheng RH. 2010. Structure of hepatitis E virion-sized particle reveals an RNA-dependent viral assembly pathway. J Biol Chem 285:3317533183.
29. Tang X, Yang C, Gu Y, Song C, Zhang X, Wang Y, Zhang J, Hew CL, Li S, Xia N, Sivaraman J. 2011. Structural basis for the neutralization and genotype specificity of hepatitis E virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:1026610271.[PubMed]
30. Xing L, Wang JC, Li TC, Yasutomi Y, Lara J, Khudyakov Y, Schofield D, Emerson SU, Purcell RH, Takeda N, Miyamura T, Cheng RH. 2011. Spatial configuration of hepatitis E virus antigenic domain. J Virol 85:11171124.[PubMed]
31. Lhomme S, Abravanel F, Dubois M, Sandres-Saune K, Rostaing L, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2012. Hepatitis E virus quasispecies and the outcome of acute hepatitis E in solid-organ transplant patients. J Virol 86:1000610014.[PubMed]
32. Tyagi S, Korkaya H, Zafrullah M, Jameel S, Lal SK. 2002. The phosphorylated form of the ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus interacts with its non-glycosylated form of the major capsid protein, ORF2. J Biol Chem 277:2275922767.[PubMed]
33. Emerson SU, Nguyen HT, Torian U, Burke D, Engle R, Purcell RH. 2010. Release of genotype 1 hepatitis E virus from cultured hepatoma and polarized intestinal cells depends on open reading frame 3 protein and requires an intact PXXP motif. J Virol 84:90599069.[PubMed]
34. Kenney SP, Pudupakam RS, Huang YW, Pierson FW, LeRoith T, Meng XJ. 2012. The PSAP motif within the ORF3 protein of an avian strain of the hepatitis E virus is not critical for viral infectivity in vivo but plays a role in virus release. J Virol 86:56375646.[PubMed]
35. Nagashima S, Jirintai S, Takahashi M, Kobayashi T, Tanggis,, Nishizawa T, Kouki T, Yashiro T, Okamoto H. 2014. Hepatitis E virus egress depends on the exosomal pathway, with secretory exosomes derived from multivesicular bodies. J Gen Virol 95:21662175.[PubMed]
36. Nagashima S, Takahashi M, Jirintai,, Tanaka T, Yamada K, Nishizawa T, Okamoto H. 2011. A PSAP motif in the ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus is necessary for virion release from infected cells. J Gen Virol 92:269278.[PubMed]
37. Nagashima S, Takahashi M, Jirintai S, Tanaka T, Nishizawa T, Yasuda J, Okamoto H. 2011. Tumour susceptibility gene 101 and the vacuolar protein sorting pathway are required for the release of hepatitis E virions. J Gen Virol 92:28382848.[PubMed]
38. Yamada K, Takahashi M, Hoshino Y, Takahashi H, Ichiyama K, Nagashima S, Tanaka T, Okamoto H. 2009. ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus is essential for virion release from infected cells. J Gen Virol 90:18801891.[PubMed]
39. Debing Y, Moradpour D, Neyts J, Gouttenoire J. 2016. Update on hepatitis E virology: implications for clinical practice. J Hepatol 65:200212.[PubMed]
40. Okamoto H. 2011. Hepatitis E virus cell culture models. Virus Res 161:6577.[PubMed]
41. Kalia M, Chandra V, Rahman SA, Sehgal D, Jameel S. 2009. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are required for cellular binding of the hepatitis E virus ORF2 capsid protein and for viral infection. J Virol 83:1271412724.[PubMed]
42. Holla P, Ahmad I, Ahmed Z, Jameel S. 2015. Hepatitis E virus enters liver cells through a dynamin-2, clathrin and membrane cholesterol-dependent pathway. Traffic 16:398416.[PubMed]
43. Kapur N, Thakral D, Durgapal H, Panda SK. 2012. Hepatitis E virus enters liver cells through receptor-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis. J Viral Hepat 19:436448.[PubMed]
44. Yin X, Ambardekar C, Lu Y, Feng Z. 2016. Distinct entry mechanisms for nonenveloped and quasi-enveloped hepatitis E viruses. J Virol 90:42324242.[PubMed]
45. Graff J, Torian U, Nguyen H, Emerson SU. 2006. A bicistronic subgenomic mRNA encodes both the ORF2 and ORF3 proteins of hepatitis E virus. J Virol 80:59195926.[PubMed]
46. Barnaud E, Rogée S, Garry P, Rose N, Pavio N. 2012. Thermal inactivation of infectious hepatitis E virus in experimentally contaminated food. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:51535159.[PubMed]
47. Feagins AR, Opriessnig T, Guenette DK, Halbur PG, Meng XJ. 2008. Inactivation of infectious hepatitis E virus present in commercial pig livers sold in local grocery stores in the United States. Int J Food Microbiol 123:3237.[PubMed]
48. Girones R, Carratalà A, Calgua B, Calvo M, Rodriguez-Manzano J, Emerson S. 2014. Chlorine inactivation of hepatitis E virus and human adenovirus 2 in water. J Water Health 12:436442.[PubMed]
49. Guerrero-Latorre L, Gonzales-Gustavson E, Hundesa A, Sommer R, Rosina G. 2016. UV disinfection and flocculation-chlorination sachets to reduce hepatitis E virus in drinking water. Int J Hyg Environ Health 219:405411.[PubMed]
50. Yunoki M, Tanaka H, Takahashi K, Urayama T, Hattori S, Ideno S, Furuki R, Sakai K, Hagiwara K, Ikuta K. 2016. Hepatitis E virus derived from different sources exhibits different behaviour in virus inactivation and/or removal studies with plasma derivatives. Biologicals 44:403411.[PubMed]
51. Naik SR, Aggarwal R, Salunke PN, Mehrotra NN. 1992. A large waterborne viral hepatitis E epidemic in Kanpur, India. Bull World Health Organ 70:597604.[PubMed]
52. Teshale EH, Howard CM, Grytdal SP, Handzel TR, Barry V, Kamili S, Drobeniuc J, Okware S, Downing R, Tappero JW, Bakamutumaho B, Teo CG, Ward JW, Holmberg SD, Hu DJ. 2010. Hepatitis E epidemic, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis 16:126129.[PubMed]
53. Kumar S, Subhadra S, Singh B, Panda BK. 2013. Hepatitis E virus: the current scenario. Int J Infect Dis 17:e228e233.[PubMed]
54. Rein DB, Stevens GA, Theaker J, Wittenborn JS, Wiersma ST. 2012. The global burden of hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 and 2 in 2005. Hepatology 55:988997.[PubMed]
55. Abravanel F, Lhomme S, Chapuy-Regaud S, Mansuy JM, Muscari F, Sallusto F, Rostaing L, Kamar N, Izopet J. 2014. Hepatitis E virus reinfections in solid-organ-transplant recipients can evolve into chronic infections. J Infect Dis 209:19001906.[PubMed]
56. Meng XJ, Purcell RH, Halbur PG, Lehman JR, Webb DM, Tsareva TS, Haynes JS, Thacker BJ, Emerson SU. 1997. A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:98609865.[PubMed]
57. Guillois Y, Abravanel F, Miura T, Pavio N, Vaillant V, Lhomme S, Le Guyader FS, Rose N, Le Saux JC, King LA, Izopet J, Couturier E. 2016. High Proportion of Asymptomatic Infections in an Outbreak of Hepatitis E Associated With a Spit-Roasted Piglet, France, 2013. Clin Infect Dis 62:351357.[PubMed]
58. Berto A, Grierson S, Hakze-van der Honing R, Martelli F, Johne R, Reetz J, Ulrich RG, Pavio N, Van der Poel WH, Banks M. 2013. Hepatitis E virus in pork liver sausage, France. Emerg Infect Dis 19:264266.[PubMed]
59. Berto A, Martelli F, Grierson S, Banks M. 2012. Hepatitis E virus in pork food chain, United Kingdom, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis 18:13581360.[PubMed]
60. Colson P, Borentain P, Queyriaux B, Kaba M, Moal V, Gallian P, Heyries L, Raoult D, Gerolami R. 2010. Pig liver sausage as a source of hepatitis E virus transmission to humans. J Infect Dis 202:825834.[PubMed]
61. Pavio N, Merbah T, Thébault A. 2014. Frequent hepatitis E virus contamination in food containing raw pork liver, France. Emerg Infect Dis 20:19251927.[PubMed]
62. Crossan C, Baker PJ, Craft J, Takeuchi Y, Dalton HR, Scobie L. 2012. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in shellfish, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis 18:20852087.[PubMed]
63. Gao S, Li D, Zha E, Zhou T, Wang S, Yue X. 2015. Surveillance of hepatitis E virus contamination in shellfish in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:20262036.[PubMed]
64. Mesquita JR, Oliveira D, Rivadulla E, Abreu-Silva J, Varela MF, Romalde JL, Nascimento MS. 2016. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in mussels (Mytilus galloprovinciallis), Spain. Food Microbiol 58:1315.[PubMed]
65. Said B, Ijaz S, Kafatos G, Booth L, Thomas HL, Walsh A, Ramsay M, Morgan D Hepatitis E Incident Investigation Team. 2009. Hepatitis E outbreak on cruise ship. Emerg Infect Dis 15:17381744.[PubMed]
66. Chaussade H, Rigaud E, Allix A, Carpentier A, Touzé A, Delzescaux D, Choutet P, Garcia-Bonnet N, Coursaget P. 2013. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence and risk factors for individuals in working contact with animals. J Clin Virol 58:504508.[PubMed]
67. Galiana C, Fernández-Barredo S, García A, Gómez MT, Pérez-Gracia MT. 2008. Occupational exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine workers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:10121015.[PubMed]
68. Iaconelli M, Purpari G, Della Libera S, Petricca S, Guercio A, Ciccaglione AR, Bruni R, Taffon S, Equestre M, Fratini M, Muscillo M, La Rosa G. 2015. Hepatitis A and E Viruses in Wastewaters, in River Waters, and in Bivalve Molluscs in Italy. Food Environ Virol 7:316324.[PubMed]
69. Mansuy JM, Gallian P, Dimeglio C, Saune K, Arnaud C, Pelletier B, Morel P, Legrand D, Tiberghien P, Izopet J. 2016. A nationwide survey of hepatitis E viral infection in French blood donors. Hepatology 63:11451154.[PubMed]
70. Huang F, Li Y, Yu W, Jing S, Wang J, Long F, He Z, Yang C, Bi Y, Cao W, Liu C, Hua X, Pan Q. 2016. Excretion of infectious hepatitis E virus into milk in cows imposes high risks of zoonosis. Hepatology 64:350359.[PubMed]
71. Hewitt PE, Ijaz S, Brailsford SR, Brett R, Dicks S, Haywood B, Kennedy IT, Kitchen A, Patel P, Poh J, Russell K, Tettmar KI, Tossell J, Ushiro-Lumb I, Tedder RS. 2014. Hepatitis E virus in blood components: a prevalence and transmission study in southeast England. Lancet 384:17661773.[PubMed]
72. Dalton HR, Stableforth W, Thurairajah P, Hazeldine S, Remnarace R, Usama W, Farrington L, Hamad N, Sieberhagen C, Ellis V, Mitchell J, Hussaini SH, Banks M, Ijaz S, Bendall RP. 2008. Autochthonous hepatitis E in Southwest England: natural history, complications and seasonal variation, and hepatitis E virus IgG seroprevalence in blood donors, the elderly and patients with chronic liver disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 20:784790.[PubMed]
73. Dalton HR, Bendall RP, Rashid M, Ellis V, Ali R, Ramnarace R, Stableforth W, Headdon W, Abbott R, McLaughlin C, Froment E, Hall KJ, Michell NP, Thatcher P, Henley WE. 2011. Host risk factors and autochthonous hepatitis E infection. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 23:12001205.[PubMed]
74. Bendall R, Ellis V, Ijaz S, Ali R, Dalton H. 2010. A comparison of two commercially available anti-HEV IgG kits and a re-evaluation of anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence data in developed countries. J Med Virol 82:799805.[PubMed]
75. Dalton HR, Bendall R, Ijaz S, Banks M. 2008. Hepatitis E: an emerging infection in developed countries. Lancet Infect Dis 8:698709.[PubMed]
76. Kim JH, Nelson KE, Panzner U, Kasture Y, Labrique AB, Wierzba TF. 2014. A systematic review of the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Africa. BMC Infect Dis 14:308.[PubMed]
77. Kmush BL, Labrique AB, Dalton HR, Ahmed ZB, Ticehurst JR, Heaney CD, Nelson KE, Zaman K. 2015. Two Generations of “Gold Standards”: The impact of a decade in hepatitis E virus testing innovation on population seroprevalence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93:714717.[PubMed]
78. Zaaijer HL, Kok M, Lelie PN, Timmerman RJ, Chau K, van der Pal HJ. 1993. Hepatitis E in The Netherlands: imported and endemic. Lancet 341:826.[PubMed]
79. Hogema BM, Molier M, Slot E, Zaaijer HL. 2014. Past and present of hepatitis E in the Netherlands. Transfusion 54:30923096.[PubMed]
80. Izopet J, Labrique AB, Basnyat B, Dalton HR, Kmush B, Heaney CD, Nelson KE, Ahmed ZB, Zaman K, Mansuy JM, Bendall R, Sauné K, Kamar N, Arjyal A, Karkey A, Dongol S, Prajapati KG, Adhikary D. 2015. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in three hyperendemic areas: Nepal, Bangladesh and southwest France. J Clin Virol 70:3942.[PubMed]
81. Beale MA, Tettmar K, Szypulska R, Tedder RS, Ijaz S. 2011. Is there evidence of recent hepatitis E virus infection in English and North Welsh blood donors? Vox Sang 100:340342.[PubMed]
82. Holm DK, Moessner BK, Engle RE, Zaaijer HL, Georgsen J, Purcell RH, Christensen PB. 2015. Declining prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies among Danish blood donors. Transfusion 55:16621667.[PubMed]
83. Wenzel JJ, Preiss J, Schemmerer M, Huber B, Jilg W. 2013. Test performance characteristics of Anti-HEV IgG assays strongly influence hepatitis E seroprevalence estimates. J Infect Dis 207:497500.[PubMed]
84. Slot E, Hogema BM, Riezebos-Brilman A, Kok TM, Molier M, Zaaijer HL. 2013. Silent hepatitis E virus infection in Dutch blood donors, 2011 to 2012. Euro Surveill 18:18.[PubMed]
85. Cleland A, Smith L, Crossan C, Blatchford O, Dalton HR, Scobie L, Petrik J. 2013. Hepatitis E virus in Scottish blood donors. Vox Sang 105:283289.[PubMed]
86. Adlhoch C, Avellon A, Baylis SA, Ciccaglione AR, Couturier E, de Sousa R, Epštein J, Ethelberg S, Faber M, Fehér Á, Ijaz S, Lange H, Manďáková Z, Mellou K, Mozalevskis A, Rimhanen-Finne R, Rizzi V, Said B, Sundqvist L, Thornton L, Tosti ME, van Pelt W, Aspinall E, Domanovic D, Severi E, Takkinen J, Dalton HR. 2016. Hepatitis E virus: assessment of the epidemiological situation in humans in Europe, 2014/15. J Clin Virol 82:916.[PubMed]
87. Zaaijer HL. 2015. No artifact, hepatitis E is emerging. Hepatology 62:654.[PubMed]
88. Krawczynski K, Meng XJ, Rybczynska J. 2011. Pathogenetic elements of hepatitis E and animal models of HEV infection. Virus Res 161:7883.[PubMed]
89. Aggarwal R, Kamili S, Spelbring J, Krawczynski K. 2001. Experimental studies on subclinical hepatitis E virus infection in cynomolgus macaques. J Infect Dis 184:13801385.[PubMed]
90. Izopet J, Dubois M, Bertagnoli S, Lhomme S, Marchandeau S, Boucher S, Kamar N, Abravanel F, Guérin JL. 2012. Hepatitis E virus strains in rabbits and evidence of a closely related strain in humans, France. Emerg Infect Dis 18:12741281.[PubMed]
91. Mao J, Zhao Y, She R, Cao B, Xiao P, Wu Q, Guo Z, Ma L, Soomro MH. 2014. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits. PLoS One 9:e88607.[PubMed]
92. Williams TP, Kasorndorkbua C, Halbur PG, Haqshenas G, Guenette DK, Toth TE, Meng XJ. 2001. Evidence of extrahepatic sites of replication of the hepatitis E virus in a swine model. J Clin Microbiol 39:30403046.[PubMed]
93. Allweiss L, Gass S, Giersch K, Groth A, Kah J, Volz T, Rapp G, Schöbel A, Lohse AW, Polywka S, Pischke S, Herker E, Dandri M, Lütgehetmann M. 2016. Human liver chimeric mice as a new model of chronic hepatitis E virus infection and preclinical drug evaluation. J Hepatol 64:10331040.[PubMed]
94. Sayed IM, Verhoye L, Cocquerel L, Abravanel F, Foquet L, Montpellier C, Debing Y, Farhoudi A, Wychowski C, Dubuisson J, Leroux-Roels G, Neyts J, Izopet J, Michiels T, Meuleman P. 2016. Study of hepatitis E virus infection of genotype 1 and 3 in mice with humanised liver. Gut Mar 22.[PubMed]
95. Aggarwal R, Kini D, Sofat S, Naik SR, Krawczynski K. 2000. Duration of viraemia and faecal viral excretion in acute hepatitis E. Lancet 356:10811082.[PubMed]
96. Geng Y, Zhao C, Huang W, Harrison TJ, Zhang H, Geng K, Wang Y. 2016. Detection and assessment of infectivity of hepatitis E virus in urine. J Hepatol 64:3743.[PubMed]
97. Drave SA, Debing Y, Walter S, Todt D, Engelmann M, Friesland M, Wedemeyer H, Neyts J, Behrendt P, Steinmann E. 2016. Extra-hepatic replication and infection of hepatitis E virus in neuronal-derived cells. J Viral Hepat 23:512521.[PubMed]
98. Bose PD, Das BC, Hazam RK, Kumar A, Medhi S, Kar P. 2014. Evidence of extrahepatic replication of hepatitis E virus in human placenta. J Gen Virol 95:12661271.[PubMed]
99. Devhare PB, Desai S, Lole KS. 2016. Innate immune responses in human hepatocyte-derived cell lines alter genotype 1 hepatitis E virus replication efficiencies. Sci Rep 6:26827.[PubMed]
100. Moal V, Textoris J, Ben Amara A, Mehraj V, Berland Y, Colson P, Mege JL. 2013. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection is specifically associated with an interferon-related transcriptional program. J Infect Dis 207:125132.[PubMed]
101. Nan Y, Ma Z, Wang R, Yu Y, Kannan H, Fredericksen B, Zhang YJ. 2014. Enhancement of interferon induction by ORF3 product of hepatitis E virus. J Virol 88:86968705.[PubMed]
102. Nan Y, Yu Y, Ma Z, Khattar SK, Fredericksen B, Zhang YJ. 2014. Hepatitis E virus inhibits type I interferon induction by ORF1 products. J Virol 88:1192411932.[PubMed]
103. Dong C, Zafrullah M, Mixson-Hayden T, Dai X, Liang J, Meng J, Kamili S. 2012. Suppression of interferon-α signaling by hepatitis E virus. Hepatology 55:13241332.[PubMed]
104. Srivastava R, Aggarwal R, Bhagat MR, Chowdhury A, Naik S. 2008. Alterations in natural killer cells and natural killer T cells during acute viral hepatitis E. J Viral Hepat 15:910916.[PubMed]
105. Abravanel F, Barragué H, Dörr G, Sauné K, Péron JM, Alric L, Kamar N, Izopet J, Champagne E. 2016. Conventional and innate lymphocytes response at the acute phase of HEV infection in transplanted patients. J Infect 72:723730.[PubMed]
106. Srivastava R, Aggarwal R, Sachdeva S, Alam MI, Jameel S, Naik S. 2011. Adaptive immune responses during acute uncomplicated and fulminant hepatitis E. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 26:306311.[PubMed]
107. Gisa A, Suneetha PV, Behrendt P, Pischke S, Bremer B, Falk CS, Manns MP, Cornberg M, Wedemeyer H, Kraft AR. 2016. Cross-genotype-specific T-cell responses in acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. J Viral Hepat 23:305315.[PubMed]
108. Suneetha PV, Pischke S, Schlaphoff V, Grabowski J, Fytili P, Gronert A, Bremer B, Markova A, Jaroszewicz J, Bara C, Manns MP, Cornberg M, Wedemeyer H. 2012. Hepatitis E virus (HEV)-specific T-cell responses are associated with control of HEV infection. Hepatology 55:695708.[PubMed]
109. Khuroo MS, Kamili S, Dar MY, Moecklii R, Jameel S. 1993. Hepatitis E and long-term antibody status. Lancet 341:1355.[PubMed]
110. Zhang J, Li SW, Wu T, Zhao Q, Ng MH, Xia NS. 2012. Hepatitis E virus: neutralizing sites, diagnosis, and protective immunity. Rev Med Virol 22:339349.[PubMed]
111. Cai W, Tang ZM, Wen GP, Wang SL, Ji WF, Yang M, Ying D, Zheng ZZ, Xia NS. 2016. A high-throughput neutralizing assay for antibodies and sera against hepatitis E virus. Sci Rep 6:25141.[PubMed]
112. Dalton HR, Thurairajah PH, Fellows HJ, Hussaini HS, Mitchell J, Bendall R, Banks M, Ijaz S, Teo CG, Levine DF. 2007. Autochthonous hepatitis E in southwest England. J Viral Hepat 14:304309.[PubMed]
113. Kamar N, Selves J, Mansuy JM, Ouezzani L, Péron JM, Guitard J, Cointault O, Esposito L, Abravanel F, Danjoux M, Durand D, Vinel JP, Izopet J, Rostaing L. 2008. Hepatitis E virus and chronic hepatitis in organ-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 358:811817.[PubMed]
114. Naik A, Gupta N, Goel D, Ippagunta SK, Sharma RK, Aggarwal R. 2013. Lack of evidence of hepatitis E virus infection among renal transplant recipients in a disease-endemic area. J Viral Hepat 20:e138e140.[PubMed]
115. Kamar N, Rostaing L, Legrand-Abravanel F, Izopet J. 2013. How should hepatitis E virus infection be defined in organ-transplant recipients? Am J Transplant 13:19351936.[PubMed]
116. Kamar N, Marion O, Izopet J. 2016. When should ribavirin be started to treat hepatitis E virus infection in transplant patients? Am J Transplant 16:727.[PubMed]
117. Meisner S, Polywka S, Memmler M, Nashan B, Lohse AW, Sterneck M, Pischke S. 2015. Definition of chronic hepatitis E after liver transplant conforms to convention. Am J Transplant 15:30113012.[PubMed]
118. Kamar N, Garrouste C, Haagsma EB, Garrigue V, Pischke S, Chauvet C, Dumortier J, Cannesson A, Cassuto-Viguier E, Thervet E, Conti F, Lebray P, Dalton HR, Santella R, Kanaan N, Essig M, Mousson C, Radenne S, Roque-Afonso AM, Izopet J, Rostaing L. 2011. Factors associated with chronic hepatitis in patients with hepatitis E virus infection who have received solid organ transplants. Gastroenterology 140:14811489.[PubMed]
119. Kamar N, Abravanel F, Selves J, Garrouste C, Esposito L, Lavayssière L, Cointault O, Ribes D, Cardeau I, Nogier MB, Mansuy JM, Muscari F, Peron JM, Izopet J, Rostaing L. 2010. Influence of immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history of genotype 3 hepatitis-E virus infection after organ transplantation. Transplantation 89:353360.[PubMed]
120. Legrand-Abravanel F, Kamar N, Sandres-Saune K, Garrouste C, Dubois M, Mansuy JM, Muscari F, Sallusto F, Rostaing L, Izopet J. 2010. Characteristics of autochthonous hepatitis E virus infection in solid-organ transplant recipients in France. J Infect Dis 202:835844.[PubMed]
121. Kamar N, Dalton HR, Abravanel F, Izopet J. 2014. Hepatitis E virus infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 27:116138.[PubMed]
122. Schlosser B, Stein A, Neuhaus R, Pahl S, Ramez B, Krüger DH, Berg T, Hofmann J. 2012. Liver transplant from a donor with occult HEV infection induced chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in the recipient. J Hepatol 56:500502.[PubMed]
123. Dalton HR, Bendall RP, Keane FE, Tedder RS, Ijaz S. 2009. Persistent carriage of hepatitis E virus in patients with HIV infection. N Engl J Med 361:10251027.[PubMed]
124. Ingiliz P, Mayr C, Obermeier M, Herbst H, Polywka S, Pischke S. 2016. Persisting hepatitis E virus infection leading to liver cirrhosis despite recovery of the immune system in an HIV-infected patient. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 40:e23e25.[PubMed]
125. Koenecke C, Pischke S, Heim A, Raggub L, Bremer B, Raupach R, Buchholz S, Schulz T, Manns MP, Ganser A, Wedemeyer H. 2012. Chronic hepatitis E in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients in a low-endemic country? Transpl Infect Dis 14:103106.[PubMed]
126. Tavitian S, Péron JM, Huynh A, Mansuy JM, Ysebaert L, Huguet F, Vinel JP, Attal M, Izopet J, Récher C. 2010. Hepatitis E virus excretion can be prolonged in patients with hematological malignancies. J Clin Virol 49:141144.[PubMed]
127. Bauer H, Luxembourger C, Gottenberg JE, Fournier S, Abravanel F, Cantagrel A, Chatelus E, Claudepierre P, Hudry C, Izopet J, Fabre S, Lefevre G, Marguerie L, Martin A, Messer L, Molto A, Pallot-Prades B, Pers YM, Roque-Afonso AM, Roux C, Sordet C, Soubrier M, Veissier C, Wendling D, Péron JM, Sibilia J Club Rhumatismes et Inflammation, a section of the French Society of Rheumatology. 2015. Outcome of hepatitis E virus infection in patients with inflammatory arthritides treated with immunosuppressants: a French retrospective multicenter study. Medicine (Baltimore) 94:e675.[PubMed]
128. Fraticelli P, Bagnarelli P, Tarantino G, Martino GP, Benfaremo D, Nobili L, Mandolesi A, Barbisan F, Marinelli K, Mattioli M, Murri M, Gabrielli A. 2016. Chronic hepatitis E in a patient treated with rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil for Sjögren's syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford) Aug 7.[PubMed]
129. Kuniholm MH, Labrique AB, Nelson KE. 2010. Should HIV-infected patients with unexplained chronic liver enzyme elevations be tested for hepatitis E virus? Clin Infect Dis 50:15451546.[PubMed]
130. Khuroo MS, Kamili S, Jameel S. 1995. Vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus. Lancet 345:10251026.[PubMed]
131. Borkakoti J, Hazam RK, Mohammad A, Kumar A, Kar P. 2013. Does high viral load of hepatitis E virus influence the severity and prognosis of acute liver failure during pregnancy? J Med Virol 85:620626.[PubMed]
132. Kar P, Jilani N, Husain SA, Pasha ST, Anand R, Rai A, Das BC. 2008. Does hepatitis E viral load and genotypes influence the final outcome of acute liver failure during pregnancy? Am J Gastroenterol 103:24952501.[PubMed]