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Chapter 22 : Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells

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Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

A broad range of infectious agents can be found in the blood at different stages of infection in humans. Most agents are present at high levels during a brief amount of time (i.e., septicemic phase), rarely are transmitted by blood, and therefore, are not usually categorized as “blood-borne” pathogens. Some agents, particularly viruses that induce a latent-phase or long-term carrier state, can be transmitted to other humans through blood or body fluid contact. The three most common examples of viruses existing in long-term carrier states that frequently exist as an asymptomatic infection are human HIV-1, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Occupational infections with these blood-borne pathogens have been documented globally and can occur when blood or body fluids containing these agents are transferred directly to the worker, e.g., through needlestick exposures to contaminated needles or blood or body fluid contact with mucous membranes or nonintact skin. The study of how these infections occur provides insight into the risks associated with other blood-borne pathogens that may be present in a carrier state in the blood such as (malaria), West Nile virus, (syphilis), or viral hemorrhagic fever viruses (e.g., Ebola).

Citation: Hunt D. 2017. Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, p 443-462. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch22
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Figure 1

Decision logic for selecting sharps disposal containers. Adapted from NIOSH ( ).

Citation: Hunt D. 2017. Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, p 443-462. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch22
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Figure 2

Number of documented occupationally acquired HIV infections by year of exposure or injury, as of December 2013. Adapted from reference .

Citation: Hunt D. 2017. Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, p 443-462. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch22
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References

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Tables

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Table 1.

Citation: Hunt D. 2017. Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, p 443-462. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Citation: Hunt D. 2017. Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, p 443-462. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Citation: Hunt D. 2017. Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, p 443-462. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Citation: Hunt D. 2017. Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, p 443-462. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Citation: Hunt D. 2017. Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, p 443-462. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 6.

Citation: Hunt D. 2017. Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, p 443-462. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 7.

Citation: Hunt D. 2017. Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, p 443-462. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 8.

Citation: Hunt D. 2017. Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, p 443-462. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 9.

Citation: Hunt D. 2017. Standard Precautions for Handling Human Fluids, Tissues, and Cells, p 443-462. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch22

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