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Chapter 36 : Biosafety Guidelines for Working with Small Mammals in a Field Environment

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Biosafety Guidelines for Working with Small Mammals in a Field Environment, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Discussions of biosafety in the laboratory setting can be found in numerous texts, including other chapters in this book. Several published guidelines exist, with the (BMBL) (1) text serving as the general authority. There are a wealth of guidelines available for biosafety in the laboratory, but only a handful of references exist regarding biosafety considerations for individuals performing fieldwork, i.e., work done outside a laboratory with materials containing or potentially containing infectious agents, and there is no formal text describing structured risk assessment strategies for fieldwork that either incidentally or intentionally involves contact with zoonotic agents that have pathogenic potential. This text is meant to serve as a reference for existing guidelines, as well as a tool that can be used to help determine what risk levels exist for a planned field activity and how those risks may be mitigated. Protection of fieldworkers should be the prime focus of both supervisor and the workers themselves.

Citation: Carroll D, Tack D, Calisher C. 2017. Biosafety Guidelines for Working with Small Mammals in a Field Environment, p 679-685. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch36
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Figures

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Figure 1

Identifying the risks. Example of a generalized decision matrix for zoonotic disease potential in the environment.

Citation: Carroll D, Tack D, Calisher C. 2017. Biosafety Guidelines for Working with Small Mammals in a Field Environment, p 679-685. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch36
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Estimating the risk of acquiring an infectious agent.

Citation: Carroll D, Tack D, Calisher C. 2017. Biosafety Guidelines for Working with Small Mammals in a Field Environment, p 679-685. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch36
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References

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1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health. 2009. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. HHS Publication No. (CDC) 21-1112. http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL.pdf.
2. Taylor LH, Latham SM, Woolhouse ME. 2001. Risk factors for human disease emergence. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356:983989.[PubMed]
3. Hughes JM, Peters CJ, Cohen ML, Mahy BW. 1993. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: an emerging infectious disease. Science 262:850851.[PubMed]
4. Duchin JS, Koster FT, Peters CJ, Simpson GL, Tempest B, Zaki SR, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Nichol S, Umland ET, Moolenaar RL, Reef SE, Nolte KB, Gallaher MM, Butler JC, Breiman RF The Hantavirus Study Group. 1994. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: a clinical description of 17 patients with a newly recognized disease. N Engl J Med 330:949955.[PubMed]
5. Nichol ST, Spiropoulou CF, Morzunov S, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Feldmann H, Sanchez A, Childs J, Zaki S, Peters CJ. 1993. Genetic identification of a hantavirus associated with an outbreak of acute respiratory illness. Science 262:914917.[PubMed]
6. Mills JN, Yates TL, Childs JE, Parmenter PR, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Peters CJ. 1995. Guidelines for working with rodents potentially infected with hantavirus. J Mammal 76:716722.
7. Mills JN, Childs JE, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, Velleca WM. 1995. Methods for Trapping and Sampling Small Mammals for Virologic Testing. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA.
8. Jones KE, Patel NG, Levy MA, Storeygard A, Balk D, Gittleman JL, Daszak P. 2008. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 451:990993.[PubMed]
9. Calisher CH. 2015. Rabies: low probability, not low risk. Bat Res. News. 56:1517.
10. Johnson B. 2001. Understanding, assessing, and communicating topics related to risk in biomedical research facilities, p 149166. In ABSA Anthology of Biosafety IV—Issues in Public Health. American Biological Safety Association, Mundelein, IL. http://www.absa.org/0100johnson.html.
11. Mills JN, Carroll DS, Revelez MA, Amman BR, Gage KL, Henry S, Regnery RL. 2007. Minimizing the infectious disease risks in the field. Wildl Prof 1:3035.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Citation: Carroll D, Tack D, Calisher C. 2017. Biosafety Guidelines for Working with Small Mammals in a Field Environment, p 679-685. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Citation: Carroll D, Tack D, Calisher C. 2017. Biosafety Guidelines for Working with Small Mammals in a Field Environment, p 679-685. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Citation: Carroll D, Tack D, Calisher C. 2017. Biosafety Guidelines for Working with Small Mammals in a Field Environment, p 679-685. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch36

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