1887

Chapter 52 : Coronaviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Coronaviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch52-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819439/9781555819422.ch52-2.gif

Abstract:

The name coronavirus derives from the Latin word “corona,” meaning crown or halo, and this refers to the “crown-like” fringe of projections seen on the surface of virus particles when viewed under the electron microscope (Fig. 1). The first coronavirus to be recovered was infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) from chickens with respiratory disease, reported by Beaudette and Hudson in 1937 (1). Murine hepatitis viruses (MHV) (2) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in swine (3) were then recognized as causes of other animal diseases. The relationship between these viruses was not appreciated until after the human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were discovered in the 1960s and the genus was defined. Tyrrell and Bynoe (4) described the first HCoV, designated as B814, by inoculating specimens from a patient with a “cold” onto organ cultures of human embryonic trachea. Using electron microscopy (EM), the virus was found to resemble avian IBV (5). At about the same time, Hamre and Procknow (6) recovered five HCoV strains from medical students with colds and cultivated them in human embryo kidney cells. The prototype strain HCoV 229E had morphology that was identical to that of B814 and IBV. McIntosh et al. used the organ culture technique to recover six further strains, including the prototype strain HCoV OC43 and three other strains considered antigenically unrelated to either OC43 or 229E (7).

Citation: Peiris J. 2017. Coronaviruses, p 1243-1265. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch52
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Coronavirus OC16, viewed by EM and negatively stained. The characteristic round or oval shape is seen, along with petal-shaped peplomers. Bar, 100 nm.

Citation: Peiris J. 2017. Coronaviruses, p 1243-1265. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch52
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Phylogenetic relationships among coronaviruses. The phylogenetic tree was generated with an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene using the maximum likelihood method. Supports for branches were estimated by the Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like method and are shown at major nodes. The four coronavirus genera are indicated in circles. The betacoronavirus lineages A–D are denoted. Human coronaviruses included in the analysis are underlined.

Citation: Peiris J. 2017. Coronaviruses, p 1243-1265. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch52
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Coronavirus 229E in WI38 cells. Characteristic crescents (Cr) of budding particles (B) are seen, as well as particles that are free in cytoplasmic vesicles.

Citation: Peiris J. 2017. Coronaviruses, p 1243-1265. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch52
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

(A) Genome organization of alphacoronaviruses HCoV 229E and HCoV NL63 and betacoronaviruses HCoV OC43, HCoV HKU1, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. Genes and open reading frames (ORFs) of the genomes are shown, with accessory genes indicated in dark grey boxes. Positions of papain-like proteases (PL), chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and helicase (Hel) encoded in ORF1a and ORF1b are shown in light grey. (B) The 3’ coterminal nested set of coronavirus mRNA is shown for HcoV 229E. The black boxes indicate the region of each mRNA being translated.

Citation: Peiris J. 2017. Coronaviruses, p 1243-1265. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch52
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819439.ch52
1. Beaudette F, Hudson C. 1937. Cultivation of the virus of infectious bronchitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 90:5160.
2. Cheever FS , et al 1949. A murine virus (JHM) causing disseminated encephalomyelitis with extensive destruction of myelin. J Exp Med 90:181194.[PubMed]
3. Doyle LP, Hutchings LM. 1946. A transmissible gastroenteritis in pigs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 108:257259.[PubMed]
4. Tyrrell DAJ, Bynoe MLB. 1965. Cultivation of a novel type of common-cold virus in organ cultures. BMJ 1:14671470.[PubMed]
5. Almeida JD, Tyrrell DA. 1967. The morphology of three previously uncharacterized human respiratory viruses that grow in organ culture. J Gen Virol 1:175178.[PubMed]
6. Hamre D, Procknow JJ. 1966. A new virus isolated from the human respiratory tract. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 121:190193.[PubMed]
7. McIntosh K, Dees JH, Becker WB, Kapikian AZ, Chanock RM. 1967. Recovery in tracheal organ cultures of novel viruses from patients with respiratory disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 57:933940.[PubMed]
8. Peiris JSM, Guan Y, Poon LLM, Cheng VCC, Nicholls JM, Yuen KY,. 2007. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), p 2350. In Scheld WM, Hooper DC, Hughes JM (ed), Emerging infections 7. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
9. van der Hoek L, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF, Vermeulen-Oost W, Berkhout RJM, Wolthers KC, Wertheim-van Dillen PME, Kaandorp J, Spaargaren J, Berkhout B. 2004. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat Med 10:368373.[PubMed]
10. Woo PCY, Lau SKP, Chu CM, Chan KH, Tsoi HW, Huang Y, Wong BHL, Poon RWS, Cai JJ, Luk WK, Poon LLM, Wong SSY, Guan Y, Peiris JSM, Yuen KY. 2005. Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia. J Virol 79:884895.[PubMed]
11. Zaki AM, van Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, Osterhaus ADME, Fouchier RAM. 2012. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. N Engl J Med 367:18141820.[PubMed]
12. Almeida J, Berry D, Cunningham C, Hamre D, Hofstad M, Mallucci L, McIntosh K, Tyrrell D. 1968. Coronaviruses. Nature 220:650.
13. Lau SKP, Woo PCY, Li KSM, Tsang AKL, Fan RYY, Luk HKH, Cai JP, Chan KH, Zheng BJ, Wang M, Yuen KY. 2015. Discovery of a novel coronavirus, China Rattus coronavirus HKU24, from Norway rats supports the murine origin of Betacoronavirus 1 and has implications for the ancestor of Betacoronavirus lineage A. J Virol 89:30763092.[PubMed]
14. Beards GM, Brown DWG, Green J, Flewett TH. 1986. Preliminary characterisation of torovirus-like particles of humans: comparison with Berne virus of horses and Breda virus of calves. J Med Virol 20:6778.[PubMed]
15. Koopmans M, Petric M, Glass RI, Monroe SS. 1993. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivity of torovirus-like particles in fecal specimens from humans with diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol 31:27382744.[PubMed]
16. Duckmanton L, Luan B, Devenish J, Tellier R, Petric M. 1997. Characterization of torovirus from human fecal specimens. Virology 239:158168.[PubMed]
17. McIntosh K. 1974. Coronaviruses: a comparative review. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 63:85129.
18. Becker WB, McIntosh K, Dees JH, Chanock RM. 1967. Morphogenesis of avian infectious bronchitis virus and a related human virus (strain 229E). J Virol 1:10191027.[PubMed]
19. Cornelissen LA, Wierda CM, van der Meer FJ, Herrewegh AA, Horzinek MC, Egberink HF, de Groot RJ. 1997. Hemagglutinin-esterase, a novel structural protein of torovirus. J Virol 71:52775286.[PubMed]
20. Beards GM, Green J, Hall C, Flewett TH, Lamouliatte F, Du Pasquier P. 1984. An enveloped virus in stools of children and adults with gastroenteritis that resembles the Breda virus of calves. Lancet 323:10501052.[PubMed]
21. Millet JK, Whittaker GR. 2015. Host cell proteases: critical determinants of coronavirus tropism and pathogenesis. Virus Res 202:120134.[PubMed]
22. Smith EC, Blanc H, Surdel MC, Vignuzzi M, Denison MR. 2013. Coronaviruses lacking exoribonuclease activity are susceptible to lethal mutagenesis: evidence for proofreading and potential therapeutics. PLoS Pathog 9:e1003565.[PubMed]
23. Perlman S, Netland J. 2009. Coronaviruses post-SARS: update on replication and pathogenesis. Nat Rev Microbiol 7:439450.[PubMed]
24. Matthews KL, Coleman CM, van der Meer Y, Snijder EJ, Frieman MB. 2014. The ORF4b-encoded accessory proteins of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and two related bat coronaviruses localize to the nucleus and inhibit innate immune signalling. J Gen Virol 95:874882.[PubMed]
25. Lai M, Perlman S, Anderson L,. Coronaviridae: The viruses and their replication, p 13051335. In Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Martin MA, Roizman B, Straus SE (ed), Fields virology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
26. Masters PS. 2006. The molecular biology of coronaviruses. Adv Virus Res 66:193292.[PubMed]
27. Yeager CL, Ashmun RA, Williams RK, Cardellichio CB, Shapiro LH, Look AT, Holmes KV. 1992. Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for human coronavirus 229E. Nature 357:420422.[PubMed]
28. Li W, Moore MJ, Vasilieva N, Sui J, Wong SK, Berne MA, Somasundaran M, Sullivan JL, Luzuriaga K, Greenough TC, Choe H, Farzan M. 2003. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Nature 426:450454.[PubMed]
29. Hofmann H, Pyrc K, van der Hoek L, Geier M, Berkhout B, Pöhlmann S. 2005. Human coronavirus NL63 employs the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor for cellular entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:79887993.[PubMed]
30. Raj VS, Mou H, Smits SL, Dekkers DHW, Müller MA, Dijkman R, Muth D, Demmers JAA, Zaki A, Fouchier RAM, Thiel V, Drosten C, Rottier PJM, Osterhaus ADME, Bosch BJ, Haagmans BL. 2013. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a functional receptor for the emerging human coronavirus-EMC. Nature 495:251254.[PubMed]
31. Williams RK, Jiang GS, Holmes KV. 1991. Receptor for mouse hepatitis virus is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen family of glycoproteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:55335536.[PubMed]
32. Huang X, Dong W, Milewska A, Golda A, Qi Y, Zhu QK, Marasco WA, Baric RS, Sims AC, Pyrc K, Li W, Sui J. 2015. Human coronavirus HKU1 spike protein uses O-acetylated sialic acid as an attachment receptor determinant and employs hemagglutinin-esterase protein as a receptor-destroying enzyme. J Virol 89:72027213.[PubMed]
33. Drexler JF, Corman VM, Drosten C. 2014. Ecology, evolution and classification of bat coronaviruses in the aftermath of SARS. Antiviral Res 101:4556.[PubMed]
34. Sabir JSM, Lam TT-Y, Ahmed MMM, Li L, Shen Y, Abo-Aba SEM, Qureshi MI, Abu-Zeid M, Zhang Y, Khiyami MA, Alharbi NS, Hajrah NH, Sabir MJ, Mutwakil MHZ, Kabli SA, Alsulaimany FAS, Obaid AY, Zhou B, Smith DK, Holmes EC, Zhu H, Guan Y. 2016. Co-circulation of three camel coronavirus species and recombination of MERS-CoVs in Saudi Arabia. Science 351:8184.[PubMed]
35. Corman VM, Baldwin HJ, Tateno AF, Zerbinati RM, Annan A, Owusu M, Nkrumah EE, Maganga GD, Oppong S, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Vallo P, da Silva Filho LVRF, Leroy EM, Thiel V, van der Hoek L, Poon LLM, Tschapka M, Drosten C, Drexler JF. 2015. Evidence for an ancestral association of human coronavirus 229E with bats. J Virol 89:1185811870.[PubMed]
36. Reusken CBEM, Haagmans BL, Müller MA, Gutierrez C, Godeke G-J, Meyer B, Muth D, Raj VS, Smits-De Vries L, Corman VM, Drexler J-F, Smits SL, El Tahir YE, De Sousa R, van Beek J, Nowotny N, van Maanen K, Hidalgo-Hermoso E, Bosch B-J, Rottier P, Osterhaus A, Gortázar-Schmidt C, Drosten C, Koopmans MPG. 2013. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus neutralising serum antibodies in dromedary camels: a comparative serological study. Lancet Infect Dis 13:859866.[PubMed]
37. Alraddadi BM, Watson JT, Almarashi A, Abedi GR, Turkistani A, Sadran M, Housa A, Almazroa MA, Alraihan N, Banjar A, Albalawi E, Alhindi H, Choudhry AJ, Meiman JG, Paczkowski M, Curns A, Mounts A, Feikin DR, Marano N, Swerdlow DL, Gerber SI, Hajjeh R, Madani TA. 2016. Risk factors for primary Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus illness in humans, Saudi Arabia, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis 22:4955.[PubMed]
38. Corman VM, Ithete NL, Richards LR, Schoeman MC, Preiser W, Drosten C, Drexler JF. 2014. Rooting the phylogenetic tree of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus by characterization of a conspecific virus from an African bat. J Virol 88:1129711303.[PubMed]
39. Ge XY, Li JL, Yang XL, Chmura AA, Zhu G, Epstein JH, Mazet JK, Hu B, Zhang W, Peng C, Zhang YJ, Luo CM, Tan B, Wang N, Zhu Y, Crameri G, Zhang S-Y, Wang L-F, Daszak P, Shi Z-L. 2013. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor. Nature 503:535538.[PubMed]
40. Guan Y, Zheng BJ, He YQ, Liu XL, Zhuang ZX, Cheung CL, Luo SW, Li PH, Zhang LJ, Guan YJ, Butt KM, Wong KL, Chan KW, Lim W, Shortridge KF, Yuen KY, Peiris JSM, Poon LLM. 2003. Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in southern China. Science 302:276278.[PubMed]
41. Lorusso A, Decaro N, Schellen P, Rottier PJM, Buonavoglia C, Haijema BJ, de Groot RJ. 2008. Gain, preservation, and loss of a group 1a coronavirus accessory glycoprotein. J Virol 82:1031210317.[PubMed]
42. Zhang X, Hasoksuz M, Spiro D, Halpin R, Wang S, Stollar S, Janies D, Hadya N, Tang Y, Ghedin E, Saif L. 2007. Complete genomic sequences, a key residue in the spike protein and deletions in nonstructural protein 3b of US strains of the virulent and attenuated coronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus. Virology 358:424435.[PubMed]
43. Roberts A, Subbarao K. 2006. Animal models for SARS. Adv Exp Med Biol 581:463471.[PubMed]
44. van Doremalen N, Munster VJ. 2015. Animal models of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Antiviral Res 122:2838.[PubMed]
45. Gretebeck LM, Subbarao K. 2015. Animal models for SARS and MERS coronaviruses. Curr Opin Virol 13:123129.[PubMed]
46. Roberts A, Paddock C, Vogel L, Butler E, Zaki S, Subbarao K. 2005. Aged BALB/c mice as a model for increased severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome in elderly humans. J Virol 79:58335838.[PubMed]
47. Bradburne AF, Tyrrell DAJ. 1971. Coronaviruses of man. Prog Med Virol 13:373403.
48. Kapikian AZ, James HD Jr, Kelly SJ, Dees JH, Turner HC, McIntosh K, Kim HW, Parrott RH, Vincent MM, Chanock RM. 1969. Isolation from man of “avian infectious bronchitis virus-like” viruses (coronaviruses) similar to 229E virus, with some epidemiological observations. J Infect Dis 119:282290.[PubMed]
49. Freymuth F, Vabret A, Rozenberg F, Dina J, Petitjean J, Gouarin S, Legrand L, Corbet S, Brouard J, Lebon P. 2005. Replication of respiratory viruses, particularly influenza virus, rhinovirus, and coronavirus in HuH7 hepatocarcinoma cell line. J Med Virol 77:295301.[PubMed]
50. Gerna G, Campanini G, Rovida F, Percivalle E, Sarasini A, Marchi A, Baldanti F. 2006. Genetic variability of human coronavirus OC43-, 229E-, and NL63-like strains and their association with lower respiratory tract infections of hospitalized infants and immunocompromised patients. J Med Virol 78:938949.[PubMed]
51. Vabret A, Dina J, Gouarin S, Petitjean J, Corbet S, Freymuth F. 2006. Detection of the new human coronavirus HKU1: a report of 6 cases. Clin Infect Dis 42:634639.[PubMed]
52. Schildgen O, Jebbink MF, de Vries M, Pyrc K, Dijkman R, Simon A, Müller A, Kupfer B, van der Hoek L. 2006. Identification of cell lines permissive for human coronavirus NL63. J Virol Methods 138:207210.[PubMed]
53. Schmidt OW, Cooney MK, Kenny GE. 1979. Plaque assay and improved yield of human coronaviruses in a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. J Clin Microbiol 9:722728.[PubMed]
54. Hamre D, Kindig DA, Mann J. 1967. Growth and intracellular development of a new respiratory virus. J Virol 1:810816.[PubMed]
55. Dominguez SR, Shrivastava S, Berglund A, Qian Z, Góes LGB, Halpin RA, Fedorova N, Ransier A, Weston PA, Durigon EL, Jerez JA, Robinson CC, Town CD, Holmes KV. 2014. Isolation, propagation, genome analysis and epidemiology of HKU1 betacoronaviruses. J Gen Virol 95:836848.[PubMed]
56. McIntosh K, Becker WB, Chanock RM. 1967. Growth in suckling-mouse brain of “IBV-like” viruses from patients with upper respiratory tract disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 58:22682273.[PubMed]
57. Drosten C, Günther S, Preiser W, van der Werf S, Brodt H-R, Becker S, Rabenau H, Panning M, Kolesnikova L, Fouchier RAM, Berger A, Burguière AM, Cinatl J, Eickmann M, Escriou N, Grywna K, Kramme S, Manuguerra JC, Müller S, Rickerts V, Stürmer M, Vieth S, Klenk H-D, Osterhaus ADME, Schmitz H, Doerr HW. 2003. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 348:19671976.[PubMed]
58. Ksiazek TG, Erdman D, Goldsmith CS, Zaki SR, Peret T, Emery S, Tong S, Urbani C, Comer JA, Lim W, Rollin PE, Dowell SF, Ling A-E, Humphrey CD, Shieh W-J, Guarner J, Paddock CD, Rota P, Fields B, DeRisi J, Yang J-Y, Cox N, Hughes JM, LeDuc JW, Bellini WJ, Anderson LJ SARS Working Group. 2003. A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 348:19531966.[PubMed]
59. Peiris JSM, Lai ST, Poon LLM, Guan Y, Yam LYC, Lim W, Nicholls J, Yee WKS, Yan WW, Cheung MT, Cheng VCC, Chan KH, Tsang DNC, Yung RWH, Ng TK, Yuen KY SARS study group. 2003. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet 361:13191325.[PubMed]
60. Ströher U, DiCaro A, Li Y, Strong JE, Aoki F, Plummer F, Jones SM, Feldmann H. 2004. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus is inhibited by interferon-alpha. J Infect Dis 189:11641167.[PubMed]
61. Muth D, Corman VM, Meyer B, Assiri A, Al-Masri M, Farah M, Steinhagen K, Lattwein E, Al-Tawfiq JA, Albarrak A, Müller MA, Drosten C, Memish ZA. 2015. Infectious Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus excretion and serotype variability based on live virus isolates from patients in Saudi Arabia. J Clin Microbiol 53:29512955.[PubMed]
62. Chany C, Moscovici O, Lebon P, Rousset S. 1982. Association of coronavirus infection with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatrics 69:209214.[PubMed]
63. Maass G, Baumeister HG, Freitag N. 1977. [Viruses as causal agents of gastroenteritis in infants and young children (author's transl)]. MMW Munch Med Wochenschr 119:10291034.[PubMed]
64. Mathan M, Swaminathan SP, Mathan VI, Yesudoss S, Baker SJ. 1975. Pleomorphic virus-like particles in human faeces. Lancet 305:10681069.[PubMed]
65. Vaucher YE, Ray CG, Minnich LL, Payne CM, Beck D, Lowe P. 1982. Pleomorphic, enveloped, virus-like particles associated with gastrointestinal illness in neonates. J Infect Dis 145:2736.[PubMed]
66. Macnaughton MR, Davies HA. 1981. Human enteric coronaviruses. Brief review. Arch Virol 70:301313.[PubMed]
67. Caul EO, Egglestone SI. 1977. Further studies on human enteric coronaviruses. Arch Virol 54:107117.[PubMed]
68. Resta S, Luby JP, Rosenfeld CR, Siegel JD. 1985. Isolation and propagation of a human enteric coronavirus. Science 229:978981.[PubMed]
69. Gerna G, Passarani N, Battaglia M, Rondanelli EG. 1985. Human enteric coronaviruses: antigenic relatedness to human coronavirus OC43 and possible etiologic role in viral gastroenteritis. J Infect Dis 151:796803.[PubMed]
70. Zhang XM, Herbst W, Kousoulas KG, Storz J. 1994. Biological and genetic characterization of a hemagglutinating coronavirus isolated from a diarrhoeic child. J Med Virol 44:152161.[PubMed]
71. Luby JP, Clinton R, Kurtz S. 1999. Adaptation of human enteric coronavirus to growth in cell lines. J Clin Virol 12:4351.[PubMed]
72. Otter JA, Donskey C, Yezli S, Douthwaite S, Goldenberg SD, Weber DJ. 2016. Transmission of SARS and MERS coronaviruses and influenza virus in healthcare settings: the possible role of dry surface contamination. J Hosp Infect 92:235250.[PubMed]
73. Rabenau HF, Cinatl J, Morgenstern B, Bauer G, Preiser W, Doerr HW. 2005. Stability and inactivation of SARS coronavirus. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 194:16.[PubMed]
74. Chan KH, Peiris JSM, Lam SY, Poon LLM, Yuen KY, Seto WH. 2011. The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the viability of the SARS coronavirus. Adv Virol 2011:734690.[PubMed]
75. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Karesh WB, Munster VJ. 2014. Stability of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in milk. Emerg Infect Dis 20:12631264.[PubMed]
76. Bin SY, Heo JY, Song MS, Lee J, Kim EH, Park SJ, Kwon HI, Kim SM, Kim YI, Si YJ, Lee IW, Baek YH, Choi WS, Min J, Jeong HW, Choi YK. 2015. Environmental contamination and viral shedding in MERS patients during MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea. Clin Infect Dis 62:755–760.[PubMed]
77. McIntosh K, Kapikian AZ, Turner HC, Hartley JW, Parrott RH, Chanock RM. 1970. Seroepidemiologic studies of coronavirus infection in adults and children. Am J Epidemiol 91:585592.[PubMed]
78. Chan CM, Tse H, Wong SSY, Woo PCY, Lau SKP, Chen L, Zheng BJ, Huang JD, Yuen KY. 2009. Examination of seroprevalence of coronavirus HKU1 infection with S protein-based ELISA and neutralization assay against viral spike pseudotyped virus. J Clin Virol 45:5460.[PubMed]
79. Severance EG, Bossis I, Dickerson FB, Stallings CR, Origoni AE, Sullens A, Yolken RH, Viscidi RP. 2008. Development of a nucleocapsid-based human coronavirus immunoassay and estimates of individuals exposed to coronavirus in a U.S. metropolitan population. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:18051810.[PubMed]
80. Principi N, Bosis S, Esposito S. 2010. Effects of coronavirus infections in children. Emerg Infect Dis 16:183188.[PubMed]
81. Matoba Y, Abiko C, Ikeda T, Aoki Y, Suzuki Y, Yahagi K, Matsuzaki Y, Itagaki T, Katsushima F, Katsushima Y, Mizuta K. 2015. Detection of the human coronavirus 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 between 2010 and 2013 in Yamagata, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis 68:138141.[PubMed]
82. Yu X, Lu R, Wang Z, Zhu N, Wang W, Julian D, Chris B, Lu J, Tan W. 2012. Etiology and clinical characterization of respiratory virus infections in adult patients attending an emergency department in Beijing. PLoS One 7:e32174.[PubMed]
83. World Health Organization. Regional Office of the Western Pacific. 2006. SARS: how a global epidemic was stopped. Manila: WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific.
84. Leung GM, Lim WW, Ho L-M, Lam T-H, Ghani AC, Donnelly CA, Fraser C, Riley S, Ferguson NM, Anderson RM, Hedley AJ. 2006. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to SARS-coronavirus in asymptomatic or subclinical population groups. Epidemiol Infect 134:211221.[PubMed]
85. World Health Organization. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) summary of current situation, Literature Update and Risk Assessment 7 July 2015 WHO/MERS/RA/15.1. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/179184/2/WHO_MERS_RA_15.1_eng.pdf?ua=1, accessed 9 January 2016.
86. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in the Republic of Korea, 2015. Osong Public Health Res Perspect 6:269278.[PubMed]
87. Reusken CBEM, Messadi L, Feyisa A, Ularamu H, Godeke GJ, Danmarwa A, Dawo F, Jemli M, Melaku S, Shamaki D, Woma Y, Wungak Y, Gebremedhin EZ, Zutt I, Bosch BJ, Haagmans BL, Koopmans MPG. 2014. Geographic distribution of MERS coronavirus among dromedary camels, Africa. Emerg Infect Dis 20:13701374.[PubMed]
88. Hamre D, Beem M. 1972. Virologic studies of acute respiratory disease in young adults. V. Coronavirus 229E infections during six years of surveillance. Am J Epidemiol 96:94106.[PubMed]
89. Monto AS, Lim SK. 1974. The Tecumseh study of respiratory illness. VI. Frequency of and relationship between outbreaks of coronavirus infection. J Infect Dis 129:271276.[PubMed]
90. Gill EP, Dominguez EA, Greenberg SB, Atmar RL, Hogue BG, Baxter BD, Couch RB. 1994. Development and application of an enzyme immunoassay for coronavirus OC43 antibody in acute respiratory illness. J Clin Microbiol 32:23722376.[PubMed]
91. Nicholson KG, Kent J, Ireland DC. 1993. Respiratory viruses and exacerbations of asthma in adults. BMJ 307:982986.[PubMed]
92. Nicholson KG, Kent J, Hammersley V, Cancio E. 1997. Acute viral infections of upper respiratory tract in elderly people living in the community: comparative, prospective, population based study of disease burden. BMJ 315:10601064.[PubMed]
93. Walsh EE, Falsey AR, Hennessey PA. 1999. Respiratory syncytial and other virus infections in persons with chronic cardiopulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160:791795.[PubMed]
94. Mäkelä MJ, Puhakka T, Ruuskanen O, Leinonen M, Saikku P, Kimpimäki M, Blomqvist S, Hyypiä T, Arstila P. 1998. Viruses and bacteria in the etiology of the common cold. J Clin Microbiol 36:539542.[PubMed]
95. Dijkman R, Jebbink MF, El Idrissi NB, Pyrc K, Müller MA, Kuijpers TW, Zaaijer HL, van der Hoek L. 2008. Human coronavirus NL63 and 229E seroconversion in children. J Clin Microbiol 46:23682373.[PubMed]
96. Graat JM, Schouten EG, Heijnen MLA, Kok FJ, Pallast EGM, de Greeff SC, Dorigo-Zetsma JW. 2003. A prospective, community-based study on virologic assessment among elderly people with and without symptoms of acute respiratory infection. J Clin Epidemiol 56:12181223.[PubMed]
97. van Gageldonk-Lafeber AB, Heijnen M-LA, Bartelds AIM, Peters MF, van der Plas SM, Wilbrink B. 2005. A case-control study of acute respiratory tract infection in general practice patients in The Netherlands. Clin Infect Dis 41:490497.[PubMed]
98. Kusel MMH, de Klerk NH, Holt PG, Kebadze T, Johnston SL, Sly PD. 2006. Role of respiratory viruses in acute upper and lower respiratory tract illness in the first year of life: a birth cohort study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:680686.[PubMed]
99. Boivin G, Baz M, Côté S, Gilca R, Deffrasnes C, Leblanc E, Bergeron MG, Déry P, De Serres G. 2005. Infections by human coronavirus-NL in hospitalized children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:10451048.[PubMed]
100. Lau SKP, Woo PCY, Yip CCY, Tse H, Tsoi HW, Cheng VCC, Lee P, Tang BSF, Cheung CHY, Lee RA, So LY, Lau YL, Chan KH, Yuen KY. 2006. Coronavirus HKU1 and other coronavirus infections in Hong Kong. J Clin Microbiol 44:20632071.[PubMed]
101. Choi EH, Lee HJ, Kim SJ, Eun BW, Kim NH, Lee JA, Lee JH, Song EK, Kim SH, Park JY, Sung JY. 2006. The association of newly identified respiratory viruses with lower respiratory tract infections in Korean children, 2000–2005. Clin Infect Dis 43:585592.[PubMed]
102. McIntosh K, Chao RK, Krause HE, Wasil R, Mocega HE, Mufson MA. 1974. Coronavirus infection in acute lower respiratory tract disease of infants. J Infect Dis 130:502507.[PubMed]
103. Esposito S, Bosis S, Niesters HGM, Tremolati E, Begliatti E, Rognoni A, Tagliabue C, Principi N, Osterhaus ADME. 2006. Impact of human coronavirus infections in otherwise healthy children who attended an emergency department. J Med Virol 78:16091615.[PubMed]
104. Kuypers J, Martin ET, Heugel J, Wright N, Morrow R, Englund JA. 2007. Clinical disease in children associated with newly described coronavirus subtypes. Pediatrics 119:e70e76.[PubMed]
105. Talbot HKB, Crowe JE Jr, Edwards KM, Griffin MR, Zhu Y, Weinberg GA, Szilagyi PG, Hall CB, Podsiad AB, Iwane M, Williams JV New Vaccine Surveillance Network. 2009. Coronavirus infection and hospitalizations for acute respiratory illness in young children. J Med Virol 81:853856.[PubMed]
106. Schmidt W, Schneider T, Heise W, Weinke T, Epple HJ, Stöffler-Meilicke M, Liesenfeld O, Ignatius R, Zeitz M, Riecken EO, Ullrich R Berlin Diarrhea/Wasting Syndrome Study Group. 1996. Stool viruses, coinfections, and diarrhea in HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 13:3338.[PubMed]
107. Kern P, Müller G, Schmitz H, Rácz P, Meigel W, Riethmüller G, Dietrich M. 1985. Detection of coronavirus-like particles in homosexual men with acquired immunodeficiency and related lymphadenopathy syndrome. Klin Wochenschr 63:6872.[PubMed]
108. Marshall JA, Thompson WL, Gust ID. 1989. Coronavirus-like particles in adults in Melbourne, Australia. J Med Virol 29:238243.[PubMed]
109. Mortensen ML, Ray CG, Payne CM, Friedman AD, Minnich LL, Rousseau C. 1985. Coronaviruslike particles in human gastrointestinal disease. Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory observations. Am J Dis Child 139:928934.[PubMed]
110. Song HD. , et al 2005. Cross-host evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in palm civet and human. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:24302435.[PubMed]
111. World Health Organization. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Available from: http://www.who.int/emergencies/mers-cov/en/, 16 January 2016 (accessed March 1 2016).
112. Monto AS. 1974. Medical reviews. Coronaviruses. Yale J Biol Med 47:234251.[PubMed]
113. Gaunt ER, Hardie A, Claas ECJ, Simmonds P, Templeton KE. 2010. Epidemiology and clinical presentations of the four human coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 detected over 3 years using a novel multiplex real-time PCR method. J Clin Microbiol 48:29402947.[PubMed]
114. Chiu SS, Chan KH, Chu KW, Kwan SW, Guan Y, Poon LLM, Peiris JSM. 2005. Human coronavirus NL63 infection and other coronavirus infections in children hospitalized with acute respiratory disease in Hong Kong, China. Clin Infect Dis 40:17211729.[PubMed]
115. Wernery U, Corman VM, Wong EYM, Tsang AKL, Muth D, Lau SKP, Khazanehdari K, Zirkel F, Ali M, Nagy P, Juhasz J, Wernery R, Joseph S, Syriac G, Elizabeth SK, Patteril NAG, Woo PCY, Drosten C. 2015. Acute Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis 21:10191022.[PubMed]
116. Payne CM, Ray CG, Borduin V, Minnich LL, Lebowitz MD. 1986. An eight-year study of the viral agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans: ultrastructural observations and seasonal distribution with a major emphasis on coronavirus-like particles. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 5:3954.[PubMed]
117. Bradburne AF, Somerset BA. 1972. Coronavirus antibody titres in sera of healthy adults and experimentally infected volunteers. J Hyg (Lond) 70:235244.[PubMed]
118. Myint S, Harmsen D, Raabe T, Siddell SG. 1990. Characterization of a nucleic acid probe for the diagnosis of human coronavirus 229E infections. J Med Virol 31:165172.[PubMed]
119. SARS Investigation Team from DMERI and SGH. 2005. Strategies adopted and lessons learnt during the severe acute respiratory syndrome crisis in Singapore. Rev Med Virol 15:5770.[PubMed]
120. Yu ITS, Qiu H, Tse LA, Wong TW. 2014. Severe acute respiratory syndrome beyond Amoy Gardens: completing the incomplete legacy. Clin Infect Dis 58:683686.[PubMed]
121. Lipsitch M, Cohen T, Cooper B, Robins JM, Ma S, James L, Gopalakrishna G, Chew SK, Tan CC, Samore MH, Fisman D, Murray M. 2003. Transmission dynamics and control of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science 300:19661970.[PubMed]
122. Riley S, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Abu-Raddad LJ, Hedley AJ, Leung GM, Ho L-M, Lam T-H, Thach TQ, Chau P, Chan K-P, Lo S-V, Leung P-Y, Tsang T, Ho W, Lee K-H, Lau EMC, Ferguson NM, Anderson RM. 2003. Transmission dynamics of the etiological agent of SARS in Hong Kong: impact of public health interventions. Science 300:19611966.[PubMed]
123. Adney DR, van Doremalen N, Brown VR, Bushmaker T, Scott D, de Wit E, Bowen RA, Munster VJ. 2014. Replication and shedding of MERS-CoV in upper respiratory tract of inoculated dromedary camels. Emerg Infect Dis 20:19992005.[PubMed]
124. Reusken CB, Farag EA, Jonges M, Godeke GJ, El-Sayed AM, Pas SD, Raj VS, Mohran KA, Moussa HA, Ghobashy H, Alhajri F, Ibrahim AK, Bosch BJ, Pasha SK, Al-Romaihi HE, Al-Thani M, Al-Marri SA, AlHajri MM, Haagmans BL, Koopmans MP. 2014. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) RNA and neutralising antibodies in milk collected according to local customs from dromedary camels, Qatar, April 2014. Euro Surveill 19:20829.[PubMed]
125. Müller MA, Meyer B, Corman VM, Al-Masri M, Turkestani A, Ritz D, Sieberg A, Aldabbagh S, Bosch B-J, Lattwein E, Alhakeem RF, Assiri AM, Albarrak AM, Al-Shangiti AM, Al-Tawfiq JA, Wikramaratna P, Alrabeeah AA, Drosten C, Memish ZA. 2015. Presence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibodies in Saudi Arabia: a nationwide, cross-sectional, serological study. Lancet Infect Dis 15:559564.[PubMed]
126. Drosten C, Meyer B, Müller MA, Corman VM, Al-Masri M, Hossain R, Madani H, Sieberg A, Bosch BJ, Lattwein E, Alhakeem RF, Assiri AM, Hajomar W, Albarrak AM, Al-Tawfiq JA, Zumla AI, Memish ZA. 2014. Transmission of MERS-coronavirus in household contacts. N Engl J Med 371:828835.[PubMed]
127. Al Hammadi ZM, Chu DKW, Eltahir YM, Al Hosani F, Al Mulla M, Tarnini W, Hall AJ, Perera RAPM, Abdelkhalek MM, Peiris JSM, Al Muhairi SS, Poon LLM. 2015. Asymptomatic MERS-CoV infection in humans possibly linked to infected dromedaries imported from Oman to United Arab Emirates, May 2015. Emerg Infect Dis 21:21972200.[PubMed]
128. Al-Gethamy M, Corman VM, Hussain R, Al-Tawfiq JA, Drosten C, Memish ZA. 2015. A case of long-term excretion and subclinical infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in a healthcare worker. Clin Infect Dis 60:973974.[PubMed]
129. Hunter JC, Nguyen D, Aden B, Al Bandar Z, Al Dhaheri W, Abu Elkheir K, Khudair A, Al Mulla M, El Saleh F, Imambaccus H, Al Kaabi N, Sheikh FA, Sasse J, Turner A, Wareth LA, Weber S, Al Ameri A, Abu Amer W, Alami NN, Bunga S, Haynes LM, Hall AJ, Kallen AJ, Kuhar D, Huong Pham B,. Pringle, Tong S, Whitaker BL, Gerber SI, Al Hosany FI. 2016. Transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections in health care settings, Abu Dhabi. Emerg Infect Dis 2016;22:647656.
130. Sizun J, Soupre D, Legrand MC, Giroux JD, Rubio S, Cauvin JM, Chastel C, Mix D, de Parscau L. 1995. Neonatal nosocomial respiratory infection with coronavirus: a prospective study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Acta Paediatr 84:617620.[PubMed]
131. Esper F, Weibel C, Ferguson D, Landry ML, Kahn JS. 2005. Evidence of a novel human coronavirus that is associated with respiratory tract disease in infants and young children. J Infect Dis 191:492498.[PubMed]