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Chapter 35 : Biosafety of Plant Research in Greenhouses and Other Specialized Containment Facilities

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Biosafety of Plant Research in Greenhouses and Other Specialized Containment Facilities, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Biosafety evaluations of plant research require the assessment and analysis of the plants alone as well as of the biological organisms associated with the plants, either naturally or introduced in planned experiments. Hence, the term “plant” refers to both the plant and its associated biological organisms. Plant research discussed in this chapter is conducted in specialized facilities that allow for plant growth and manipulation, collectively referred to here as containment facilities. Such facilities may be greenhouses, growth chambers, and modified laboratories that serve as places for growing plants under controlled conditions. Some of these facilities are specialized to isolate plants from biotic risks in the environment or to control fluctuations in abiotic or environmental factors. Although a particular plant can exist in an environment with wide variability in ambient temperature, light, nutrition, and other essential growth components, environmental conditions must be controlled to ensure scientific reproducibility. It is generally accepted that reducing variability, in this case by controlling environmental conditions, results in better scientific predictability. Furthermore, these actions enable other researchers to reproduce the experiments.

Citation: Adair D, Tolin S, Vidaver A, Irwin R. 2017. Biosafety of Plant Research in Greenhouses and Other Specialized Containment Facilities, p 665-677. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch35
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Figures

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Figure 1

Weighted disease triangle. The shortened sides represent the limiting effects of the respective factors on disease, represented by triangle area. Reprinted from ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Adair D, Tolin S, Vidaver A, Irwin R. 2017. Biosafety of Plant Research in Greenhouses and Other Specialized Containment Facilities, p 665-677. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch35
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Figure 2

Relative sizes of a pollen grain, fungal spore, bacterium, and virus particle.

Citation: Adair D, Tolin S, Vidaver A, Irwin R. 2017. Biosafety of Plant Research in Greenhouses and Other Specialized Containment Facilities, p 665-677. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch35
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Figure 3

Effectiveness of brass screens in preventing the movement of leaf miner, melon aphid, silverleaf whitefly, and western flower thrips. For a particular insect, screens with the same letter are not significantly different from one another in their ability to exclude that insect ( < 0.05 analysis of variance [ANOVA] and Ryan's multiple range Q-test). All of the brass screens tested prevented passage of green peach aphids. Reprinted from with permission of the publisher ( ).

Citation: Adair D, Tolin S, Vidaver A, Irwin R. 2017. Biosafety of Plant Research in Greenhouses and Other Specialized Containment Facilities, p 665-677. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch35
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Figure 4

Drain sock for catching seed. Release of seeds from a facility can be controlled by the use of a fabric “sock” attached to the drain opening. (Photo courtesy of Darrin Rose, University of Sheffield.)

Citation: Adair D, Tolin S, Vidaver A, Irwin R. 2017. Biosafety of Plant Research in Greenhouses and Other Specialized Containment Facilities, p 665-677. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch35
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Figure 5

Precautions at the barrier door in a BL3-P facility. Arrows indicate the location of the manometer/pressure indicator for visualization of directional air flow, an air wash that blows air directly onto personnel during entry or exit, thereby reducing the likelihood of introducing insects, and a card reader for restricting/recording access. (Photo courtesy of David Hansen, University of Minnesota.)

Citation: Adair D, Tolin S, Vidaver A, Irwin R. 2017. Biosafety of Plant Research in Greenhouses and Other Specialized Containment Facilities, p 665-677. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch35
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Figure 6

Plant Containment Symbol. A new symbol is available to designate when plant material requires containment. This is an alternate to the widespread and often inappropriate use of the universal biohazard symbol for transgenic plant material. Creation of Spoon Creative Inc. and Adair Consulting.

Citation: Adair D, Tolin S, Vidaver A, Irwin R. 2017. Biosafety of Plant Research in Greenhouses and Other Specialized Containment Facilities, p 665-677. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch35
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Figure 7

Design of high-containment facility. (Reprinted with permission from RSP Architects, Minneapolis, MN.)

Citation: Adair D, Tolin S, Vidaver A, Irwin R. 2017. Biosafety of Plant Research in Greenhouses and Other Specialized Containment Facilities, p 665-677. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch35
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Figure 8

Double-loaded greenhouse corridor. Reprinted with permission from Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK.)

Citation: Adair D, Tolin S, Vidaver A, Irwin R. 2017. Biosafety of Plant Research in Greenhouses and Other Specialized Containment Facilities, p 665-677. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch35
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References

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Tables

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Table 1.

Citation: Adair D, Tolin S, Vidaver A, Irwin R. 2017. Biosafety of Plant Research in Greenhouses and Other Specialized Containment Facilities, p 665-677. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch35

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