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Chapter 16 : Emerging Tick-Borne Bacterial Pathogens

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Abstract:

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods that are considered to be the second most common vectors of pathogens after the mosquitoes that cause diseases in humans ( ). Two families of ticks are capable of transmitting a broad range of pathogens ( ): (hard ticks) currently comprise over 700 species worldwide ( ), and (soft ticks) comprise roughly 200 species ( ). A vast number of novel tick-related microorganisms and tick-borne disease agents have been identified in the past 20 years, and more are being described due to several factors, from the curiosity of clinicians faced with unusual clinical syndromes to new tools used by microbiologists and entomologists ( ). Borrelioses, ehrlichioses, anaplasmosis, and tick-borne rickettsial diseases are some of the emerging diseases that have been described throughout the world in recent years. In certain cases, the microorganism has been identified from ticks before its causal relationship with a disease is established; examples of new pathogens associated with human infections include Neoehrlichia mikurensis ( N. mikurensis), , and some species ( ). In contrast, other emerging tick-borne diseases such as ehrlichiosis are caused by “–like,” or EML, agents, with cases being identified first and the correlation with tick bites being recognized later ( ). In this chapter, we focus on the bacterial agents and diseases that have been recognized in the past three years and refer to major recent reviews of other recognized infections, diagnosis, and treatment aspects.

Citation: Kernif T, Leulmi H, Raoult D, Parola P. 2016. Emerging Tick-Borne Bacterial Pathogens, p 295-310. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0012-2016
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Tick-borne spotted fever group agents of human diseases and new data published in the last 2 years

Citation: Kernif T, Leulmi H, Raoult D, Parola P. 2016. Emerging Tick-Borne Bacterial Pathogens, p 295-310. In Scheld W, Hughes J, Whitley R (ed), Emerging infections 10. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0012-2016

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