1887

Chapter 16 : Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819569/9781555819552_Chap16-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819569/9781555819552_Chap16-2.gif

Abstract:

Despite the progress made in global tuberculosis (TB) control, TB remains a major global health problem, and drug-resistant TB is a growing threat ( ). Early diagnosis of TB including universal drug susceptibility testing (DST), and systematic screening of contacts and high-risk groups are key components of the End TB Strategy by WHO and partners ( ).

Citation: Pai M, Nicol M, Boehme C. 2017. Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions, p 363-378. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0019-2016
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Pipeline of TB diagnostics (source: FIND, Geneva; www.finddx.org).

Citation: Pai M, Nicol M, Boehme C. 2017. Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions, p 363-378. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0019-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Classes of TB biomarkers under development and validation (source: FIND, Geneva; www.finddx.org).

Citation: Pai M, Nicol M, Boehme C. 2017. Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions, p 363-378. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0019-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

How TB tests can potentially impact patient outcomes (source: Schumacher et al. [ ]).

Citation: Pai M, Nicol M, Boehme C. 2017. Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions, p 363-378. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0019-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Timeline of availability of required elements for Xpert MTB/RIF implementation (from reference with permission).

Citation: Pai M, Nicol M, Boehme C. 2017. Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions, p 363-378. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0019-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819569.chap16
1. World Health Organization . 2015. Global Tuberculosis Report 2015. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
2. World Health Organization . The End TB Strategy. Global strategy and targets for tuberculosis prevention, care and control after 2015. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
3. Pande T,, Pai M,, Khan FA,, Denkinger CM . 2015. Use of chest radiography in the 22 highest tuberculosis burden countries. Eur Respir J 46 : 18161819.[CrossRef]
4. Steingart KR,, Henry M,, Ng V,, Hopewell PC,, Ramsay A,, Cunningham J,, Urbanczik R,, Perkins M,, Aziz MA,, Pai M . 2006. Fluorescence versus conventional sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 6 : 570581. [CrossRef]
5. World Health Organization . 2011. Fluorescent light-emitting diode (LED) microscopy for diagnosis of tuberculosis: policy statement. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
6. Steingart KR,, Ng V,, Henry M,, Hopewell PC,, Ramsay A,, Cunningham J,, Urbanczik R,, Perkins MD,, Aziz MA,, Pai M . 2006. Sputum processing methods to improve the sensitivity of smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 6 : 664674. [CrossRef]
7. World Health Organization . The use of liquid medium for culture and DST, 2007. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
8. Chikamatsu K,, Aono A,, Yamada H,, Sugamoto T,, Kato T,, Kazumi Y , , et al . 2014. Comparative evaluation of three immunochromatographic identification tests for culture confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. BMC Infect Dis 14 : 54.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
9. Lawn SD,, Nicol MP . 2011. Xpert® MTB/RIF assay: development, evaluation and implementation of a new rapid molecular diagnostic for tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. Future Microbiol 6 : 10671082.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
10. Helb D,, Jones M,, Story E,, Boehme C,, Wallace E,, Ho K,, Kop J,, Owens MR,, Rodgers R,, Banada P,, Safi H,, Blakemore R,, Lan NT,, Jones-López EC,, Levi M,, Burday M,, Ayakaka I,, Mugerwa RD,, McMillan B,, Winn-Deen E,, Christel L,, Dailey P,, Perkins MD,, Persing DH,, Alland D . 2010. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance by use of on-demand, near-patient technology. J Clin Microbiol 48 : 229237.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
11. Steingart KR,, Schiller I,, Horne DJ,, Pai M,, Boehme CC,, Dendukuri N . 2014. Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampin resistance in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD009593. [PubMed]
12. Detjen AK,, DiNardo AR,, Leyden J,, Steingart KR,, Menzies D,, Schiller I,, Dendukuri N,, Mandalakas AM . 2015. Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Respir Med 3 : 451461.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
13. Denkinger CM,, Schumacher SG,, Boehme CC,, Dendukuri N,, Pai M,, Steingart KR . 2014. Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J 44 : 435446.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
14. Maynard-Smith L,, Larke N,, Peters JA,, Lawn SD . 2014. Diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for extrapulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis when testing non-respiratory samples: a systematic review. BMC Infect Dis 14 : 709.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
15. Friedrich SO,, Rachow A,, Saathoff E,, Singh K,, Mangu CD,, Dawson R,, Phillips PP,, Venter A,, Bateson A,, Boehme CC,, Heinrich N,, Hunt RD,, Boeree MJ,, Zumla A,, McHugh TD,, Gillespie SH,, Diacon AH,, Hoelscher M , Pan African Consortium for the Evaluation of Anti-tuberculosis Antibiotics (PanACEA) . 2013. Assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay as an early sputum biomarker of response to tuberculosis treatment. Lancet Respir Med 1 : 462470.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
16. World Health Organization . 2013. Automated real-time nucleic acid amplification technology for rapid and simultaneous detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance: Xpert MTB/RIF system for the diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB in adults and children. Policy update. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
17. Gray CM,, Katamba A,, Narang P,, Giraldo J,, Zamudio C,, Joloba M,, Narang R,, Paramasivan CN,, Hillemann D,, Nabeta P,, Amisano D,, Alland D,, Cobelens F,, Boehme CC . 2016. Feasibility and operational performance of tuberculosis detection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification platform in decentralized settings: results from a multicenter study. J Clin Microbiol 54 : 19841991.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
18. World Health Organization . 2013. The use of a commercial loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (TB-LAMP) for the detection of tuberculosis. Expert Group Meeting Report. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
19. Sakamuri RM,, Price DN,, Lee M,, Cho SN,, Barry CE 3rd,, Via LE , , et al . 2013. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: implications for diagnostics. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 93 : 301307. [CrossRef]
20. Lawn SD,, Gupta-Wright A . 2016. Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine is indicative of disseminated TB with renal involvement in patients living with HIV and advanced immunodeficiency: evidence and implications. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110 : 180185.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
21. World Health Organization . 2015. The Use of Lateral Flow Urine Lipoarabinomannan Assay (LF-LAM) for the Diagnosis and Screening of Active Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV. Policy Update. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
22. Lawn SD . 2012. Point-of-care detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: a state of the art review. BMC Infect Dis 12 : 103.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
23. Peter JG,, Zijenah LS,, Chanda D,, Clowes P,, Lesosky M,, Gina P,, Mehta N,, Calligaro G,, Lombard CJ,, Kadzirange G,, Bandason T,, Chansa A,, Liusha N,, Mangu C,, Mtafya B,, Msila H,, Rachow A,, Hoelscher M,, Mwaba P,, Theron G,, Dheda K . 2016. Effect on mortality of point-of-care, urine-based lipoarabinomannan testing to guide tuberculosis treatment initiation in HIV-positive hospital inpatients: a pragmatic, parallel-group, multicountry, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 387 : 11871197. [CrossRef]
24. World Health Organization . 2014. TB Diagnostics and Laboratory Services. Information Note.
25. Rigouts L,, Gumusboga M,, de Rijk WB,, Nduwamahoro E,, Uwizeye C,, de Jong B , , et al . 2013. Rifampin resistance missed in automated liquid culture system for Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with specific rpoB mutations. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 26412645.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
26. World Health Organization . 2011. Noncommercial culture and drug-susceptibility testing methods for screening of patients at risk of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Policy statement. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
27. Ling DI,, Zwerling AA,, Pai M . 2008. GenoType MTBDR assays for the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a meta-analysis. Eur Respir J 32 : 11651174.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
28. Barnard M,, Gey van Pittius NC,, van Helden PD,, Bosman M,, Coetzee G,, Warren RM . 2012. The diagnostic performance of the GenoType MTBDRplus version 2 line probe assay is equivalent to that of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. J Clin Microbiol 50 : 37123716.[CrossRef]
29. World Health Organization . 2008. Molecular line probe assays for rapid screening of patients at risk of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Policy statement. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
30. Mokaddas E,, Ahmad S,, Eldeen HS,, Al-Mutairi N . 2015. Discordance between Xpert MTB/RIF assay and Bactec MGIT 960 Culture System for detection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in a country with a low tuberculosis (TB) incidence. J Clin Microbiol 53 : 13511354.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
31. Theron G,, Peter J,, Richardson M,, Barnard M,, Donegan S,, Warren R , , et al . 2014. The diagnostic accuracy of the GenoType((R)) MTBDRsl assay for the detection of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10 : CD010705. [CrossRef] [CrossRef]
32. World Health Organization . 2016. The use of molecular line probe assays for the detection of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Policy guidance. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
33. Kik SV,, Denkinger CM,, Casenghi M,, Vadnais C,, Pai M . 2014. Tuberculosis diagnostics: which target product profiles should be prioritised? Eur Respir J 44 : 537540.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
34. Swaminathan S,, Rekha B . 2010. Pediatric tuberculosis: global overview and challenges. Clin Infect Dis 50(Suppl 3): S184S194.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
35. Gardiner JL,, Karp CL . 2015. Transformative tools for tackling tuberculosis. J Exp Med 212 : 17591769.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
36. World Health Organization . 2014. High-priority target product profiles for new tuberculosis diagnostics: report of a consensus meeting. Meeting report. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
37. Denkinger CM,, Dolinger D,, Schito M,, Wells W,, Cobelens F,, Pai M,, Zignol M,, Cirillo DM,, Alland D,, Casenghi M,, Gallarda J,, Boehme CC,, Perkins MD . 2015. Target product profile of a molecular drug-susceptibility test for use in microscopy centers. J Infect Dis 211(S2): S39S49.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
38. Denkinger CM,, Kik SV,, Cirillo DM,, Casenghi M,, Shinnick T,, Weyer K,, Gilpin C,, Boehme CC,, Schito M,, Kimerling M,, Pai M . 2015. Defining the needs for next generation assays for tuberculosis. J Infect Dis 211(Suppl 2): S29S38. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
39. TB Diagnostics Market Analysis Consortium . 2014. Market assessment of tuberculosis diagnostics in Brazil in 2012. PLoS One 9 : e104105. (Erratum, 9:e107651.)[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
40. TB Diagnostics Market Analysis Consortium . 2015. Market assessment of tuberculosis diagnostics in South Africa, 2012–2013. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 19 : 216222.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
41. Maheshwari P,, Chauhan K,, Kadam R,, Pujani A,, Kaur M,, Chitalia M,, Dabas H,, Perkins MD,, Boehme CC,, Denkinger CM,, Raizada N,, Ginnard J,, Jefferson C,, Pantoja A,, Rupert S,, Kik SV,, Cohen C,, Chedore P,, Satyanarayana S,, Pai M , TB Diagnostics Market Analysis Consortium . 2016. Market assessment of tuberculosis diagnostics in India in 2013. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 20 : 304313. [CrossRef]
42. Zhao YL,, Pang Y,, Xia H,, Du X,, Chin D,, Huan ST,, Dong HY,, Zhang ZY,, Ginnard J,, Perkins MD,, Boehme CC,, Jefferson C,, Pantoja A,, Qin ZZ,, Chedore P,, Denkinger CM,, Pai M,, Kik SV , TB Diagnostics Market Analysis Consortium . 2016. Market assessment of tuberculosis diagnostics in China in 2012. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 20 : 295303.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
43. Kik SV,, Denkinger CM,, Jefferson C,, Ginnard J,, Pai M . 2015. Potential market for novel tuberculosis diagnostics: worth the investment? J Infect Dis 211(Suppl 2): S58S66. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
44. Berry MP,, Graham CM,, McNab FW,, Xu Z,, Bloch SA,, Oni T , , et al . 2010. An interferon-inducible neutrophil-driven blood transcriptional signature in human tuberculosis. Nature 466 : 973977. [CrossRef]
45. Zak DE,, Penn-Nicholson A,, Scriba TJ,, Thompson E,, Suliman S,, Amon LM,, Mahomed H,, Erasmus M,, Whatney W,, Hussey GD,, Abrahams D,, Kafaar F,, Hawkridge T,, Verver S,, Hughes EJ,, Ota M,, Sutherland J,, Howe R,, Dockrell HM,, Boom WH,, Thiel B,, Ottenhoff TH,, Mayanja-Kizza H,, Crampin AC,, Downing K,, Hatherill M,, Valvo J,, Shankar S,, Parida SK,, Kaufmann SH,, Walzl G,, Aderem A,, Hanekom WA , ACS and GC6-74 cohort study groups . 2016. A blood RNA signature for tuberculosis disease risk: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 387 : 23122322.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
46. Sweeney TE,, Braviak L,, Tato CM,, Khatri P . 2016. Genome-wide expression for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: a multicohort analysis. Lancet Respir Med 4 : 213224. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
47. Anderson ST,, Kaforou M,, Brent AJ,, Wright VJ,, Banwell CM,, Chagaluka G,, Crampin AC,, Dockrell HM,, French N,, Hamilton MS,, Hibberd ML,, Kern F,, Langford PR,, Ling L,, Mlotha R,, Ottenhoff TH,, Pienaar S,, Pillay V,, Scott JA,, Twahir H,, Wilkinson RJ,, Coin LJ,, Heyderman RS,, Levin M,, Eley B , ILULU Consortium, KIDS TB Study Group . 2014. Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis and host RNA expression in Africa. N Engl J Med 370 : 17121723.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
48. Phillips M,, Basa-Dalay V,, Blais J,, Bothamley G,, Chaturvedi A,, Modi KD,, Pandya M,, Natividad MP,, Patel U,, Ramraje NN,, Schmitt P,, Udwadia ZF . 2012. Point-of-care breath test for biomarkers of active pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 92 : 314320.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
49. World Health Organization . 2011. Commercial serodiagnostic tests for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Policy statement. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
50. Wells WA,, Boehme CC,, Cobelens FG,, Daniels C,, Dowdy D,, Gardiner E,, Gheuens J,, Kim P,, Kimerling ME,, Kreiswirth B,, Lienhardt C,, Mdluli K,, Pai M,, Perkins MD,, Peter T,, Zignol M,, Zumla A,, Schito M . 2013. Alignment of new tuberculosis drug regimens and drug susceptibility testing: a framework for action. Lancet Infect Dis 13 : 449458.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
51. Salamon H,, Yamaguchi KD,, Cirillo DM,, Miotto P,, Schito M,, Posey J,, Starks AM,, Niemann S,, Alland D,, Hanna D,, Aviles E,, Perkins MD,, Dolinger DL . 2015. Integration of published information into a resistance-associated mutation database for Mycobacterium tuberculosis . J Infect Dis 211(Suppl 2): S50S57.[CrossRef]
52. Pankhurst LJ,, Del Ojo Elias C,, Votintseva AA,, Walker TM,, Cole K,, Davies J , , et al . 2016. Rapid, comprehensive, and affordable mycobacterial diagnosis with whole-genome sequencing: a prospective study. Lancet Respir Med 4 : 4958.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
53. Walker TM,, Kohl TA,, Omar SV,, Hedge J,, Del Ojo Elias C,, Bradley P , , et al . 2015. Whole-genome sequencing for prediction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility and resistance: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 15 : 11931202.[CrossRef]
54. Domínguez J,, Boettger EC,, Cirillo D,, Cobelens F,, Eisenach KD,, Gagneux S,, Hillemann D,, Horsburgh R,, Molina-Moya B,, Niemann S,, Tortoli E,, Whitelaw A,, Lange C , TBNET, RESIST-TB networks . 2016. Clinical implications of molecular drug resistance testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a TBNET/RESIST-TB consensus statement. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 20 : 2442.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
55. Pai M . 2015. Innovations in tuberculosis diagnostics: progress and translational challenges. EBioMedicine 2 : 182183.[CrossRef] [PubMed]
56. Treatment Action Group & Stop TB Partnership . 2015. 2015 Report on Tuberculosis Research Funding: 2005–2014. Treatment Action Group, New York, NY.
57. Schumacher SG,, Sohn H,, Qin ZZ,, Gore G,, Davis JL,, Denkinger CM , , et al . 2016. Impact of molecular diagnostics for tuberculosis on patient-important outcomes: a systematic review of study methodologies. PLoS One 11 : e0151073.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
58. Albert H,, Nathavitharana R,, Isaacs C,, Pai M,, Denkinger C,, Boehme C . 2016. Development, roll-out, and impact of Xpert MTB/RIF for tuberculosis: what lessons have we learnt, and how can we do better? Eur Respir J 48 : 516525. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
59. Medicins Sans Frontieres and Stop TB Partnership . Out of Step 2015 – TB policies in 24 countries. http://www.stoptb.org/assets/documents/news/report_out_of_step_2015_11_pdf_with_interactive_links.pdf. Accessed 3 August 2016.
60. Puri L,, Oghor C,, Denkinger CM,, Pai M . 2016. Xpert MTB/RIF for tuberculosis testing: access and price in highly privatised health markets. Lancet Glob Health 4 : e94e95. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
61. Theron G,, Zijenah L,, Chanda D,, Clowes P,, Rachow A,, Lesosky M,, Bara W,, Mungofa S,, Pai M,, Hoelscher M,, Dowdy D,, Pym A,, Mwaba P,, Mason P,, Peter J,, Dheda K , TB-NEAT team . 2014. Feasibility, accuracy, and clinical effect of point-of-care Xpert MTB/RIF testing for tuberculosis in primary-care settings in Africa: a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet 383 : 424435.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
62. Churchyard GJ,, Stevens WS,, Mametja LD,, McCarthy KM,, Chihota V,, Nicol MP,, Erasmus LK,, Ndjeka NO,, Mvusi L,, Vassall A,, Sinanovic E,, Cox HS,, Dye C,, Grant AD,, Fielding KL . 2015. Xpert MTB/RIF versus sputum microscopy as the initial diagnostic test for tuberculosis: a cluster-randomised trial embedded in South African roll-out of Xpert MTB/RIF. Lancet Glob Health 3 : e450e457. [CrossRef]
63. Sreeramareddy CT,, Qin ZZ,, Satyanarayana S,, Subbaraman R,, Pai M . 2014. Delays in diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in India: a systematic review. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 18 : 255266.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
64. Jacobson KR , , et al . 2012. Implementation of GenoType MTBDRplus reduces time to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis therapy initiation in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis 56 : 503508.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
65. Naidoo P,, du Toit E,, Dunbar R,, Lombard C,, Caldwell J,, Detjen A , , et al . 2014. A comparison of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment commencement times in MDRTBPlus line probe assay and Xpert(R) MTB/RIF-based algorithms in a routine operational setting in Cape Town. PLoS One 9 : e103328.[CrossRef] [CrossRef]
66. Das J,, Kwan A,, Daniels B,, Satyanarayana S,, Subbaraman R,, Bergkvist S,, Das RK,, Das V,, Pai M . 2015. Use of standardised patients to assess quality of tuberculosis care: a pilot, cross-sectional study. Lancet Infect Dis 15 : 13051313. [CrossRef] [CrossRef]
67. McDowell A,, Pai M . 2016. Treatment as diagnosis and diagnosis as treatment: empirical management of presumptive tuberculosis in India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 20 : 536543.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
68. Pai M,, Temesgen Z . 2 March 2016. Mind the gap: time to address implementation gaps in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis.[CrossRef]
69. Pai M,, Behr M . 2016. Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and interferon-gamma release assays. Microbiol Spectrum 4(5):TBTB2-0023-2016.
70. World Health Organization . 2017. WHO Meeting Report of a Technical Expert Consultation: Non-inferiority analysis of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra compared to Xpert MTB/RIF. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Technologies reviewed by WHO for TB case detection

Citation: Pai M, Nicol M, Boehme C. 2017. Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions, p 363-378. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0019-2016
Generic image for table
Table 2

Technologies reviewed by WHO for drug-susceptibility testing

Citation: Pai M, Nicol M, Boehme C. 2017. Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions, p 363-378. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0019-2016
Generic image for table
Table 3

Translational challenges for developing innovative TB technologies that can meet the needs

Citation: Pai M, Nicol M, Boehme C. 2017. Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions, p 363-378. In Jacobs, Jr. W, McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme I (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0019-2016

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error