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Chapter 20 : Antimicrobial Resistance in spp.

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Abstract:

Mycoplasmas belong to the phylum (Gram-positive bacteria with low G+C content), to the class (from Latin: , soft; , skin), to the order , and to the family . They presumably evolved by degenerative evolution from Gram-positive bacteria and are phylogenetically most closely related to some clostridia. Mycoplasmas are the smallest self-replicating prokaryotes (diameter of approximately 0.2 to 0.3 μm) with the smallest genomes (500 to 1,000 genes). They are characterized by the lack of a cell wall. The mycoplasma cell contains the minimum set of organelles essential for growth and replication: a plasma membrane, ribosomes, and a genome consisting of a double-stranded circular DNA molecule ( ). The mycoplasma genome is characterized by a low G+C content and by the use of the universal stop codon UGA as a tryptophan codon. As a result of their limited genetic information, mycoplasmas express a small number of cell proteins and lack many enzymatic activities and metabolic pathways ( ). Their nutritional requirements are therefore complex, and they are dependent on their host for many nutrients. This phenomenon explains the great difficulty of cultivation of mycoplasmas, with complex media containing serum (as a source of fatty acids and cholesterol) and a metabolizable carbohydrate (as a source of energy, for example, glucose, arginine, or urea).

Citation: Gautier-Bouchardon A. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp., p 425-446. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0030-2018
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Main pathogenic species in humans and livestock animals

Citation: Gautier-Bouchardon A. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp., p 425-446. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0030-2018
Generic image for table
Table 2

Examples of methods used (culture media, methods and measurement, expression of results) for the determination of antimicrobial activities toward animal mycoplasmas

Citation: Gautier-Bouchardon A. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp., p 425-446. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0030-2018
Generic image for table
Table 3

MIC values (range in μg/ml) for various antimicrobials against avian species ( and )

Citation: Gautier-Bouchardon A. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp., p 425-446. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0030-2018
Generic image for table
Table 4

MIC values (range in μg/ml) for various antimicrobials against swine species (, , and )

Citation: Gautier-Bouchardon A. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp., p 425-446. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0030-2018
Generic image for table
Table 5

MIC values (range in μg/ml) for various antimicrobials against ruminant species ( and )

Citation: Gautier-Bouchardon A. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp., p 425-446. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0030-2018
Generic image for table
Table 6

Mutations in the 23S rRNA genes and in the ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 conferring resistance in animal species

Citation: Gautier-Bouchardon A. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp., p 425-446. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0030-2018
Generic image for table
Table 7

Mutations in DNA-gyrase (GyrA and GyrB) and topoisomerase IV (ParC and ParE) associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in animal species

Citation: Gautier-Bouchardon A. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp., p 425-446. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0030-2018

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