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Chapter 13 : : Still Emerging and Elusive 20 Years On

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Abstract:

was first described in 1995 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ( ). The initial 15 strains identified were assigned to the genus following cellular fatty acid profiles, DNA relatedness studies, 16S rRNA sequencing, and guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) content analysis. They were originally isolated from cultures of blood from patients from nine different states in the United States, one patient in Switzerland, and one in Saudi Arabia. Initially, was described as an agent responsible for bacteremia or other invasive diseases, such as arthritis or endocarditis, particularly in asplenic patients ( ). Five years after its first description, a report showed that could also cause pertussis-like symptoms in otherwise healthy individuals. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that respiratory infections were systematically misdiagnosed as because both genomes contain the insertion sequence (IS) targeted by the pertussis diagnostic test, namely, IS ( ). Following this, several research groups developed discriminative diagnostic tests ( ) and retrospectively reanalyzed nasopharyngeal swabs that were positive in order to determine to what extent this new species was contributing to the increase in pertussis cases worldwide ( ). Other groups have also conducted prospective studies with a similar objective ( ). Simultaneously, microbiologists studied further this bacterium by investigating its virulence factors and similarity to other species ( ). Its entire genome was published in 2013 ( ). In parallel, an increasing number of reports of infections in a variety of different sites were published ( ). Nevertheless, still remains an underrecognized causative agent for respiratory or invasive infections, partly due to diagnostic difficulties ( ). The aim of this chapter is to summarize the current knowledge on .

Citation: Pittet L, Posfay-Barbe K. 2016. : Still Emerging and Elusive 20 Years On, p 239-254. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0003-2015
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Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Shown is an optic microscopic study showing colonies of Gram-negative coccobacilli identified as . The strain was isolated from a Swiss patient with bacteremia ( ). (Courtesy of Stéphane Emonet, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.)

Citation: Pittet L, Posfay-Barbe K. 2016. : Still Emerging and Elusive 20 Years On, p 239-254. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0003-2015
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Shown is a scanning electron microscopy view of a strain after 24 h of culture on tryptic soy broth liquid medium (×20,000). The patient is the same as for Fig. 1 . (Courtesy of François Barja, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.)

Citation: Pittet L, Posfay-Barbe K. 2016. : Still Emerging and Elusive 20 Years On, p 239-254. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0003-2015
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Colonies of growing on a sheep blood agar plate and producing brown pigments after 48 h of culture on Mueller-Hinton medium . The patient is the same as for Fig. 1 . (Courtesy of Stéphane Emonet, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.)

Citation: Pittet L, Posfay-Barbe K. 2016. : Still Emerging and Elusive 20 Years On, p 239-254. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0003-2015
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Comparison of genome maps of and . strain CS (GenBank accession number CP002695.1) is shown on the right side, and strain F627 (GenBank accession number AOEW00000000.1) is shown on the left side. The genome is in the form of two individual contigs, as illustrated by the two different shades of green. The grey links indicate sequence similarities at the protein level between the two genomes. Only local gene synteny is observed between the two bacteria. Red dots show the positions of IS, which has 19 occurrences in strain F627 and 227 occurrences in strain CS. (Figure courtesy of David Hernandez, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; reproduced from reference with permission.)

Citation: Pittet L, Posfay-Barbe K. 2016. : Still Emerging and Elusive 20 Years On, p 239-254. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0003-2015
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Biochemical characteristics of and comparison with other spp.

Citation: Pittet L, Posfay-Barbe K. 2016. : Still Emerging and Elusive 20 Years On, p 239-254. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0003-2015

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