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Chapter 3 : Preharvest Food Safety Challenges in Beef and Dairy Production

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Abstract:

In addition to the need for food to be nutritious, abundant, and available, the term “food security” implies the requirement for food to be safe from health hazards and, at the same time, meet people’s food preferences. It is important that considerations about the safety of food begin prior to harvest because some potential food safety hazards introduced at the farm (e.g., chemical residues) cannot be mitigated by subsequent postharvest food processing steps. Also, some people have preferences for consuming food that has not been through postharvest processing (e.g., raw or lightly cooked foods) even though those foods may be unsafe because of microbiological hazards originating from the farm.

Citation: Smith D. 2018. Preharvest Food Safety Challenges in Beef and Dairy Production, p 47-68. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
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Figure 1

Numbers of accidental deaths in the United States in 1998, by cause. From the National Safety Council, http://www.nsc.org.

Citation: Smith D. 2018. Preharvest Food Safety Challenges in Beef and Dairy Production, p 47-68. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Percentage of sampled beef carcasses with violative drug residues based on USDA FSIS statistical sampling in 2012, by class of cattle ( ). Error bars represent Clopper-Pearson exact 95% confidence intervals calculated by the author.

Citation: Smith D. 2018. Preharvest Food Safety Challenges in Beef and Dairy Production, p 47-68. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
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Figure 3

Percentage of beef carcasses that had violative drug residues discovered by USDA FSIS targeted inspector-generated sampling (NRP, Tier II) in 2012, by class of cattle ( ). Error bars represent Clopper-Pearson exact 95% confidence intervals calculated by the author. *The proportion of non-formula-fed veal samples with violative samples was 0.43% (95% confidence interval = 0.33% to 0.55%).

Citation: Smith D. 2018. Preharvest Food Safety Challenges in Beef and Dairy Production, p 47-68. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
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Figure 4

Number of violative drug residues detected in U.S. milk samples, by source. Data are from NCIMS, 1 October 2012 to 30 September 2013 ( ). Error bars represent Clopper-Pearson exact 95% confidence intervals calculated by the author.

Citation: Smith D. 2018. Preharvest Food Safety Challenges in Beef and Dairy Production, p 47-68. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Mean annual number of outbreak-associated foodborne illnesses in the United States, by pathogen 2002 to 2006 ( ).

Citation: Smith D. 2018. Preharvest Food Safety Challenges in Beef and Dairy Production, p 47-68. In Thakur S, Kniel K (ed), Preharvest Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
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