1887

Chapter 6 : Protozoa and Helminths

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Protozoa and Helminths, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819637/9781555816209.ch6-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819637/9781555816209.ch6-2.gif

Abstract:

Parasitic diseases have public health and clinical importance throughout the world, not just in developing countries. Some parasitic diseases are endemic globally (e.g., toxoplasmosis and cryptosporidiosis), and even those that are endemic primarily in developing countries or in the tropics and subtropics are receiving increasing attention in developed countries, in part because of their importance in returning travelers and immigrants. As clinical interest in and laboratory research about parasitic diseases increase and as the numbers of infected patients increase, so do the numbers of persons working in settings in which they could be exposed to parasites.

Citation: Herwaldt B. 2017. Protozoa and Helminths, p 105-145. In Wooley D, Byers K (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819637.ch6
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819637.ch6
1. Herwaldt BL. 2001. Laboratory-acquired parasitic infections from accidental exposures. Clin Microbiol Rev 14:659688[CrossRef].[PubMed]
2. Pike RM. 1976. Laboratory-associated infections: summary and analysis of 3921 cases. Health Lab Sci 13:105114.[PubMed]
3. Wilson M, Schantz PM, Nutman T,. 2006. Molecular and immunological approaches to the diagnosis of parasitic infections, p 557568. In Detrick B, Hamilton RG, Folds JD (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.[CrossRef]
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. 2009. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. Chosewood LC,, Wilson DE (ed). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL.pdf.
5. Hankenson FC, Johnston NA, Weigler BJ, Di Giacomo RF. 2003. Zoonoses of occupational health importance in contemporary laboratory animal research. Comp Med 53:579601.[PubMed]
6. Miller JM, Astles R, Baszler T, Chapin K, Carey R, Garcia L, Gray L, Larone D, Pentella M, Pollock A, Shapiro DS, Weirich E, Wiedbrauk D Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2012. Guidelines for safe work practices in human and animal medical diagnostic laboratories. Recommendations of a CDC-convened, Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel. MMWR Suppl 61:1102.[PubMed]
7. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1991. Title 29 CFR Part 1910.1030. Protection from bloodborne pathogens. Fed Regist 56:6417564182.
8. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 2001. Title 29 CFR Part 1910.1030. Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens: needlesticks and other sharp injuries; final rule. Fed Regist 66:53175325.
9. U.S. Public Health Service. 2001. Updated U.S. Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. MMWR Recomm Rep 50(RR-11):152.[PubMed]
10. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2014. Protection of Laboratory Workers from Occupationally Acquired Infections: Approved Guideline, 4th ed. CLSI document M29–A4. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, Pa.
11. Sewell DL. 1995. Laboratory-associated infections and biosafety. Clin Microbiol Rev 8:389405.[PubMed]
12. Herwaldt BL,. 2006. Protozoa and helminths, p 115161. In Fleming DO, Hunt DL (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, 4th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.[CrossRef]
13. Herwaldt BL,. 2000. Protozoa and helminths, p 89110. In Fleming DO, Hunt DL (ed), Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
14. Herwaldt BL, Juranek DD,. 1995. Protozoa and helminths, p 7791. In Fleming DO, Richardson JH, Tulis JI, Vesley D (ed), Laboratory Safety: Principles and Practices, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
15. Herwaldt BL, Juranek DD. 1993. Laboratory-acquired malaria, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, and toxoplasmosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48:313323.[PubMed]
16. Napoli VM, McGowan JE Jr. 1987. How much blood is in a needlestick? J Infect Dis 155:828[CrossRef].[PubMed]
17. Sexton RC Jr, Eyles DE, Dillman RE. 1953. Adult toxoplasmosis. Am J Med 14:366377[CrossRef].[PubMed]
18. Brener Z. 1987. Laboratory-acquired Chagas disease: comment. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81:527[CrossRef]. [PubMed]
19. CDSC. 1997. Needlestick malaria with tragic consequences. Commun Dis Rep CDR Wkly 7:247.[PubMed]
20. Romi R, Boccolini D, Majori G. 1999. Malaria surveillance in Italy: 1997 analysis and 1998 provisional data. Euro Surveill 4:8587.[PubMed]
21. Visvesvara GS, Roy SL, Maguire JH,. 2011. Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia pedata, p 707713. In Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF (ed), Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens & Practice, 3rd ed. Elsevier, Philadelphia, Pa.[CrossRef]
22. Herwaldt BL, Linden JV, Bosserman E, Young C, Olkowska D, Wilson M. 2011. Transfusion-associated babesiosis in the United States: a description of cases. Ann Intern Med 155: 509519[CrossRef].[PubMed]
23. Conrad PA, Kjemtrup AM, Carreno RA, Thomford J, Wainwright K, Eberhard M, Quick R, Telford SR III, Herwaldt BL. 2006. Description of Babesia duncani n.sp. (Apicomplexa: Babesiidae) from humans and its differentiation from other piroplasms. Int J Parasitol 36:779789[CrossRef].[PubMed]
24. Persing DH, Herwaldt BL, Glaser C, Lane RS, Thomford JW, Mathiesen D, Krause PJ, Phillip DF, Conrad PA. 1995. Infection with a Babesia-like organism in northern California. N Engl J Med 332:298303[CrossRef].[PubMed]
25. Herwaldt BL, de Bruyn G, Pieniazek NJ, Homer M, Lofy KH, Slemenda SB, Fritsche TR, Persing DH, Limaye AP. 2004. Babesia divergens-like infection, Washington State. Emerg Infect Dis 10:622629[CrossRef].[PubMed]
26. Herwaldt BL, Persing DH, Précigout EA, Goff WL, Mathiesen DA, Taylor PW, Eberhard ML, Gorenflot AF. 1996. A fatal case of babesiosis in Missouri: identification of another piroplasm that infects humans. Ann Intern Med 124:643650[CrossRef].[PubMed]
27. Herwaldt BL, Cacciò S, Gherlinzoni F, Aspöck H, Slemenda SB, Piccaluga P, Martinelli G, Edelhofer R, Hollenstein U, Poletti G, Pampiglione S, Löschenberger K, Tura S, Pieniazek NJ. 2003. Molecular characterization of a non-Babesia divergens organism causing zoonotic babesiosis in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 9:942948[CrossRef].[PubMed]
28. Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, Shapiro ED, Halperin JJ, Steere AC, Klempner MS, Krause PJ, Bakken JS, Strle F, Stanek G, Bockenstedt L, Fish D, Dumler JS, Nadelman RB. 2006. The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 43:10891134[CrossRef].[PubMed]
29. Herwaldt BL. 1999. Leishmaniasis. Lancet 354:11911199[CrossRef].[PubMed]
30. Dey A, Singh S. 2006. Transfusion transmitted leishmaniasis: a case report and review of literature. Indian J Med Microbiol 24: 165170.[PubMed]
31. Dillon NL, Stolf HO, Yoshida EL, Marques ME. 1993. [Accidental cutaneous leishmaniasis.] In Portuguese. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 35:385387[CrossRef].[PubMed]
32. Chung HL. 1931. An early case of kala-azar, possibly an oral infection in the laboratory. Natl Med J China 17:617621.
33. Delgado O, Guevara P, Silva S, Belfort E, Ramirez JL. 1996. Follow-up of a human accidental infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using conventional immunologic techniques and polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55:267272.[PubMed]
34. Evans TG, Pearson RD. 1988. Clinical and immunological responses following accidental inoculation of Leishmania donovani. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82:854856[CrossRef].[PubMed]
35. Freedman DO, MacLean JD, Viloria JB. 1987. A case of laboratory acquired Leishmania donovani infection; evidence for primary lymphatic dissemination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81:118119[CrossRef].[PubMed]
36. Knobloch J, Demar M. 1997. Accidental Leishmania mexicana infection in an immunosuppressed laboratory technician. Trop Med Int Health 2:11521155[CrossRef].[PubMed]
37. Sadick MD, Locksley RM, Raff HV. 1984. Development of cellular immunity in cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica. J Infect Dis 150:135138[CrossRef].[PubMed]
38. Sampaio RN, de Lima LM, Vexenat A, Cuba CC, Barreto AC, Marsden PD. 1983. A laboratory infection with Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 77:274[CrossRef].[PubMed]
39. Stamper LW, Patrick RL, Fay MP, Lawyer PG, Elnaiem DE, Secundino N, Debrabant A, Sacks DL, Peters NC. 2011. Infection parameters in the sand fly vector that predict transmission of Leishmania major. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1288[CrossRef].[PubMed]
40. Terry LL, Lewis JL Jr, Sessoms SM. 1950. Laboratory infection with Leishmania donovani; a case report. Am J Trop Med Hyg 30:643649.[PubMed]
41. Coatney GR, Collins WE, Warren M, Contacos PG. 1971. The Primate Malarias. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
42. Eyles DE, Coatney GR, Getz ME. 1960. Vivax-type malaria parasite of macaques transmissible to man. Science 131:18121813[CrossRef].[PubMed]
43. Alweis RL, DiRosario K, Conidi G, Kain KC, Olans R, Tully JL. 2004. Serial nosocomial transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria from patient to nurse to patient. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 25:5559[CrossRef].[PubMed]
44. Antunes F, Forte M, Tavares L, Botas J, Carvalho C, Carmona H, Araujo FC. 1987. Malaria in Portugal 1977–1986. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81:561562[CrossRef].[PubMed]
45. Bending MR, Maurice PD. 1980. Malaria: a laboratory risk. Postgrad Med J 56:344345[CrossRef].[PubMed]
46. Börsch G, Odendahl J, Sabin G, Ricken D. 1982. Malaria transmission from patient to nurse. Lancet 2:1212[CrossRef].[PubMed]
47. Bourée P, Fouquet E. 1978. [Malaria: direct interhuman contamination.] In French. Nouv Presse Med 7:1865.[PubMed]
48. Bouteille B, Darde ML, Weinbreck P, Voultoury JC, Gobeaux R, Pestre-Alexandre M. 1990. [Pernicious malaria by accidental needle inoculation.] In French. Bull Soc Fr Parasitol 8:6972.
49. Bruce-Chwatt LJ. 1982. Imported malaria: an uninvited guest. Br Med Bull 38:179185.[PubMed]
50. Burne JC. 1970. Malaria by accidental inoculation. Lancet 2:936[CrossRef].[PubMed]
51. Burne JC, Draper CC. 1971. Accidental self-inoculation with malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 65:1[CrossRef].[PubMed]
52. Cannon NJ Jr, Walker SP, Dismukes WE. 1972. Malaria acquired by accidental needle puncture. JAMA 222:1425[CrossRef].[PubMed]
53. Carosi G, Maccabruni A, Castelli F, Viale P. 1986. Accidental and transfusion malaria in Italy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80:667668[CrossRef].[PubMed]
54. Carrière J, Datry A, Hilmarsdottir I, Danis M, Gentilini M. 1993. [Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum following an accidental sting.] In French. Presse Med 22:1707.[PubMed]
55. Center for Disease Control. 1972. Malaria Surveillance 1971 Annual Report. DHEW publication (HSM) 72–8152. Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga.
56. Centers for Disease Control. 1984. Malaria Surveillance Annual Summary 1982. Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga.
57. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Malaria surveillance—United States, 2000. MMWR Surveill Summ 51:921.
58. Cross JH, Hsu-Kuo MY, Lien JC. 1973. Accidental human infection with Plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 4:481483.[PubMed]
59. Cullen KA, Arguin PM Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2013. Malaria surveillance—United States, 2011. MMWR Surveill Summ 62:117.[PubMed]
60. Cullen KA, Arguin PM Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2014. Malaria surveillance—United States, 2012. MMWR Surveill Summ 63:122.[PubMed]
61. Daumal M, Verreman V, Daumal F, Manoury B, Colpart E. 1996. [Plasmodium falciparum malaria acquired by accidental needle puncture.] In French. Med Mal Infect 26:797798[CrossRef].
62. Druilhe P, Trape JF, Leroy JP, Godard C, Gentilini M. 1980. [Two accidental human infections by Plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii: a clinical and serological study.] In French. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 60:349354.[PubMed]
63. Freedman AM. 1987. Unusual forms of malaria transmission. A report of 2 cases. S Afr Med J 71:183184.[PubMed]
64. Garnham PC. 1967. Malaria in mammals excluding man. Adv Parasitol 5:139204[CrossRef].[PubMed]
65. Haworth FL, Cook GC. 1995. Needlestick malaria. Lancet 346:1361[CrossRef].[PubMed]
66. Hira PR, Siboo R, Al-Kandari S, Behbehani K. 1987. Induced malaria and antibody titres in acute infections and in blood donors in Kuwait. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81:391394[CrossRef].[PubMed]
67. Holm K. 1924. Über einen Fall von Infektion mit Malaria Tropica an der Leiche. In German. Klin Wochenschr 3:16331634.[CrossRef]
68. Jensen JB, Capps TC, Carlin JM. 1981. Clinical drug-resistant falciparum malaria acquired from cultured parasites. Am J Trop Med Hyg 30:523525.[PubMed]
69. Kociecka W, Skoryna B. 1987. Falciparum malaria probably acquired from infected skin-cut. Lancet 2:220[CrossRef].[PubMed]
70. Lettau LA. 1991. Nosocomial transmission and infection control aspects of parasitic and ectoparasitic diseases. Part II. Blood and tissue parasites. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 12:111121[CrossRef].[PubMed]
71. Lewis J. 1970. Iatrogenic malaria. N Z Med J 71:8889.[PubMed]
72. Most H. 1973. Plasmodium cynomolgi malaria: accidental human infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22:157158.[PubMed]
73. Petithory J, Lebeau G. 1977. [A probable laboratory contamination with Plasmodium falciparum.] In French. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 70:371375.
74. Raffenot D, Rogeaux O, De Goer B, Zerr B. 1999. Plasmodium falciparum malaria acquired by accidental inoculation. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 18:680681[CrossRef].[PubMed]
75. Schmidt LH, Greenland R, Genther CS. 1961. The transmission of Plasmodium cynomolgi to man. Am J Trop Med Hyg 10:679688.[PubMed]
76. Skarbinski J, James EM, Causer LM, Barber AM, Mali S, Nguyen-Dinh P, Roberts JM, Parise ME, Slutsker L, Newman RD. 2006. Malaria surveillance—United States, 2004. MMWR Surveill Summ 55:2337.[PubMed]
77. Tarantola AP, Rachline AC, Konto C, Houzé S, Lariven S, Fichelle A, Ammar D, Sabah-Mondan C, Vrillon H, Bouchaud O, Pitard F, Bouvet E and Groupe d'Etude des Risques d'Exposition des Soignants aux agents infectieux. 2004. Occupational malaria following needlestick injury. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 18781880.
78. Tarantola A, Rachline A, Konto C, Houzé S, Sabah-Mondan C, Vrillon H, Bouvet E Group for the Prevention of Occupational Infections in Health Care Workers. 2005. Occupational Plasmodium falciparum malaria following accidental blood exposure: a case, published reports and considerations for post-exposure prophylaxis. Scand J Infect Dis 37:131140.[PubMed]
79. van Agtmael MA. 1997. A most unfortunate needlestick injury: why the docter [sic] paid a taxi for the nurse. (letter). BMJ 314:h.
80. Vareil MO, Tandonnet O, Chemoul A, Bogreau H, Saint-Léger M, Micheau M, Millet P, Koeck JL, Boyer A, Rogier C, Malvy D. 2011. Unusual transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, Bordeaux, France, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis 17:248250[CrossRef].[PubMed]
81. Williams JL, Innis BT, Burkot TR, Hayes DE, Schneider I. 1983. Falciparum malaria: accidental transmission to man by mosquitoes after infection with culture-derived gametocytes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32:657659.[PubMed]
82. Pasticier A, Mechali D, Saimot G, Coulaud JP, Payet M. 1974. [Endemic malaria. Diagnostic problems]. In French. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 67:5764.
83. Contacos PG, Collins WE. 1973. Letter: malarial relapse mechanism. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 67:617618[CrossRef].[PubMed]
84. Collins WE,. 1982. Simian malaria, p 141150. In Steele JH, Jacobs L, Arambulo P (ed), Parasitic Zoonoses, vol 1. CRC Press, Inc, Boca Raton, Fla.
85. Abulrahi HA, Bohlega EA, Fontaine RE, al-Seghayer SM, al-Ruwais AA. 1997. Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmitted in hospital through heparin locks. Lancet 349:2325[CrossRef].[PubMed]
86. Al-Hamdan NA. 2009. Hospital-acquired malaria associated with dispensing diluted heparin solution. J Vector Borne Dis 46:313314.[PubMed]
87. Al-Saigul AM, Fontaine RE, Haddad Q. 2000. Nosocomial malaria from contamination of a multidose heparin container with blood. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 21:329330[CrossRef].[PubMed]
88. Bruce-Chwatt LJ. 1972. Blood transfusion and tropical disease. Trop Dis Bull 69:825862.[PubMed]
89. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Malaria surveillance—United States, 1996. MMWR Surveill Summ 50: 122.
90. CDSC. 1999. Hospital-acquired malaria in Nottingham. Commun Dis Rep CDR Wkly 9:123.[PubMed]
91. Chen KT, Chen CJ, Chang PY, Morse DL. 1999. A nosocomial outbreak of malaria associated with contaminated catheters and contrast medium of a computed tomographic scanner. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 20:2225[CrossRef].[PubMed]
92. de Oliveira CG, Freire F Jr. 1948. [An epidemic of inoculated malaria]. In Portuguese. Bol Clin Hosp Civis Lisb 12:375404.
93. Dziubek Z, Kajfasz P, Basiak W. 1993. [Hospital infection of tropical malaria in Poland]. In Polish. Wiad Lek 46:860863.[PubMed]
94. González L, Ochoa J, Franco L, Arroyave M, Restrepo E, Blair S, Maestre A. 2005. Nosocomial Plasmodium falciparum infections confirmed by molecular typing in Medellín, Colombia. Malar J 4:9[CrossRef].[PubMed]
95. Jain SK, Persaud D, Perl TM, Pass MA, Murphy KM, Pisciotta JM, Scholl PF, Casella JF, Sullivan DJ. 2005. Nosocomial malaria and saline flush. Emerg Infect Dis 11:10971099[CrossRef].[PubMed]
96. Jones JL.2000. Recommendations from an external review following transmission of malaria in hospital. Euro Surveill 4(10):pii=1645. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=1645.
97. Kim JY, Kim JS, Park MH, Kang YA, Kwon JW, Cho SH, Lee BC, Kim TS, Lee JK. 2009. A locally acquired falciparum malaria via nosocomial transmission in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 47:269273[CrossRef].[PubMed]
98. Kirchgatter K, Wunderlich G, Branquinho MS, Salles TM, Lian YC, Carneiro-Junior RA, Di Santi SM. 2002. Molecular typing of Plasmodium falciparum from Giemsa-stained blood smears confirms nosocomial malaria transmission. Acta Trop 84:199203[CrossRef].[PubMed]
99. Lee EH, Adams EH, Madison-Antenucci S, Lee L, Barnwell JW, Whitehouse J, Clement E, Bajwa W, Jones LE, Lutterloh E, Weiss D, Ackelsberg J. 2016. Healthcare-associated transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in New York City. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 37:113115[CrossRef].[PubMed]
100. Moro ML, Romi R, Severini C, Casadio GP, Sarta G, Tampieri G, Scardovi A, Pozzetti C Malaria Outbreak Group. 2002. Patient-to-patient transmission of nosocomial malaria in Italy. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 23:338341[CrossRef].[PubMed]
101. Mortimer PP. 1997. Nosocomial malaria. Lancet 349:574[CrossRef].[PubMed]
102. Navarro P, Betancurt A, Paublini H, Medina I, Núñez MJ, Domínguez M. 1987. [Plasmodium falciparum malaria as a nosocomial infection]. In Spanish. Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 102:476482.[PubMed]
103. Piro S, Sammud M, Badi S, Al Ssabi L. 2001. Hospital-acquired malaria transmitted by contaminated gloves. J Hosp Infect 47:156158[CrossRef].[PubMed]
104. Varma AJ. 1982. Malaria acquired by accidental inoculation. Can Med Assoc J 126:14191420.[PubMed]
105. Winterberg DH, Wever PC, van Rheenen-Verberg C, Kempers O, Durand R, Bos AP, Teeuw AH, Spanjaard L, Dankert J. 2005. A boy with nosocomial malaria tropica contracted in a Dutch hospital. Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:8991[CrossRef].[PubMed]
106. Arness MK, Brown JD, Dubey JP, Neafie RC, Granstrom DE. 1999. An outbreak of acute eosinophilic myositis attributed to human Sarcocystis parasitism. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61:548553.[PubMed]
107. Beaver PC, Gadgil K, Morera P. 1979. Sarcocystis in man: a review and report of five cases. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28:819844.[PubMed]
108. Dubey JP, Speer CA, Fayer R. 1989. Sarcocystosis of Animals and Man. CRC Press, Inc, Boca Raton, Fla.
109. Esposito DH, Stich A, Epelboin L, Malvy D, Han PV, Bottieau E, da Silva A, Zanger P, Slesak G, van Genderen PJ, Rosenthal BM, Cramer JP, Visser LG, Muñoz J, Drew CP, Goldsmith CS, Steiner F, Wagner N, Grobusch MP, Plier DA, Tappe D, Sotir MJ, Brown C, Brunette GW, Fayer R, von Sonnenburg F, Neumayr A, Kozarsky PE; Tioman Island Sarcocystosis Investigation Team. 2014. Acute muscular sarcocystosis: an international investigation among ill travelers returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia, 2011–2012. Clin Infect Dis 59:14011410[CrossRef].[PubMed]
110. Dubey JP, Lindsay DS. 1998. Isolation in immunodeficient mice of Sarcocystis neurona from opossum (Didelphis virginiana) faeces, and its differentiation from Sarcocystis falcatula. Int J Parasitol 28:18231828[CrossRef].[PubMed]
111. Marsh AE, Barr BC, Lakritz J, Nordhausen R, Madigan JE, Conrad PA. 1997. Experimental infection of nude mice as a model for Sarcocystis neurona-associated encephalitis. Parasitol Res 83:706711[CrossRef].[PubMed]
112. Teutsch SM, Juranek DD, Sulzer A, Dubey JP, Sikes RK. 1979. Epidemic toxoplasmosis associated with infected cats. N Engl J Med 300:695699[CrossRef].[PubMed]
113. Dubey JP, Beattie CP. 1988. Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Man. CRC Press, Inc, Boca Raton, Fla.
114. Parker SL, Holliman RE. 1992. Toxoplasmosis and laboratory workers: a case-control assessment of risk. Med Lab Sci 49:103106.[PubMed]
115. Strom J. 1951. Toxoplasmosis due to laboratory infection in two adults. Acta Med Scand 139:244252[CrossRef].[PubMed]
116. Baker CC, Farthing CP, Ratnesar P. 1984. Toxoplasmosis, an innocuous disease? J Infect 8:6769[CrossRef].[PubMed]
117. Beverley JK, Skipper E, Marshall SC. 1955. Acquired toxoplasmosis with a report of a case of laboratory infection. BMJ 1: 577578[CrossRef].[PubMed]
118. Brown J, Jacobs L. 1956. Adult toxoplasmosis; report of a case due to laboratory infection. Ann Intern Med 44:565572[CrossRef].[PubMed]
119. Field PR, Moyle GG, Parnell PM. 1972. The accidental infection of a laboratory worker with Toxoplasma gondii. Med J Aust 2: 196198.[PubMed]
120. Frenkel JK, Weber RW, Lunde MN. 1960. Acute toxoplasmosis. Effective treatment with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, leucovorin calcium, and yeast. JAMA 173:14711476[CrossRef].[PubMed]
121. Giroud P, Le Gac P, Roger F, Gaillard JA. 1953. [Toxoplasmosis of the adult]. In French. Sem Hop 29:40364039.[PubMed]
122. Hermentin K, Picher O, Aspöck H, Auer H, Hassl A. 1983. A solid-phase indirect haemadsorption assay (SPIHA) for detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii: application to diagnosis of acute acquired toxoplasmosis. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg [A] 255:380391.[PubMed]
123. Hermentin K, Hassl A, Picher O, Aspöck H. 1989. Comparison of different serotests for specific Toxoplasma IgM-antibodies (ISAGA, SPIHA, IFAT) and detection of circulating antigen in two cases of laboratory acquired Toxoplasma infection. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg [A] 270:534541[CrossRef].[PubMed]
124. Hörmann J. 1955. [Laboratory infection with Toxoplasma gondii: contribution to the clinical picture of the adult toxoplasmosis]. In German. Z Gesamte Inn Med 10:150152.[PubMed]
125. Kayhoe DE, Jacobs L, Beye HK, McCullough NB. 1957. Acquired toxoplasmosis—observations on two parasitologically proved cases treated with pyrimethamine and triple sulfonamides. N Engl J Med 257:12471254[CrossRef].[PubMed]
126. Miller NL, Frenkel JK, Dubey JP. 1972. Oral infections with Toxoplasma cysts and oocysts in felines, other mammals, and in birds. J Parasitol 58:928937[CrossRef].[PubMed]
127. Müller WA, Färber I, Wachtel D. 1972. [Relation between the indirect immunofluorescent reaction, the Sabin-Feldmann test, and the complement fixation test studying the titer level in laboratory infection with toxoplasmosis]. In German. Dtsch Gesundheitsw 27:8285.[PubMed]
128. Neu HC. 1967. Toxoplasmosis transmitted at autopsy. JAMA 202:844845[CrossRef].[PubMed]
129. Partanen P, Turunen HJ, Paasivuo RT, Leinikki PO. 1984. Immunoblot analysis of Toxoplasma gondii antigens by human immunoglobulins G, M, and A antibodies at different stages of infection. J Clin Microbiol 20:133135.[PubMed]
130. Rawal BD. 1959. Laboratory infection with Toxoplasma. J Clin Pathol 12:5961[CrossRef].[PubMed]
131. Remington JS, Gentry LO. 1970. Acquired toxoplasmosis: infection versus diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci 174:10061017[CrossRef].[PubMed]
132. Sabin AB, Eichenwald H, Feldman HA, Jacobs L. 1952. Present status of clinical manifestations of toxoplasmosis in man; indications and provisions for routine serologic diagnosis. J Am Med Assoc 150:10631069[CrossRef].[PubMed]
133. Thalhammer O. 1954. [Two remarkable cases of fresh toxoplasma infection]. In German. Osterr Z Kinderheilkd Kinderfuersorge 10:316321.[PubMed]
134. Van Soestbergen AA. 1957. [The course of a laboratory infection with Toxoplasma gondii]. In Dutch. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 101:16491651.[PubMed]
135. Villavedra M, Battistoni J, Nieto A. 1999. IgG recognizing 21–24 kDa and 30–33 kDa tachyzoite antigens show maximum avidity maturation during natural and accidental human toxoplasmosis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 41:297303[CrossRef].[PubMed]
136. Wettingfeld RF, Rowe J, Eyles DE. 1956. Treatment of toxoplasmosis with pyrimethamine (daraprim) and triple sulfonamide. Ann Intern Med 44:557564[CrossRef].[PubMed]
137. Wright WH. 1957. A summary of the newer knowledge of toxoplasmosis. Am J Clin Pathol 28:117[CrossRef].[PubMed]
138. Zimmerman WJ. 1976. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among veterinary college staff and students, Iowa State University. Public Health Rep 91:526532.[PubMed]
139. Umdenstock R, Mandoul R, Pestre-Alexandre M. 1965. [Laboratory accident caused by the bite of a Toxoplasma-infected mouse. Auto-observation]. In French. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 58:207209.
140. Woodison G, Balfour AH, Smith JE. 1993. Sequential reactivity of serum against cyst antigens in Toxoplasma infection. J Clin Pathol 46:548550[CrossRef].[PubMed]
141. Jacobs L. 1957. The interrelation of toxoplasmosis in swine, cattle, dogs, and man. Public Health Rep 72:872882[CrossRef].[PubMed]
142. McAuley JB, Jones JL, Singh AK,. 2015. Toxoplasma, p 23732386. In Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA, Carroll KC, Funke G, Landry ML, Richter SS, Warnock DW (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 11th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.[CrossRef]
143. Peters E, Seaton A. 2005. Bio-hazards and drug reactions: a cautionary tale. Scand J Infect Dis 37:312313[CrossRef].[PubMed]
144. Bern C, Montgomery SP, Herwaldt BL, Rassi A Jr, Marin-Neto JA, Dantas RO, Maguire JH, Acquatella H, Morillo C, Kirchhoff LV, Gilman RH, Reyes PA, Salvatella R, Moore AC. 2007. Evaluation and treatment of chagas disease in the United States: a systematic review. JAMA 298:21712181[CrossRef].[PubMed]
145. Bern C. 2015. Chagas’ Disease. N Engl J Med 373:456466[CrossRef].[PubMed]
146. Shikanai-Yasuda MA, Carvalho NB. 2012. Oral transmission of Chagas disease. Clin Infect Dis 54:845852[CrossRef].[PubMed]
147. WHO Expert Committee. 2002. Control of Chagas disease. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 905:ivi, 1–109, back cover.[PubMed]
148. Zeledón R. 1974. Epidemiology, modes of transmission and reservoir hosts of Chagas’ disease, p 5185. In Ciba Foundation Symposium 20 (new series), Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis with Special Reference to Chagas’ Disease. Associated Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
149. Kirchhoff LV, Hoft DF. 1990. Immunization and challenge of mice with insect-derived metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasite Immunol 12:6574[CrossRef].[PubMed]
150. Brener Z,. 1984. Laboratory-acquired Chagas’ disease: an endemic disease among parasitologists? p 39. In Morel CM (ed), Genes and Antigens of Parasites: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed. Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
151. Gutteridge WE, Cover B, Cooke AJ. 1974. Safety precautions for work with Trypanosoma cruzi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 68:161.
152. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1983. Suggested guidelines for work with live Trypanosoma cruzi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 77:416419[CrossRef].[PubMed]
153. Wang X, Jobe M, Tyler KM, Steverding D. 2008. Efficacy of common laboratory disinfectants and heat on killing trypanosomatid parasites. Parasit Vectors 1:35[CrossRef].[PubMed]
154. Aronson PR. 1962. Septicemia from concomitant infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and Neisseria perflava. First case of laboratory-acquired Chagas’ disease in the United States. Ann Intern Med 57: 9941000[CrossRef].
155. Añez N, Carrasco H, Parada H, Crisante G, Rojas A, Gonzalez N, Ramirez JL, Guevara P, Rivero C, Borges R, Scorza JV. 1999. Acute Chagas’ disease in western Venezuela: a clinical, seroparasitologic, and epidemiologic study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60:215222.[PubMed]
156. Kinoshita-Yanaga AT, Toledo MJ, Araújo SM, Vier BP, Gomes ML. 2009. Accidental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi follow-up by the polymerase chain reaction: case report. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 51:295298[CrossRef].[PubMed]
157. Moretti E, Basso B, Castro I, Carrizo Paez M, Chaul M, Barbieri G, Canal Feijoo D, Sartori MJ, Carrizo Paez R. 2005. Chagas’ disease: study of congenital transmission in cases of acute maternal infection. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 38:5355[CrossRef].[PubMed]
158. Herr A, Brumpt L. 1939. Un cas aigu de maladie de Chagas contractée accidentellement au contact de triatomes Mexicains: observation et courbe fébrile. In French. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 32:565571.
159. Allain DS, Kagan IG. 1974. Isolation of Trypanosoma cruzi in an acutely infected patient. J Parasitol 60:526527[CrossRef].[PubMed]
160. Centers for Disease Control. 1980. Chagas’ disease—Michigan. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 29:147148.
161. Coudert J, Despeignes J, Battesti MR, Michel-Brun J. 1964. [A case of Chagas’ disease caused by accidental laboratory contamination by T. cruzi.] In French. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 57:208213.
162. de Titto EH, Araujo FG. 1988. Serum neuraminidase activity and hematological alterations in acute human Chagas’ disease. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 46:157161[CrossRef].[PubMed]
163. Hanson WL, Devlin RF, Roberson EL. 1974. Immunoglobulin levels in a laboratory-acquired case of human Chagas’ disease. J Parasitol 60:532533[CrossRef].[PubMed]
164. Hofflin JM, Sadler RH, Araujo FG, Page WE, Remington JS. 1987. Laboratory-acquired Chagas disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81:437440[CrossRef].[PubMed]
165. Melzer H, Kollert W. 1963. [Contribution on the clinical and therapeutic aspect of Chagas disease (South American trypanosomiasis)]. In German. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 88:368377[CrossRef].[PubMed]
166. Pizzi T, Niedmann G, Jarpa A. 1963. [Report of 3 cases of acute Chagas’ disease produced by accidental laboratory infections]. In Spanish. Bol Chil Parasitol 18:3236.[PubMed]
167. Western KA, Schultz MG, Farrar WE, Kagan IG. 1969. Laboratory acquired Chagas’ disease treated with Bay [sic] 2502. Bol Chil Parasitol 24:94.
168. Shikanai-Yasuda MA, Lopes MH, Tolezano JE, Umezawa E, Amato Neto V, Barreto AC, Higaki Y, Moreira AA, Funayama G, Barone AA, Duarte A, Odone V, Cerri GC, Sato M, Pozzi D, Shiroma M. 1990. [Acute Chagas’ disease: transmission routes, clinical aspects and response to specific therapy in diagnosed cases in an urban center]. In Portuguese. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 32:1627[CrossRef].[PubMed]
169. World Health Organization. 2013. Control and surveillance of human African trypanosomiasis. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 984:1237.[PubMed]
170. Herbert WJ, Parratt D, Van Meirvenne N, Lennox B. 1980. An accidental laboratory infection with trypanosomes of a defined stock. II. Studies on the serological response of the patient and the identity of the infecting organism. J Infect 2: 113124[CrossRef].[PubMed]
171. Robertson DH, Pickens S, Lawson JH, Lennox B. 1980. An accidental laboratory infection with African trypanosomes of a defined stock. I. The clinical course of the infection. J Infect 2:105112[CrossRef].[PubMed]
172. Emeribe AO. 1988. Gambiense trypanosomiasis acquired from needle scratch. Lancet 1:470471[CrossRef].[PubMed]
173. Fromentin H. 1959. [Accidental human trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma gambiense. Considerations on the infective strain and on the response of the organism]. In French. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 52:181188.[PubMed]
174. Nodenot L. 1949. Note sur une infection accidentelle avec une souche de Trypanosoma gambiense. In French. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 42:1618.
175. Receveur MC, LeBras M, Vincendeau P. 1993. Laboratory-acquired Gambian trypanosomiasis. N Engl J Med 329:209210[CrossRef].[PubMed]
176. Lumsden WH, Kimber CD, Evans DA, Doig SJ. 1979. Trypanosoma brucei: Miniature anion-exchange centrifugation technique for detection of low parasitaemias: Adaptation for field use. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 73:312317[CrossRef].[PubMed]
177. Magnus E, Vervoort T, Van Meirvenne N. 1978. A card-agglutination test with stained trypanosomes (C.A.T.T.) for the serological diagnosis of T. B. gambiense trypanosomiasis. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 58:169176.[PubMed]
178. Herwaldt BL. 2000. Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review, focusing on the outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in the 1990s. Clin Infect Dis 31:10401057[CrossRef].[PubMed]
179. Messner MJ, Chappell CL, Okhuysen PC. 2001. Risk assessment for Cryptosporidium: a hierarchical Bayesian analysis of human dose response data. Water Res 35:39343940[CrossRef].[PubMed]
180. Okhuysen PC, Chappell CL, Crabb JH, Sterling CR, DuPont HL. 1999. Virulence of three distinct Cryptosporidium parvum isolates for healthy adults. J Infect Dis 180:12751281[CrossRef].[PubMed]
181. Rendtorff RC. 1954. The experimental transmission of human intestinal protozoan parasites. II. Giardia lamblia cysts given in capsules. Am J Hyg 59:209220.[PubMed]
182. Dorner SM, Huck PM, Slawson RM. 2004. Estimating potential environmental loadings of Cryptosporidium spp. and Campylobacter spp. from livestock in the Grand River Watershed, Ontario, Canada. Environ Sci Technol 38:33703380[CrossRef].[PubMed]
183. Fujino T, Matsui T, Kobayashi F, Haruki K, Yoshino Y, Kajima J, Tsuji M. 2002. The effect of heating against Cryptosporidium oocysts. J Vet Med Sci 64:199200[CrossRef].[PubMed]
184. Blewett DA,. 1989, p 107115. In Angus KW, Blewett DA (ed), Cryptosporidiosis. Proceedings of the First International Workshop. Animal Disease Research Association, Edinburgh, Scotland.
185. Campbell I, Tzipori AS, Hutchison G, Angus KW. 1982. Effect of disinfectants on survival of cryptosporidium oocysts. Vet Rec 111:414415[CrossRef].[PubMed]
186. Pavlásek I. 1984. [The effect of disinfectants on the infectivity of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts]. In Czech. Cesk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 33:97101.[PubMed]
187. Cook EB. 1961. Safety in the public health laboratory. Public Health Rep 76:5156[CrossRef].[PubMed]
188. Schuman SH, Arnold AT, Rowe JR. 1982. Giardiasis by inhalation? Lancet 1:53[CrossRef].[PubMed]
189. McCracken AW. 1972. Natural and laboratory-acquired infection by Isospora belli. South Med J 65:800818, passim[CrossRef].[PubMed]
190. Henderson HE, Gillepsie GW, Kaplan P, Steber M. 1963. The human Isospora. Am J Hyg 78:302309.[PubMed]
191. Jeffery GM. 1956. Human coccidiosis in South Carolina. J Parasitol 42:491495[CrossRef].[PubMed]
192. Højlyng N, Holten-Andersen W, Jepsen S. 1987. Cryptosporidiosis: a case of airborne transmission. Lancet 2:271272[CrossRef].[PubMed]
193. Blagburn BL, Current WL. 1983. Accidental infection of a researcher with human Cryptosporidium. J Infect Dis 148:772773[CrossRef].[PubMed]
194. Pohjola S, Oksanen H, Jokipii L, Jokipii AM. 1986. Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among veterinary students. Scand J Infect Dis 18:173178[CrossRef].[PubMed]
195. Dryjanski J, Gold JW, Ritchie MT, Kurtz RC, Lim SL, Armstrong D. 1986. Cryptosporidiosis. Case report in a health team worker. Am J Med 80:751752[CrossRef].[PubMed]
196. Baxby D, Hart CA, Taylor C. 1983. Human cryptosporidiosis: a possible case of hospital cross infection. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 287:17601761.
197. Roncoroni AJ, Gomez MA, Mera J, Cagnoni P, Michel MD. 1989. Cryptosporidium infection in renal transplant patients. J Infect Dis 160:559[CrossRef].[PubMed]
198. Casemore DP, Gardner CA, O'Mahony C. 1994. Cryptosporidial infection, with special reference to nosocomial transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum: a review. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 41: 1721.[PubMed]