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Chapter 7 : Antimicrobial Resistance among Staphylococci of Animal Origin

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Abstract:

During the past decades, several review articles and book chapters focused on the genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci. Some articles included staphylococci of human and animal origin ( ), while others focused on either staphylococci of animal origin in general ( ) or on specific animal-associated staphylococci such as ( ), bovine , porcine , and canine ( ) or livestock-associated methicillin-resistant (LA-MRSA) ( ). As inhabitants of the skin or the mucosal surfaces, staphylococci of animal origin do not live in genetic isolation but are in close contact with a wide variety of other bacteria in the same animal host. Under such conditions and given a high bacterial density in the different compartments, genetic material can be exchanged not only between staphylococci in intraspecies and interspecies exchange events, but also between staphylococci and other Gram-positive bacteria in so-called intergenus exchange processes. Previous studies have shown that staphylococci can act either as donors or as recipients of resistance genes in these events ( ). In addition, staphylococci may also be transferred to other animals or humans either by direct contact or by contact with excretions of the animals, e.g., by sneezing, coughing, or licking. Moreover, indirect transmission, e.g., via dust, aerosols, or a contaminated environment, may also play a role in the dissemination of staphylococci. A comparison of the resistance genes detected in human staphylococci and in animal staphylococci ( ) revealed that both groups of staphylococci share a large number of resistance genes, whereas only comparatively small numbers of resistance genes have been found exclusively in either human or animal staphylococci ( Fig. 1 ).

Citation: Schwarz S, Feßler A, Loncaric I, Wu C, Kadlec K, Wang Y, Shen J. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance among Staphylococci of Animal Origin, p 127-157. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0010-2017
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Figure 1

Antimicrobial resistance genes present in staphylococci of only human origin (left), only animal origin (right), and both origins (gray-shaded area in the middle). The genes depicted in red are associated with mobile genetic elements. Please see the text for the function of the different resistance genes. It should be noted that the tetracycline resistance genes (S) and (W), both coding for ribosome protective proteins, have recently been identified in staphylococci isolated from retail ground meat ( ), and another gene, (38), coding for an efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, was identified in a isolate of not further specified origin ( ). For antimicrobial resistance genes present only in staphylococci of human origin, please see references .

Citation: Schwarz S, Feßler A, Loncaric I, Wu C, Kadlec K, Wang Y, Shen J. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance among Staphylococci of Animal Origin, p 127-157. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0010-2017
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