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Chapter 29 : Source Attribution and Risk Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance

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Abstract:

Antimicrobial use in humans and animals has been identified as a main driver of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and bacteria harboring resistance to antimicrobials can be found in humans, animals, foods, and the environment. As a consequence, humans can be exposed to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria through a wide range of sources and transmission pathways. To inform policies aimed at reducing the burden of AMR in animals and foods, risk managers need evidence about the most important sources and transmission routes and the critical points throughout the production chain for the prevention and control of AMR. While this process is complex and deeply reliant on the integration of surveillance data from humans, animals, and foods, it is supported by scientific disciplines that have evolved rapidly in the past decades, including source attribution and quantitative risk assessment.

Citation: Pires S, Duarte A, Hald T. 2018. Source Attribution and Risk Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance, p 619-635. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0027-2017
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Routes of transmission of zoonotic pathogens and points of source attribution. Adapted from reference .

Citation: Pires S, Duarte A, Hald T. 2018. Source Attribution and Risk Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance, p 619-635. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0027-2017
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Tables

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Table 1

Definition, overview of methods and main challenges of source attribution and microbial risk assessment approaches

Citation: Pires S, Duarte A, Hald T. 2018. Source Attribution and Risk Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance, p 619-635. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0027-2017

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