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Chapter 18 : Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes

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Abstract:

Deadly disease outbreaks have become a frequent occurrence throughout the world with infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus of Malaysia, Hendra virus of Australia, hantavirus in the United States, and most recently, the Ebola virus in Africa (1). Additionally, new laboratory techniques have become reliant on the use of infectious agents for common procedures. Lentivirus, adenovirus, vaccinia virus, and human cancer cells are frequently found in research laboratories worldwide. With the increased exposure to these biological agents comes the greater risk of developing a laboratory-associated infection (LAI). Previous studies have accounted for 5,527 LAIs from 1930 to 2004, with 204 of these resulting in death (2–4). In a recent study of all LAIs from 1976 to 2010, it was found that there were 197 cases reported to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) due to exposure to specifically recombinant DNA-based materials (5). Unfortunately, most LAIs (82%) cannot be traced to a single incident to determine the cause of exposure (3, 5–7). Although good sterile and aseptic techniques are critical, virtually every activity in the laboratory gives rise to aerosols (8–10). Aerosols containing infectious agents, compounded by contact spread (11), could create an epidemic before any symptoms present. This underscores the need for protection from these agents, such as use of proper aseptic technique, personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate primary barriers.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Fume hood basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Class I BSC basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Class II, Type A1/A2 cabinet basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Representative performance envelope of a Class II, Type A2 BSC. The BSC passes the microbiological tests within the performance envelope.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Class II, Type A1 (original Type A) cabinet basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Class II, Type A2-exhausted cabinet basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Vapor-handling characteristics of class II BSCs. Results from the mathematical model compared to observed concentration. Given an estimated rate of volatile generation in the cabinet, and measured cabinet airflows, the model will calculate a volatile concentration in the cabinet downflow air.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 8
Figure 8

Class II, Type B1 (original Type B) basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 9
Figure 9

Class II, Type B1 (NSF definition) basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 10
Figure 10

Class II, Type B2 cabinet basic design and airflow schematic.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 11
Figure 11

Basic design and airflow schematic for a VFCB, showing unfiltered outward airflow.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 12
Figure 12

Basic design schematic of a glove box system to handle animals during inhalation exposure.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 13
Figure 13

Class III BSC basic design schematic.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 14
Figure 14

Basic design schematic of a pharmacy glove box for aseptic medication preparations.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 15
Figure 15

Basic design schematic of a pharmacy glove box for aseptic preparation of medications containing hazardous chemicals.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 16
Figure 16

Basic design schematic of a through-the-wall Class III system for handling potentially hazardous unknown terrorism samples.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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Image of Figure 17
Figure 17

Basic design schematic of a Class II-style enclosure for automated laboratory equipment.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Citation: Eagleson D, Held K, Gaudette L, Quint C, Stuart D. 2017. Primary Barriers: Biological Safety Cabinets, Fume Hoods, and Glove Boxes, p 375-398. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch18

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