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Chapter 46 : Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects

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Abstract:

The classic work of Paul Buchner in the first half of the 20th century established the common occurrence of symbiotic associations between microbes and animals, often a fungus association hidden from view within an animal gut (see reference ). Interest in the fungi associated with insects continues ( ), and recently renewed interest comes from the molecular techniques available to study the interactions.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Many yeasts reproduce asexually by budding. from a culture. Scale bar = 5 μm. Photograph courtesy of N.H. Nguyen.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Figure 2

The edge of a 9-cm plate showing discrete budding yeast colonies developed on agar after streaking. Photograph courtesy of S.-O. Suh.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Hat-shaped ascospores of . Ascospore shape was once thought to be a good phylogenetic character in yeasts. DNA sequencing indicates it has arisen independently several times, not only in yeasts, but also in Pezizomycotina. Scale bar = 5 μm. Photograph courtesy of S.-O. Suh.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

(Passalidae). Partially dissected beetle shows the gut and its regions . (MG, midgut; PHG, posterior hindgut; AHG, anterior hindgut. Foregut (FG), MG, AHG, and PHG removed from the beetle. A surface film of attached bacteria is located in the differentiated AHG; is attached in the PHG (see Fig. 10 ) ( ). Preparation and photograph courtesy of N.H. Nguyen.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Figure 5

(Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini). Large, complex bilobed mesonotal mycangium (stained blue) with opening on the pronotum; spores of the mycangial symbiont at the edge of the pronotum. Fungi in Ceratocystidaceae, including , have close associations with certain species of beetle and produce arthrospore-like cells rather than yeast-like budding typical of other ambrosial symbionts. Photograph courtesy of Chase G. Mayers.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Figure 6

, a species of beetle (Erotylidae) with parental care; red speckled adult beside a late instar larva (grub) on white basidiocarp of a wood-decaying fungus in Bolivia. Photograph courtesy of J.V. McHugh.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Figure 7

The name of the yeast genus recognizes Dr. Sung-Oui Suh for his studies of yeasts in the field and laboratory. Barro Colorado Island, Panama, July 2002. Photograph, M. Blackwell.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Figure 8

Four yeast biologists (l. to r. Drs. Marc-André Lachance, Clete Kurtzman, Jack Fell, and Teun Boekhout) at a coffee break at a meeting to celebrate the centenary of the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (since February 10, 2017, known as the Westerdijk Fungal Biology Centre), Utrecht, The Netherlands, in Amsterdam, April 2004. The genus recognizes the research of Dr. Boekhout; all the others also have yeast genera named for them and are cited in this chapter. Photograph M. Blackwell.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Figure 9

(NRRL Y-17632), an ambrosia fungus disseminated by insect vectors, was isolated from a beetle larva in wood. This species has been reported to be associated with lymexylid ship timber beetles. Asci with hat-shaped ascospores developed on agar, although budding cells and abundant hyphae are also produced under the cultural conditions. Hat-shaped ascospores are a convergent character (see Fig. 3 ). Scale bar = 10 μm. See reference . Photograph courtesy of Cletus Kurtzman.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Figure 10

Water mount made without a cover slip of the interior hindgut of (Passalidae) showing several thalli attached along a furrow in the hindgut. Scale bar = 100 μm. See reference .

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Figure 11

Brown planthopper, , feeding on a rice stem. The insect and YLS harbored in its fat body are obligately associated for essential nutritional resources. Photograph courtesy of Sylvia Villareal, International Rice Research Institute.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Figure 12

Yeasts are usually studied from isolations made in petri dishes, and their life histories in nature are largely unknown. The yeast described as (CBS 8560) and the nematode have a unique phoretic relationship with the poplar borer beetle (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, ) that would be unobserved in pure culture. The yeast uses its bifurcate basal cell as a holdfast to attach to the nematode, and they both fly away on a beetle to get to a fresh environment. Scanning electron micrograph, bar = 0.4 mm. See reference . Courtesy of J. Kerrigan.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Figure 13

Ascospores of sp. photographed 24 h after being placed on agar. No cover slip was used, so it looks a little foggy. The ascospore produced several conidia at the ascospore tip, and these budded several times more to produce yeast cells before hyphae elongate. The yeasts are likely dispersed over the new substrate by the mite, improving the chance of finding a suitable fungal host in this complex life history. Scale bar = 50 μm. M. Blackwell.

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016
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Tables

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Table 1

Some common insect-yeast and YLS associations

Citation: Blackwell M. 2017. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects, p 945-962. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0081-2016

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