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Chapter 53 : Fungi as a Source of Food

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Abstract:

Since ancient times, humans have used fungi as food sources ( ). The edible sexual structures of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes (e.g., truffles), the so-called mushrooms, are produced mostly in wood because many fungi are tree symbionts or decayers of tree tissues. These fruiting bodies represent a rich source of proteins, with low fat content and otherwise nutritionally quite poor. In some soils, they accumulate pollution (heavy metals and radioactivity) and should only be eaten in moderate quantities. Some mushroom species are considered delicacies (e.g., truffles, boletus, morels), but cultivation attempts have been unsuccessful, with a few exceptions (e.g., ). Only a few saprobic species can be industrially produced, such as ( ), (shiitake), and , with production having mainly taken place in Asia for thousands of years ( ). Some other fungi, while not really cultured, are inoculated on trees grown in appropriate natural habitats to increase the production of fruiting bodies, such as for shiitake and oyster mushrooms, with, however, sometimes unpredictable success, as is the case for truffles ( ).

Citation: Dupont J, Dequin S, Giraud T, Le Tacon F, Marsit S, Ropars J, Richard F, Selosse M. 2017. Fungi as a Source of Food, p 1063-1085. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0030-2016
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Figure 1

Relationships between species and their industrial hybrids. Tree topology was obtained using a subset of 25,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms selected after genome alignment.

Citation: Dupont J, Dequin S, Giraud T, Le Tacon F, Marsit S, Ropars J, Richard F, Selosse M. 2017. Fungi as a Source of Food, p 1063-1085. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0030-2016
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Figure 2

Two hypotheses regarding origins of based on shared chromosomal translocations and differences in ploidy between groups 1 and 2. Hybridization between diploid Sc and Se types occurred before chromosomal translocations, whereas chromosomal deletions occurred only in ancestral group 1 strains. After hybridization between haploid Sc and diploid Se types and chromosomal translocations, ancestral group 2 strains gained another Sc type (i.e., a second hybridization event occurred). Chromosomal deletion or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) explains single nucleotide polymorphisms observed when comparing reference genomes.

Citation: Dupont J, Dequin S, Giraud T, Le Tacon F, Marsit S, Ropars J, Richard F, Selosse M. 2017. Fungi as a Source of Food, p 1063-1085. In Heitman J, Howlett B, Crous P, Stukenbrock E, James T, Gow N (ed), The Fungal Kingdom. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0030-2016
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