1887

Chapter 7 : Mechanisms of Action

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Mechanisms of Action, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819682/9781555819675_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819682/9781555819675_Chap07-2.gif

Abstract:

Many compounds and processes have been identified as antimicrobial agents. For the purpose of this review, they are classified as being anti-infectives or biocides (chapter 1, section 1.2). Anti-infectives are substances (or drugs) capable of inhibiting or inactivating microorganisms (particularly pathogens) that are associated with various infections within animals, plants, and humans. This term is used to encompass drugs that specifically act on certain types of microorganisms, including antibacterials (i.e., antibiotics), antifungals, antivirals, and antiprotozoal agents. In contrast, biocides are chemical or physical agents that are used on inanimate surfaces or the skin and mucous membranes. Biocides demonstrate a much wider range of antimicrobial activity than anti-infectives and are applied in a wider range of applications. A comparison of the characteristics of anti-infectives and biocides is shown in Table 7.1 .

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 7.1
FIGURE 7.1

Primary bacterial targets of key antibiotics.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.2
FIGURE 7.2

The structure of amino acids and peptide bonding. Representations of two amino acids are shown condensing to form a dipeptide linked by a peptide bond. Examples of the various side groups (R) that define the different amino acids are shown.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.3
FIGURE 7.3

Examples of sugars, polysaccharides, and glycosidic bonds. The polysaccharides shown are both polymers of glucose but vary in the structure of the glycosidic bond linkages.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.4
FIGURE 7.4

The basic structure of fatty acids. The number of carbons in the fatty acid structure can vary. Examples of stearic acid (C) and palmitoleic acid (C) are shown.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.5
FIGURE 7.5

Examples of various types of lipids. The general structures of a triglyceride, a glycolipid (with one sugar linked to two fatty acids), and a sterol (ergosterol) are shown.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.6
FIGURE 7.6

The basic structure of nucleotides. The structure consists of a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) linked to phosphate (only one monophosphate group is indicated) and various bases (pyrimidines and purines).

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.7
FIGURE 7.7

Nucleotide structures. ATP (top left) is a mononucleotide, while DNA (bottom) and RNA (top right; simple structure shown) are polynucleotides. DNA is a double-stranded polynucleotide (with hydrogen bonding holding together the two parallel strands); the representation of a transfer RNA polynucleotide shows single- and double-stranded sections (with hydrogen bonded bases shown as lines between the strands).

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.8
FIGURE 7.8

The major target sites for oxidizing agents on the structure of DNA and, specifically, on the nucleotide bases, with examples of the pyrimidine bases thymine and cytosine.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.9
FIGURE 7.9

Reaction of ethylene oxide with guanine.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.10
FIGURE 7.10

Reaction of ethylene oxide with amino acid side chains.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.11
FIGURE 7.11

Amino acids that are susceptible to cross-linking by aldehydes. The side chain amino group of lysine is particularly sensitive; in addition, other amino groups that are not associated with peptide bonds and therefore are at the ends of proteins/peptides are also susceptible.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.12
FIGURE 7.12

A typical cross-linking reaction with formaldehyde between a lysine amino acid side chain and an adjacent peptide bond. The sensitive amino group (NH) of the lysine residue is shown, as well as reaction with the N atom of the peptide bond with formaldehyde, to form a methylene bridge.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.13
FIGURE 7.13

A typical cross-linked reaction by glutaraldehyde between two amino acids in adjacent proteins. The reactive amino group in each amino acid reacts with the aldehyde group on each end of the glutaraldehyde molecule, leading to the formation of a flexible, methylene bridge.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.14
FIGURE 7.14

Heat denaturation of DNA (above) and protein (lower). As the temperature rises, the hydrogen bonding between the DNA nucleotides is broken, with adenine-thymine linkages being particularly sensitive. Above 85°C the strands are further denatured and eventually separated. On cooling, the DNA strands can reanneal, but fragmentation also occurs, due to breakages in the sugar-phosphate backbone. Similarly, the noncovalent interactions in proteins are disrupted, causing them to lose their functional structure and assume their primary structure. In some cases, on cooling, the protein may refold to its original structure, but most proteins reassemble into inactive forms and precipitate. Breakage of peptide bonds that link amino acids also occurs, leading to peptide fragmentation.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.15
FIGURE 7.15

The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation on a target atom. Nonionization causes the excitement of electrons due to adsorption of energy, which if sufficient causes electrons to move to a higher, outer energy orbital. In the case of ionization, sufficient energy is adsorbed to expel the electron from the atom entirely. In both cases, these effects destabilize the individual atoms, the molecules they are part of, and interactions between those molecules.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.16
FIGURE 7.16

The production of thymine dimers between adjacent thymine bases in DNA.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.17
FIGURE 7.17

The mode of action of acridine dyes. The acridine molecules shown (proflavine) intercalate between the nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule, causing disruption of structure and function.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.18
FIGURE 7.18

The reaction of metal ions on exposed sulfhydryl groups on cysteine amino acid within a peptide.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.19
FIGURE 7.19

The effects of biocides on cytoplasmic membranes. The biocide can have subtle effects on membrane functions including surface or membrane-associated proteins (involved in substrate transport across the membrane or other enzymatic reactions) and disruption of the proton motive force. The biocide can also have more drastic effects on lipid membrane structure, leading to an increase in permeability and cytoplasmic leakage; further damage can eventually lead to cell lysis.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819682.chap7

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 7.1

A general comparison of anti-infectives and biocides

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 7.2

Widely used antibiotics (antibacterials) and their mechanisms of action

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 7.3

Widely used antifungal drugs and their mechanisms of action

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 7.4

Widely used antiviral drugs and their mechanisms of action

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 7.5

Widely used antiparasitic drugs and their mechanisms of action

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 7.6

Biocides with an oxidizing agent-based mode of action

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 7.7

Examples of products observed on reaction of oxidizing agents on amino acids

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 7.8

Biocides with cross-linking or coagulation-based modes of action

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 7.9

Biocidal processes with transfer-of-energy-based modes of action

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 7.10

Biocides that act by disrupting the structures and functions of specific macromolecules

Citation: McDonnell G. 2017. Mechanisms of Action, p 247-283. In McDonnell G, Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization: Types, Action, and Resistance, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819682.ch7

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error