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Chapter 10 : West Nile Virus Infection

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Abstract:

West Nile virus (WNV) (family ) is a member of the Japanese encephalitis serologic complex, which includes Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, and Kunjin viruses ( ). The virus was first isolated in 1937 from a febrile patient in the West Nile district of Uganda, making it one of the first arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) to be identified. Structurally, it is an enveloped, spherical virus of approximately 40 to 50 nm in diameter with a lipid bilayer membrane surrounding a nucleocapsid core ( ).

Citation: Sejvar J. 2016. West Nile Virus Infection, p 175-199. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0021-2016
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Figures

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Figure 1

West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease incidence reported to the CDC by year, 1999–2014.

Citation: Sejvar J. 2016. West Nile Virus Infection, p 175-199. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0021-2016
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Average annual incidence of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease reported to the CDC by county, 1999–2014.

Citation: Sejvar J. 2016. West Nile Virus Infection, p 175-199. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0021-2016
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Figure 3

Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging sequence of the brain of a patient with West Nile virus encephalitis with associated parkinsonism and tremor, displaying signal abnormality in the substantia nigra (short arrow), the mesial temporal lobe (long arrow), and right posterior thalamus (thick arrow).

Citation: Sejvar J. 2016. West Nile Virus Infection, p 175-199. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0021-2016
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Sagittal and axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spinal cord of a patient with bilateral upper extremity paralysis and respiratory failure from West Nile poliomyelitis, displaying increased signal in the anterior spinal cord (circle and arrow).

Citation: Sejvar J. 2016. West Nile Virus Infection, p 175-199. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0021-2016
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819453.chap10

Tables

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TABLE 1

Reported West Nile virus disease cases in humans, United States, 1999–2014

Citation: Sejvar J. 2016. West Nile Virus Infection, p 175-199. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0021-2016
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Clinical and electrodiagnostic features of West Nile virus–associated acute flaccid paralysis

Citation: Sejvar J. 2016. West Nile Virus Infection, p 175-199. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0021-2016

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