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Chapter 3 : Chemical Disinfection

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Chemical Disinfection, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Chemical biocides are used for various applications due to their ability to inhibit or inactivate microorganisms. In this chapter, these biocides are classified according to their general chemical types, including alcohols, aldehydes, antimicrobial metals, and halogens. For each major chemical group, the major types of biocides used are described, with consideration of their applications, spectra of activity, advantages, disadvantages, and what is known about their modes of action. The mechanisms of action of biocides are further considered in chapter 7, and the specific uses of some chemical biocides in sterilization processes are discussed in chapter 6. Examples of various guidelines and standards that describe the use and testing of chemical disinfectants are given in Table 3.1 .

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.1

The dissociation of benzoic acid. As the pH increases, the dissociation of the acid also increases.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.2

High-level disinfectants for medical device disinfection based on 2.4% alkaline glutaraldehyde and 0.55% OPA. Images courtesy of Advanced Sterilization Products, with permission. ASP and the ASP logo are trademarks of Advanced Sterilization Products Division of Ethicon, Inc.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.3

Examples of formaldehyde-releasing agents.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.4

Alcohol-based antiseptics and disinfectants. An environmental surface disinfectant (left, impregnated wipes), and an antiseptic hand-rub (right). Product images courtesy of Professional Disposables International, Inc., and DebMed USA, with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.5

Aminoacridines commonly used as antiseptics.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.6

Examples of chlorhexidine-based antiseptics and disinfectants. ©Molnlycke Health Care AB. Used with permission. The American Society for Microbiology is not employed by, or affiliated with, Molnlycke.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.7

Example of an essential oil disinfectant. ©2017 The Clorox Company. Reprinted with permission. CLOROX and PINE-SOL are registered trademarks of The Clorox Company and are used with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.8

A simplified chemistry of iodine in water, demonstrating species important for biocidal activity.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.9

The structure of PVPI. The polymer consists of repeating units of the base structure shown, with particle sizes of 90 to 140 μm.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.10

Various types of PVPI antiseptic products. Image courtesy of Purdue Pharma, LLC, with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.11

A simplified chemistry of chlorine in water, demonstrating species important for biocidal activity.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.12

Examples of organic chloramines.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.13

Typical bromine-releasing agents. PSHB is an example of a water-insoluble polymeric -halamine.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.14

Sodium hypochlorite (bleach)-based disinfectant. A concentrate which is diluted in water prior to use is shown. ©2017 The Clorox Company. Reprinted with permission. CLOROX and PINE-SOL are registered trademarks of The Clorox Company and are used with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.15

Silver sulfadiazine.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.16

A typical copper-silver ionization system. An end view of the electrode cell is shown with the copper/silver electrodes and central titanium electrode. Image courtesy of Tarn-Pure, with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.17

The structure of benzoyl peroxide.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.18

Example of the generation of PAA from sodium perborate and acetylsalicylic acid.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.19

Examples of the production of chlorine dioxide from chlorine sources.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.20

Examples of ozone generators. Images courtesy of AbsoluteOzone®, with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.21

Examples of hydrogen peroxide gas generators. The example on the left shows a larger, shelf-contained generator system that is connected to a flexible walled isolator for disinfection. On the right is a room disinfection generator system, which consists of multiple modules. Generators can be mobile (as shown) or integrated into an area or facility. Images courtesy of STERIS, with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.22

Typical room fumigation setup with a hydrogen peroxide gas generator. During fumigation, the air-handling system for the room is turned off and the gas is fed into the room. In the case shown below, fumigation includes the room as well as the air-handling ductwork, using the room ventilation system for gas distribution. Alternatively, the generator can be placed directly in the room.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.23

Chlorine dioxide generator systems for liquid disinfection (left) and gas fumigation (right) applications. Images courtesy of CDG Environmental, LLC and ClorDiSys Solutions Inc., with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.24

A range of chlorine dioxide-based liquid formulations for medical device disinfection. Image courtesy of Tristel Solutions Ltd., with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.25

Typical chlorine dioxide fumigation cycle. The biocide concentration is shown as a dashed line, and humidity as a solid line. The dotted line indicates the minimum concentration required for activity, which depends on the application. As chlorine dioxide breaks down during the disinfection phase, the concentration can be increased by further injection of gas (as shown by arrows).

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.26

The effect of temperature on the sporicidal efficacy of PAA. The average value (in seconds) was determined for spores at 1,000 mg/liter PAA in formulation at various test temperatures.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.27

Phenolic-based disinfectants. Both formulations shown are concentrates that are diluted in water prior to use. Disinfectant formulations are also available as ready-to-use and wipe-based technologies, both in nonsterile and sterilized forms. Image courtesy of STERIS, with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.28

Typical bisphenolic structures.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.29

The mode of action of triclosan and hexachlorophene against enoyl reductases.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.30

Basic surfactant and micelle structure.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.31

The basic structure of QACs.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.32

QAC-based disinfectant. Example shown is a ready-to-use QAC-impregnated wipe. ©2017 The Clorox Company. Reprinted with permission. CLOROX and PINE-SOL are registered trademarks of The Clorox Company and are used with permission.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.33

Examples of chlorine-based -halamines.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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FIGURE 3.34

The enzymatic activity of lysozyme. The structure of peptidoglycan (see chapter 1, section 1.3.4.1) is cleaved at the glycosidic bonds between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in the polymer.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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References

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Tables

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TABLE 3.1

Examples of guidelines and standards on the use and application of chemical disinfectants

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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TABLE 3.2

Types and sources of essential oils and their use in biocides

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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TABLE 3.3

Oxygen- and hydrogen peroxide-releasing compounds other than benzoyl peroxide

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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TABLE 3.4

Comparison of the sporicidal efficacy of liquid and gaseous hydrogen peroxide at 20 to 25°C against bacterial spores

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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TABLE 3.5

Hydrogen peroxide-based synergistic formulations and processes

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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TABLE 3.6

Various types of phenolic compounds

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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TABLE 3.7

Classification of surfactants

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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TABLE 3.8

Various biocides used on antimicrobial surfaces

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3
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TABLE 3.9

Various types of proteins, peptides, and enzymes used as biocides

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Chemical Disinfection, p 84-165. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch3

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