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Chapter 11 : Biological Toxins: Safety and Science

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Abstract:

Biological toxins are poisonous by-products of microorganisms, plants, and animals that produce adverse clinical effects in humans, animals, or plants. A toxin is defined as “a poisonous substance that is a specific product of the metabolic activities of a living organism and is usually very unstable, notably toxic when introduced into the tissues, and typically capable of inducing antibody formation” (Merriam-Webster OnLine, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/toxin). Biological toxins include metabolites of living organisms, degradation products of dead organisms, and materials rendered toxic by the metabolic activity of microorganisms. Some toxins can also be produced by bacterial or fungal fermentation, the use of recombinant DNA technology, or chemical synthesis of low-molecular-weight toxins. Because they exert their adverse health effects through intoxication, the toxic effect is analogous to chemical poisoning rather than to a traditional biological infection.

Citation: Kozlovac J, Hawley R. 2017. Biological Toxins: Safety and Science, p 247-268. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch11
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Citation: Kozlovac J, Hawley R. 2017. Biological Toxins: Safety and Science, p 247-268. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Citation: Kozlovac J, Hawley R. 2017. Biological Toxins: Safety and Science, p 247-268. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Citation: Kozlovac J, Hawley R. 2017. Biological Toxins: Safety and Science, p 247-268. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Citation: Kozlovac J, Hawley R. 2017. Biological Toxins: Safety and Science, p 247-268. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Citation: Kozlovac J, Hawley R. 2017. Biological Toxins: Safety and Science, p 247-268. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 6.

Citation: Kozlovac J, Hawley R. 2017. Biological Toxins: Safety and Science, p 247-268. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 7.

Citation: Kozlovac J, Hawley R. 2017. Biological Toxins: Safety and Science, p 247-268. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 8.

Citation: Kozlovac J, Hawley R. 2017. Biological Toxins: Safety and Science, p 247-268. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 9.

Citation: Kozlovac J, Hawley R. 2017. Biological Toxins: Safety and Science, p 247-268. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch11

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