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Chapter 57 : Infections Caused by Bornaviruses

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Abstract:

Bornaviruses (: ) form enveloped virions with nonsegmented, single-stranded negative-sense genomes (∼8.9 kilobases). They naturally infect mammals (e.g., bicolored white-toothed shrews [], equids, sheep, variegated squirrels [] but rarely other mammals including humans) and a wide variety of birds and snakes. Bornaviruses have unique characteristics, such as 1) replication in the nucleus using cellular splicing machinery for generation of mRNAs and integrating bornaviral elements into the host-cell genome; 2) genome trimming for generation of RNAs that probably do not trigger innate immune responses in infected cells; and 3) suppression of apoptosis in infected cells mediated by the accessory protein (X), leading to persistent noncytolytic infection.

Citation: Dürrwald R, Nowotny N, Beer M, Kuhn J. 2017. Infections Caused by Bornaviruses, p 1395-1407. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch57
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Unrooted phylogenetic tree of selected complete bornavirus sequences available at GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the MEGA version 5.05 package program. Gene-specific substitution models were evaluated, and best-fit models were selected (Tamura3-parameter model for the tree shown). Maximum-likelihood trees were generated, tree topologies were validated by bootstrap analysis (1000 replicates), and the best phylogenetic tree was selected. The bar represents nucleotide substitutions per site. The taxon information includes the GenBank accession number, the host species, the country of the host, the year of detection, and the virus abbreviation. Furthermore, the virus species are shown according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) nomenclature, including the newest taxonomic proposals. Variegated squirrel bornavirus has not yet been classified (tentatively ).

Citation: Dürrwald R, Nowotny N, Beer M, Kuhn J. 2017. Infections Caused by Bornaviruses, p 1395-1407. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch57
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Hypothetical transmission scenarios. A, Bicolored white-toothed shrews and variegated squirrels are intermediate hosts to an unknown reservoir. B, Different shrew species are reservoir hosts and variegated squirrels are intermediate hosts. C, Bicolored white-toothed shrews and variegated squirrels are the primary reservoir host. The exact transmission route is unknown. The strong territorial genetic clustering of BoDV-1 sequences and the high conservation within BoDV-1 group 4 (strain V group) over a vast territory hint at transmission chains that are more complex than shown in this scheme ( ). Natural barriers may block transmission from the primary reservoir to humans. Close contact with intermediate hosts may enable infection of the nerve cells of humans under certain circumstances (scratches, bites?). Note that scenarios 1 and 2 require constant surveillance of intermediate host populations when kept in captivity (zoological gardens, private collections). It is still unknown whether bicolored white-toothed shrews and variegated squirrels were infected as newborns or adults. The slanted line means that transmission does not occur.

Citation: Dürrwald R, Nowotny N, Beer M, Kuhn J. 2017. Infections Caused by Bornaviruses, p 1395-1407. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch57
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Outcome of bornavirus infections and pathogenesis in mammals. The prevalence of natural disease is low and varies among hosts. Differences in anatomic or other barriers and transmission routes may exist that enable or prevent entry of bornaviruses into the CNS. A wide variety of outcomes of experimental and natural infection is probably the result of host genetic factors. PTI, persistent tolerant infection.

Citation: Dürrwald R, Nowotny N, Beer M, Kuhn J. 2017. Infections Caused by Bornaviruses, p 1395-1407. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch57
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Overview of the mononegaviral monogeneric family

Citation: Dürrwald R, Nowotny N, Beer M, Kuhn J. 2017. Infections Caused by Bornaviruses, p 1395-1407. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch57
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Overview of bornaviral genes and proteins

Citation: Dürrwald R, Nowotny N, Beer M, Kuhn J. 2017. Infections Caused by Bornaviruses, p 1395-1407. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819439.ch57

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