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Chapter 1 : Introduction

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Abstract:

Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms). Microorganisms play important roles in our lives, both for our benefit as well as to our detriment. Of primary consideration are those microorganisms that cause diseases under a variety of circumstances. Other issues include the economic aspects associated with microbial contamination such as food spoilage, plant infections, and surface damage. The control of microorganisms is therefore an important concern, in preventing contamination as well as removing or reducing it when it occurs. A variety of physical and chemical methods are used for these purposes in antisepsis, disinfection, and sterilization applications. Disinfection and sterilization are used for the control of microorganisms on surfaces, in liquids, or in areas, while antisepsis is particularly associated with microbial reduction on the skin or mucous membranes. These antimicrobial applications can include skin washing, wound treatment, product preservation, food and water disinfection, surface disinfection, and product sterilization. Many of these processes have been used historically, being described in ancient texts before we had any true understanding of the nature of microorganisms. Despite this, it is only in the past 160 years, as our knowledge and understanding of microbiology have expanded, that the impact of antiseptics, disinfectants, and sterilization has been truly appreciated. Their utilization has played and continues to play an important role in significantly reducing the incidence of infectious diseases, including gastroenteritis, health care-acquired infections, and pneumonia. Today microorganisms continue to be a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, and economic loss. We continue to be challenged with the identification of new strains of microorganisms such as antibiotic-resistant (e.g., strains of and ), , viruses (e.g., Ebola, influenza, Zika virus, coronaviruses, and parvoviruses), protozoa such as and their internal communities of microorganisms, and proteinaceous infectious agents (such as prions).

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1.1
FIGURE 1.1

A typical helminth life cycle (example: ).

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.2
FIGURE 1.2

Typical fungal structures. On the left, filamentous fungus (molds). Hyphae are shown as long lines of unseparated cells, with the development of a fruiting body with attached spores. On the right, typical unicellular fungal (yeast) cells. Cells are generally polymorphic. In two cases, budding cells are shown. Image on right courtesy of CDC-PHIL/Dr. Libero Ajello, 1972 (ID#4219), with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.3
FIGURE 1.3

Simplified fungal cell envelope. The cross-linked cell wall is associated with the inner cell membrane. The cell wall usually consists of the innermost fibrils of chitin or cellulose, with outer layers of amorphous, cross-linked glucans.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.4
FIGURE 1.4

Life cycle of .

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.5
FIGURE 1.5

Simple representation of a mycoplasma cell surface structure.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.6
FIGURE 1.6

Basic structure of a bacterial cell, showing the cell surface in greater detail.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.7
FIGURE 1.7

Bacterial cell wall structures. The cell membrane is a similar structure in all types. Gram-positive bacteria have a large peptidoglycan layer (shown as crossed lines) with associated polysaccharides and proteins. Gram-negative bacteria have a smaller peptidoglycan layer linked to an outer membrane. The mycobacterial cell has a series of covalently linked layers, including the peptidoglycan-, arabinogalactan- and mycolic acid-containing components.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.8
FIGURE 1.8

Basic structure of peptidoglycan. Polysaccharides of repeating sugars are cross-linked by peptide bridges. Two different types of peptide bridges, which have been described in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell walls, are shown.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.9
FIGURE 1.9

Cells of . Courtesy of Clifton Barry, NIAID.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.10
FIGURE 1.10

Basic viral structures.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.11
FIGURE 1.11

Typical viral life cycle. Stages include attachment, penetration into the cell, and multiplication. Depending on the virus type, viral particles can be released by cell lysis or by budding ; alternatively, the virus can remain dormant in the cell .

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.12
FIGURE 1.12

bacteriophages. The T phages are complex DNA viruses; MS2 and ɸ6 are RNA viruses, with ɸ6 being enveloped.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.13
FIGURE 1.13

Theory of prions as infectious proteins. PrP is the normal form of the protein, and PrP is the abnormal form.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.14
FIGURE 1.14

A representation of the proposed secondary structure changes in the two forms of the prion protein, PrP.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.15
FIGURE 1.15

The general structure of LPS, a bacterial endotoxin.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.16
FIGURE 1.16

Typical fungal aflatoxin structure.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.17
FIGURE 1.17

General microbial resistance to biocides and biocidal processes. This classification can vary depending on the biocide or biocidal process under consideration.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.18
FIGURE 1.18

A typical time-kill or -value determination. A known concentration of the test culture is exposed to the biocide (in this case a chemical solution), samples are withdrawn at various times, they are neutralized, and the population of survivors is determined by incubation on growth media. The actual exposure can be conducted at various temperatures, in the presence/absence of test soils, or other test conditions.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.19
FIGURE 1.19

Determination of the value on microbial exposure to a biocide.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.20
FIGURE 1.20

Typical survivor curves on biocide exposure. Curve 1 is concave downward, curve 2 is sigmoidal, and curve 3 is concave upward.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.21
FIGURE 1.21

Qualitative and semiquantitative population determination.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.22
FIGURE 1.22

-value estimation using most probable number estimations.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.23
FIGURE 1.23

Example of biological indicators, including (from left to right) simple inoculated thread, coupons and wires, paper in sealed pouches (center), and two examples of self-contained biological indicators (with a rapid-read example on the far right). Far right image courtesy of 3M Health Care, with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.24
FIGURE 1.24

Example of a chemical indicator color change.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.25
FIGURE 1.25

The rate of microbial inactivation on exposure to sterilization processes. In this case, the test microorganism (generally bacterial spores) at a starting population of 10 is exposed to the sterilizing agent under two conditions (A and B). The number of microorganisms can be determined over the contact time with or dose of the antimicrobial using a combination of direct enumeration and fraction negative methods (solid lines). Note that the microbial population ( axis) is plotted in a log scale. In process A, “tailing” is observed which may not allow the extrapolation of the kill curve to a defined probability of survival (known as a sterility assurance level, SAL). In process B, the kill curve is linear, allowing extrapolation (dotted line) to an SAL of 10.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.26
FIGURE 1.26

Basic structures of surfactants/soaps and micelles (a water-in-oil micelle is shown).

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.27
FIGURE 1.27

Examples of single-chamber (left) and multiple-chamber (right) washer-disinfector machines. Washer-disinfectors come in a variety of shapes and sizes depending on their required use. Images courtesy of STERIS, and ©2017 Getinge AB, with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 1.28
FIGURE 1.28

Various types of cleaning chemistries. Image courtesy of STERIS, with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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References

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Tables

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TABLE 1.1

Examples of various types of microorganisms

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.2

Some advantages and disadvantages of microorganisms

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.3

Comparison of general prokaryotic and eukaryotic structures

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.4

Helminths associated with disease

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.5

Examples of common fungi

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.6

Classification of protozoa, based on their motility mechanisms and microscopic morphologies

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.7

Examples of pathogenic mycoplasmas

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.8

General differentiation of bacteria types based on their microscopic morphology and reaction to Gram staining

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.9

Examples of Gram-positive bacteria

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.10

Examples of Gram-negative bacteria

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.11

Cell wall structures in mycobacteria and other related organisms

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.12

Examples of extremophile archaea

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.13

Viral families with examples of classifications

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.14

Examples of viral diseases

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.15

Examples of bacterial, fungal, and algal toxins

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.16

Examples of bacterial exotoxins and their clinical effects

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.17

Examples of surrogate microorganisms used to test and verify the antimicrobial activity of biocide products and processes

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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Untitled

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.18

Examples of standardized suspension tests

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.19

Examples of standardized carrier tests

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.20

Examples of simulated-use and/or in-use tests and/or guidelines. Simulated testing uses an artificial inoculum and in-use testing uses the normal bioburden present on a surface or device

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.21

Bacterial endospore species used to monitor and validate sterilization processes

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.22

Examples of biological indicator standards

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.23

An example of the classification of chemical indicators (in accordance with ISO 11140-1)

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.24

Examples of chemical indicator standards

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.25

Examples of guidelines, standards, and requirements for antisepsis, disinfection, and sterilization

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.26

Various constituents of formulated biocidal product

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.27

Examples of process variables in various disinfection and sterilization techniques

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.28

Various components of cleaning formulations

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1
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TABLE 1.29

Examples of common water contaminants and their consequences

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Introduction, p 1-59. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch1

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