1887

Chapter 25 : Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819866/9781555819859_Chap25-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819866/9781555819859_Chap25-2.gif

Abstract:

Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract by tuberculosis (TB) remains a prevalent and relevant disease entity in certain areas of the world and in certain at-risk patient populations. Although the more common forms of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) include lymph node, pleural, disseminated, pericardial, and meningeal TB, gastrointestinal TB is believed to be the next most frequent form ( ). Although there is significant variability in the prevalence of intestinal TB by geographic location and by the population’s risk profile, the true prevalence of the disease is difficult to ascertain, as many patients with pulmonary TB may be asymptomatic from their intestinal involvement ( ). This requires a very high index of suspicion, as a delay in diagnosis may result in detrimental outcomes. When patients do become symptomatic, their presentation may be nonspecific. Furthermore, as TB can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, the manifestations are protean ( ).

Citation: Choi E, Coyle W. 2017. Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis, p 411-432. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Seventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0014-2016
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Endoscopic image of tuberculous involvement of the ileocecal valve and proximal colon. (Courtesy of Si Young Song, Yonsei University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.)

Citation: Choi E, Coyle W. 2017. Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis, p 411-432. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Seventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0014-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Endoscopic image of a patulous ileocecal valve with a classic, fish mouth deformity and an ascending colon with mucosal erythema and nodularity secondary to TB. (Courtesy of Si Young Song, Yonsei University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.)

Citation: Choi E, Coyle W. 2017. Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis, p 411-432. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Seventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0014-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Colonoscopic image of pseudopolyposis and stenosis from TB involvement of the transverse colon. (Courtesy of Si Young Song, Yonsei University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.)

Citation: Choi E, Coyle W. 2017. Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis, p 411-432. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Seventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0014-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

CT scan demonstrating segmental and circumferential wall thickening of the proximal colon due to TB involvement. (Courtesy of Si Young Song, Yonsei University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.)

Citation: Choi E, Coyle W. 2017. Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis, p 411-432. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Seventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0014-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819866.chap25
1. Donoghue HD,, Holton J . 2009. Intestinal tuberculosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 22 : 490496.
2. Tam CM,, Leung CC,, Noertjojo K,, Chan SL,, Chan-Yeung M . 2003. Tuberculosis in Hong Kong—patient characteristics and treatment outcome. Hong Kong Med J 9 : 8390. [PubMed] [PubMed]
3. al Karawi MA,, Mohamed AE,, Yasawy MI,, Graham DY,, Shariq S,, Ahmed AM,, al Jumah A,, Ghandour Z . 1995. Protean manifestation of gastrointestinal tuberculosis: report on 130 patients. J Clin Gastroenterol 20 : 225232.[PubMed]
4. Kim YS,, Kim YH,, Lee KM,, Kim JS,, Park YS , IBD Study Group of the Korean Association of the Study of Intestinal Diseases . 2009. Diagnostic guideline of intestinal tuberculosis. Korean J Gastroenterol 53 : 177186. (In Korean.)[PubMed]
5. Tabrisky J,, Lindstrom RR,, Peters R,, Lachman RS . 1975. Tuberculous enteritis. Review of a protean disease. Am J Gastroenterol 63 : 4957.[PubMed]
6. Horvath KD,, Whelan RL,, Weinstein S,, Basner AL,, Staugaitis SM,, Greenebaum E . 1995. Isolated sigmoid tuberculosis. Report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum 38 : 13271330.[PubMed]
7. de la Rua-Domenech R . 2006. Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in the United Kingdom: incidence, risks, control measures and review of the zoonotic aspects of bovine tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 86 : 77109.[PubMed]
8. Fetene T,, Kebede N,, Alem G . 2011. Tuberculosis infection in animal and human populations in three districts of Western Gojam, Ethiopia. Zoonoses Public Health 58 : 4753.[PubMed]
9. Al-Bahrani ZR,, Al-Saleem T . 1982. Intestinal tuberculosis in Iraq: a study of 50 cases. Int Surg 67(Suppl): 483485.[PubMed]
10. Findlay JM,, Addison NV,, Stevenson DK,, Mirza ZA . 1979. Tuberculosis of the gastrointestinal tract in Bradford, 1967–77. J R Soc Med 72 : 587590.[PubMed]
11. Gilinsky NH,, Marks IN,, Kottler RE,, Price SK . 1983. Abdominal tuberculosis. A 10-year review. S Afr Med J 64 : 849857.[PubMed]
12. Sherman S,, Rohwedder JJ,, Ravikrishnan KP,, Weg JG . 1980. Tuberculous enteritis and peritonitis. Report of 36 general hospital cases. Arch Intern Med 140 : 506508.
13. Sircar S,, Taneja VA,, Kansra U . 1996. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of abdominal tuberculosis—a retrospective study. J Indian Med Assoc 94 : 342344.[PubMed]
14. Palmer KR,, Patil DH,, Basran GS,, Riordan JF,, Silk DB . 1985. Abdominal tuberculosis in urban Britain—a common disease. Gut 26 : 12961305.[PubMed]
15. Schulze K,, Warner HA,, Murray D . 1977. Intestinal tuberculosis: experience at a Canadian teaching institution. Am J Med 63 : 735745.
16. Klimach OE,, Ormerod LP . 1985. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis: a retrospective review of 109 cases in a district general hospital. Q J Med 56 : 569578.[PubMed]
17. Pettengell KE,, Larsen C,, Garb M,, Mayet FG,, Simjee AE,, Pirie D . 1990. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Q J Med 74 : 303308.[PubMed]
18. Tripathi PB,, Amarapurkar AD . 2009. Morphological spectrum of gastrointestinal tuberculosis. Trop Gastroenterol 30 : 3539.[PubMed]
19. Candela F,, Serrano P,, Arriero JM,, Teruel A,, Reyes D,, Calpena R . 1999. Perianal disease of tuberculous origin: report of a case and review of the literature. Dis Colon Rectum 42 : 110112.[PubMed]
20. Mathew S . 2008. Anal tuberculosis: report of a case and review of literature. Int J Surg 6 : e36e39.[PubMed]
21. Samarasekera DN,, Nanayakkara PR . 2008. Rectal tuberculosis: a rare cause of recurrent rectal suppuration. Colorectal Dis 10 : 846847.[PubMed]
22. Vanhoenacker FM,, De Backer AI,, Op de BB,, Maes M,, Van Altena R,, Van Beckevoort D,, Kersemans P,, De Schepper AM . 2004. Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis. Eur Radiol 14(Suppl 3): E103E115.[PubMed]
23. Marshall JB . 1993. Tuberculosis of the gastrointestinal tract and peritoneum. Am J Gastroenterol 88 : 989999.[PubMed]
24. Kasulke RJ,, Anderson WJ,, Gupta SK,, Gliedman ML . 1981. Primary tuberculous enterocolitis. Report of three cases and review of the literature. Arch Surg 116 : 110113.[PubMed]
25. McGee GS,, Williams LF,, Potts J,, Barnwell S,, Sawyers JL . 1989. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis: resurgence of an old pathogen. Am Surg 55 : 1620.[PubMed]
26. Bhansali SK . 1977. Abdominal tuberculosis. Experiences with 300 cases. Am J Gastroenterol 67 : 324337.[PubMed]
27. World Health Organization . 2015. Global Tuberculosis Global Report 2015. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/2015. Accessed 25 September 2016.
28. Brody JM,, Miller DK,, Zeman RK,, Klappenbach RS,, Jaffe MH,, Clark LR,, Benjamin SB,, Choyke PL . 1986. Gastric tuberculosis: a manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Radiology 159 : 347348.[PubMed]
29. Ecka RS,, Wani ZA,, Sharma M . 2013. Gastric tuberculosis with outlet obstruction: a case report presenting with a mass lesion. Case Rep Med 2013 : 169051. [PubMed]
30. Corbett EL,, Watt CJ,, Walker N,, Maher D,, Williams BG,, Raviglione MC,, Dye C . 2003. The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Arch Intern Med 163 : 10091021.[PubMed]
31. Ansari NA,, Kombe AH,, Kenyon TA,, Hone NM,, Tappero JW,, Nyirenda ST,, Binkin NJ,, Lucas SB . 2002. Pathology and causes of death in a group of 128 predominantly HIV-positive patients in Botswana, 1997-1998. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 6 : 5563.[PubMed]
32. Kantipong P,, Murakami K,, Moolphate S,, Aung MN,, Yamada N . 2012. Causes of mortality among tuberculosis and HIV co-infected patients in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand. HIV AIDS (Auckland) 4 : 159168.[PubMed]
33. Rana FS,, Hawken MP,, Mwachari C,, Bhatt SM,, Abdullah F,, Ng’ang’a LW,, Power C,, Githui WA,, Porter JD,, Lucas SB . 2000. Autopsy study of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative adult medical patients in Nairobi, Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 24 : 2329.[PubMed]
34. Hong KS,, Kang SJ,, Choi JK,, Kim JH,, Seo H,, Lee S,, Jung JW,, Kang HR,, Cho SH,, Kim JS . 2013. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is not associated with proton pump inhibitors: a retrospective cohort study. World J Gastroenterol 19 : 258264.[PubMed]
35. Yamane T,, Umeda A,, Shimao H . 2014. Analysis of recent cases of intestinal tuberculosis in Japan. Intern Med 53 : 957962.[PubMed]
36. Enarson DA,, Ashley MJ,, Grzybowski S,, Ostapkowicz E,, Dorken E . 1980. Non-respiratory tuberculosis in Canada. Epidemiologic and bacteriologic features. Am J Epidemiol 112 : 341351.[PubMed]
37. Lanjewar DN,, Anand BS,, Genta R,, Maheshwari MB,, Ansari MA,, Hira SK,, DuPont HL . 1996. Major differences in the spectrum of gastrointestinal infections associated with AIDS in India versus the west: an autopsy study. Clin Infect Dis 23 : 482485.[PubMed]
38. Suzuki H,, Nagao K,, Miyazaki M . 2002. The current status and problems of the intestinal tuberculosis through a review of the Annual of the Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan. Kekkaku 77 : 355360. (In Japanese.)[PubMed]
39. Akgun Y . 2005. Intestinal and peritoneal tuberculosis: changing trends over 10 years and a review of 80 patients. Can J Surg 48 : 131136.[PubMed]
40. Abdul-Ghaffar NU,, Ramadan TT,, Marafie AA . 1998. Abdominal tuberculosis in Ahmadi, Kuwait: a clinico-pathological review. Trop Doct 28 : 137139.[PubMed]
41. Machado N,, Grant CS,, Scrimgeour E . 2001. Abdominal tuberculosis—experience of a University hospital in Oman. Acta Trop 80 : 187190.[PubMed]
42. Kawazoe A,, Nagata N . 2012. Intestinal tuberculosis in an HIV-infected patient with advanced immunosuppression. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 10 : A24. [PubMed]
43. Cooper J,, Flückiger B,, Traichl B,, Diener PA,, Otto P,, von Kempis J . 2009. Abdominal pain in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis under treatment with infliximab. J Clin Rheumatol 15 : 244246.[PubMed]
44. Karagiannis S,, Papaioannou D,, Goulas S,, Psilopoulos D,, Mavrogiannis C . 2008. Intestinal tuberculosis in a patient on infliximab treatment. Gastrointest Endosc 67 : 11781179; discussion, 1179.[PubMed]
45. Sorrentino D,, Avellini C,, Zearo E . 2004. Colonic sarcoidosis, infliximab, and tuberculosis: a cautionary tale. Inflamm Bowel Dis 10 : 438440.[PubMed]
46. Kandutsch S,, Feix A,, Haas M,, Häfner M,, Sunder-Plassmann G,, Soleiman A . 2004. A rare cause of anemia due to intestinal tuberculosis in a renal transplant recipient. Clin Nephrol 62 : 158161.[PubMed]
47. Siu YP,, Tong MK,, Kwok YL,, Leung KT,, Kwan TH,, Lam CS,, Au TC . 2008. An unusual case of both upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding in a kidney transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis 10 : 276279.[PubMed]
48. Yilmaz E,, Balci A,, Sal S,, Cakmakci H . 2003. Tuberculous ileitis in a renal transplant recipient with familial Mediterranean fever: gray-scale and power Doppler sonographic findings. J Clin Ultrasound 31 : 5154.[PubMed]
49. Zedtwitz-Liebenstein K,, Podesser B,, Peck-Radosavljevic M,, Graninger W . 1999. Intestinal tuberculosis presenting as fever of unknown origin in a heart transplant patient. Infection 27 : 289290.[PubMed]
50. Grauhan O,, Lohmann R,, Lemmens P,, Schattenfroh N,, Jonas S,, Keck H,, Raakow R,, Langrehr J,, Bechstein W,, Blumhardt G,, Klein E,, Neuhaus P . 1995. Mycobacterial infection after liver transplantation. Langenbecks Arch Chir 380 : 171175.[PubMed]
51. Lu W,, Wai CT,, Da Costa M,, Tambyah PA,, Prabhakaran K,, Lee KH . 2005. Tuberculosis post-liver transplantation: a rare but complicated disease. Ann Acad Med Singapore 34 : 213215.[PubMed]
52. Ozbülbül NI,, Ozdemir M,, Turhan N . 2008. CT findings in fatal primary intestinal tuberculosis in a liver transplant recipient. Diagn Interv Radiol 14 : 221224.[PubMed]
53. Chen SY,, Wang CX,, Chen LZ,, Fei JG,, Deng SX,, Qiu J,, Li J,, Chen GO,, Fu HM,, Xie CM . 2008. Tuberculosis in southern Chinese renal-transplant recipients. Clin Transplant 22 : 780784.[PubMed]
54. Clemente WT,, Faria LC,, Lima SS,, Vilela EG,, Lima AS,, Velloso LF,, Sanches MD,, Cançado OL . 2009. Tuberculosis in liver transplant recipients: a single Brazilian center experience. Transplantation 87 : 397401.[PubMed]
55. Zhang XF,, Lv Y,, Xue WJ,, Wang B,, Liu C,, Tian PX,, Yu L,, Chen XY,, Liu XM . 2008. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in solid organ transplant recipients: experience from a single center in China. Transplant Proc 40 : 13821385.[PubMed]
56. Ulloa JG,, Parekh J,, Hope C,, Roll GR . 2014. Case report of intestinal tuberculosis 6 years after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant. Transplant Proc 46 : 24502452.[PubMed]
57. Park YS,, Choi JY,, Cho CH,, Chang KH,, Song YG,, Kim YS,, Kim JM . 2004. Clinical outcomes of tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients. Yonsei Med J 45 : 865872.[PubMed]
58. Ramesh J,, Banait GS,, Ormerod LP . 2008. Abdominal tuberculosis in a district general hospital: a retrospective review of 86 cases. QJM 101 : 189195.[PubMed]
59. Jain M,, Baijal R,, Kumar P,, Gupta D . 2011. Profile of patients with gastrointestinal TB at a tertiary care centre in western India. Trop Doct 41 : 242243.[PubMed]
60. De Backer AI,, Mortelé KJ,, De Keulenaer BL,, Henckaerts L,, Verhaert L . 2006. CT and MR imaging of gastrointestinal tuberculosis. JBR-BTR 89 : 190194.[PubMed]
61. Musellim B,, Erturan S,, Sonmez Duman E,, Ongen G . 2005. Comparison of extra-pulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis cases: factors influencing the site of reactivation. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 9 : 12201223.[PubMed]
62. Wig KL,, Chitkara NL,, Gupta SP,, Kishore K,, Manchanda RL . 1961. Ileocecal tuberculosis with particular reference to isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. With a note on its relation to regional ileitis (Crohn’s disease). Am Rev Respir Dis 84 : 169178.[PubMed]
63. Yang Z,, Kong Y,, Wilson F,, Foxman B,, Fowler AH,, Marrs CF,, Cave MD,, Bates JH . 2004. Identification of risk factors for extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis 38 : 199205.[PubMed]
64. Sreeramareddy CT,, Panduru KV,, Verma SC,, Joshi HS,, Bates MN . 2008. Comparison of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Nepal—a hospital-based retrospective study. BMC Infect Dis 8 : 8. [PubMed]
65. Cailhol J,, Decludt B,, Che D . 2005. Sociodemographic factors that contribute to the development of extrapulmonary tuberculosis were identified. J Clin Epidemiol 58 : 10661071.[PubMed]
66. Lingenfelser T,, Zak J,, Marks IN,, Steyn E,, Halkett J,, Price SK . 1993. Abdominal tuberculosis: still a potentially lethal disease. Am J Gastroenterol 88 : 744750.[PubMed]
67. Mandal BK,, Schofield PF . 1977. Abdominal tuberculosis in Britain. BMJ 2 : 319. [PubMed]
68. Uygur-Bayramicli O,, Dabak G,, Dabak R . 2003. A clinical dilemma: abdominal tuberculosis. World J Gastroenterol 9 : 10981101.[PubMed]
69. Wang D,, Zhou Y,, Ji L,, He T,, Lin F,, Lin R,, Lin T,, Mo Y . 2012. Association of LMP/TAP gene polymorphisms with tuberculosis susceptibility in Li population in China. PLoS One 7 : e33051. [PubMed]
70. Haraguchi S,, Day NK,, Kamchaisatian W,, Beigier-Pompadre M,, Stenger S,, Tangsinmankong N,, Sleasman JW,, Pizzo SV,, Cianciolo GJ . 2006. LMP-420, a small-molecule inhibitor of TNF-alpha, reduces replication of HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human cells. AIDS Res Ther 3 : 8. [PubMed]
71. Lv Y,, Yan B,, Yang H,, Liu J,, Zhong W,, Li K,, Chen Z,, Xu C . 2011. LMP2/LMP7 gene variant: a risk factor for intestinal Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the Chinese population. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 26 : 11451150.[PubMed]
72. Tai WP,, Hu PJ,, Zhai HZ,, Wu J,, Lin XC . 2011. The clinical analysis of 34 cases of intestinal tuberculosis in China’s big city hospitals. Int J Colorectal Dis 26 : 13391343.[PubMed]
73. Gonzalez OY,, Adams G,, Teeter LD,, Bui TT,, Musser JM,, Graviss EA . 2003. Extra-pulmonary manifestations in a large metropolitan area with a low incidence of tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 7 : 11781185.[PubMed]
74. Badaoui E,, Berney T,, Kaiser L,, Mentha G,, Morel P . 2000. Surgical presentation of abdominal tuberculosis: a protean disease. Hepatogastroenterology 47 : 751755.[PubMed]
75. Vanderpool DM,, O’Leary JP . 1988. Primary tuberculous enteritis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 167 : 167173.[PubMed]
76. Veeragandham RS,, Lynch FP,, Canty TG,, Collins DL,, Danker WM . 1996. Abdominal tuberculosis in children: review of 26 cases. J Pediatr Surg 31 : 170175; discussion, 175–176.[PubMed]
77. Leung VK,, Chan WH,, Chow TL,, Luk IS,, Chau TN,, Loke TK . 2006. Oesophageal tuberculosis mimicking oesophageal carcinoma. Hong Kong Med J 12 : 473476.[PubMed]
78. Rövekamp BT,, van der Linde K,, Dees J,, Overbeek SE,, van Blankenstein M,, Kuipers EJ . 2005. A solitary tuberculous ulcer in the oesophagus. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17 : 435439.[PubMed]
79. Kang MJ,, Yi SY . 2008. Esophageal tuberculosis presenting as a submucosal tumor. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 6 : A26. [PubMed]
80. Moore AR,, Rogers FM,, Dietrick D,, Smith S . 2008. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in pregnancy masquerading as a degenerating leiomyoma. Obstet Gynecol 111 : 550552.[PubMed]
81. Khan FY,, AlAni A,, Al-Rikabi A,, Mizrakhshi A,, Osman M-M . 2008. Primary gastric fundus tuberculosis in immunocompetent patient: a case report and literature review. Braz J Infect Dis 12 : 453455.[PubMed]
82. Talukdar R,, Khanna S,, Saikia N,, Vij JC . 2006. Gastric tuberculosis presenting as linitis plastica: a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18 : 299303.[PubMed]
83. Cömert FB,, Cömert M,, Külah C,, Taşcilar O,, Numanoğlu G,, Aydemir S . 2006. Colonic tuberculosis mimicking tumor perforation: a case report and review of the literature. Dig Dis Sci 51 : 10391042.[PubMed]
84. Ergun M,, Cindoruk M,, Alagozlu H,, Unal S,, Karakan T,, Dursun A . 2008. Hypertrophic colonic tuberculosis mimicking tumourous mass. Colorectal Dis 10 : 735736.[PubMed]
85. Kamani L,, Ahmed A,, Shah M,, Hasan S,, Jafri W . 2007. Rectal tuberculosis: the great mimic. Endoscopy 39(Suppl 1): E227E228.[PubMed]
86. Lai CC,, Lee TC,, Hsiao CH,, Liao CH,, Chou CH,, Tan CK,, Wang HP,, Hsueh PR . 2009. Differential diagnosis of Crohn’s disease and intestinal tuberculous by enzyme-linked immunospot assay for interferon-gamma. Am J Gastroenterol 104 : 21212122.[PubMed]
87. Lee YJ,, Yang SK,, Myung SJ,, Byeon JS,, Park IG,, Kim JS,, Lee GH,, Jung HY,, Hong WS,, Kim JH,, Min YI . 2004. The usefulness of colonoscopic biopsy in the diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis and pattern of concomitant extra-intestinal tuberculosis. Korean J Gastroenterol 44 : 153159. (In Korean.)[PubMed]
88. Sibartie V,, Kirwan WO,, O’Mahony S,, Stack W,, Shanahan F . 2007. Intestinal tuberculosis mimicking Crohn’s disease: lessons relearned in a new era. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19 : 347349.[PubMed]
89. Wong WM,, Lai KC,, Yiu WC,, Wong BC,, Chan FL,, Lai CL . 2007. Intestinal tuberculosis mimicking fistulizing Crohn’s disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 22 : 137139.[PubMed]
90. Zhou ZY,, Luo HS . 2006. Differential diagnosis between Crohn’s disease and intestinal tuberculosis in China. Int J Clin Pract 60 : 212214.[PubMed]
91. Kuntanapreeda K . 2008. Tuberculous appendicitis presenting with lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage—a case report and review of the literature. J Med Assoc Thai 91 : 937942.[PubMed]
92. Leung VK,, Law ST,, Lam CW,, Luk IS,, Chau TN,, Loke TK,, Chan WH,, Lam SH . 2006. Intestinal tuberculosis in a regional hospital in Hong Kong: a 10-year experience. Hong Kong Med J 12 : 264271.[PubMed]
93. Bernhard JS,, Bhatia G,, Knauer CM . 2000. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis: an eighteen-patient experience and review. J Clin Gastroenterol 30 : 397402.[PubMed]
94. Muneef MA,, Memish Z,, Mahmoud SA,, Sadoon SA,, Bannatyne R,, Khan Y . 2001. Tuberculosis in the belly: a review of forty-six cases involving the gastrointestinal tract and peritoneum. Scand J Gastroenterol 36 : 528532.[PubMed]
95. Almadi MA,, Ghosh S,, Aljebreen AM . 2009. Differentiating intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn’s disease: a diagnostic challenge. Am J Gastroenterol 104 : 10031012.[PubMed]
96. Beppu K,, Osada T,, Matsumoto K,, Shibuya T,, Sakamoto N,, Kawabe M,, Nagahara A,, Otaka M,, Ogihara T,, Watanabe S . 2009. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis as a cause of massive bleeding. Med Sci Monit 15 : CS151CS154.[PubMed]
97. Joshi MA,, Balsarkar D,, Abhyankar A,, Pereira DG,, Avasare N,, Pradhan C,, Subramanyan P,, Changlani TT,, Deshmukh HL,, Shirahatti RG,, Biswas B . 1998. Massive rectal bleeding due to jejunal and colonic tuberculosis. Trop Gastroenterol 19 : 168170.[PubMed]
98. Monkemuller KE,, Lewis JB Jr . 1996. Massive rectal bleeding from colonic tuberculosis. Am J Gastroenterol 91 : 14391441.[PubMed]
99. Sharma V,, Rana SS,, Dhaka N,, Saikia UN,, Hemanth KK,, Gupta R,, Bhasin DK . 2015. Small bowel tuberculosis causing massive obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in an immunocompromised patient. Ann Gastroenterol 28 : 496. [PubMed]
100. Dones P,, Di Gangi M,, Failla MC,, Genova S,, Giannitto C,, Corsello G,, Principi N,, Esposito S . 2014. Intestinal tuberculosis in a child living in a country with a low incidence of tuberculosis: a case report. BMC Res Notes 7 : 762. [PubMed]
101. Yajnik V,, McDermott S,, Khalili H,, Everett JM . 2016. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 7-2016. An 80-year-old man with weight loss, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and an ileocecal mass. N Engl J Med 374 : 970979.[PubMed]
102. Patel N,, Amarapurkar D,, Agal S,, Baijal R,, Kulshrestha P,, Pramanik S,, Gupte P . 2004. Gastrointestinal luminal tuberculosis: establishing the diagnosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19 : 12401246.[PubMed]
103. Petrosyan M,, Mason RJ . 2006. Tuberculous enteritis presenting as small-bowel obstruction. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4 : xxiii. [PubMed]
104. Nakamura S,, Yanagihara K,, Izumikawa K,, Seki M,, Kakeya H,, Yamamoto Y,, Miyazaki Y,, Suyama N,, Kohno S . 2008. Severe pulmonary tuberculosis complicating ileocecal intussusception due to intestinal tuberculosis: a case report. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 7 : 16. [PubMed]
105. Bani-Hani MG,, Al-Nowfal A,, Gould S . 2009. High jejunal perforation complicating tuberculous abdominal cocoon: a rare presentation in immune-competent male patient. J Gastrointest Surg 13 : 13731375.[PubMed]
106. García-Díaz RA,, Ruiz-Gómez JL,, Rodríguez-Sanjuan JC,, García-Palomo D,, Gómez-Fleitas M . 2006. Perforation of the colon caused by intestinal tuberculosis. Dis Colon Rectum 49 : 927; author reply, 927. [PubMed]
107. Sefr R,, Rotterová P,, Konecný J . 2001. Perforation peritonitis in primary intestinal tuberculosis. Dig Surg 18 : 475479.[PubMed]
108. Ahn SB,, Han DS,, Eun CS,, Bang SY,, Lee YC,, Rim KN,, Lee YG,, Kim TY . 2007. A case of acute appendicitis due to intestinal stricture after intestinal tuberculosis treatment. Korean J Gastroenterol 50 : 277279. (In Korean.)[PubMed]
109. Akarsu M,, Akpinar H . 2007. Endoscopic balloon dilatation applied for the treatment of ileocecal valve stricture caused by tuberculosis. Dig Liver Dis 39 : 597598.[PubMed]
110. Alvares JF,, Devarbhavi H,, Makhija P,, Rao S,, Kottoor R . 2005. Clinical, colonoscopic, and histological profile of colonic tuberculosis in a tertiary hospital. Endoscopy 37 : 351356.[PubMed]
111. Das K,, Puri S,, Puri AS . 2006. Gastrointestinal: multiple colonic strictures caused by tuberculosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 21 : 476. [PubMed]
112. Angamuthu N,, Olakkengil SA . 2003. Coloduodenal fistula: an uncommon sequel of colonic tuberculosis. Indian J Gastroenterol 22 : 231232.[PubMed]
113. Barreiros AP,, Braden B,, Schieferstein-Knauer C,, Ignee A,, Dietrich CF . 2008. Characteristics of intestinal tuberculosis in ultrasonographic techniques. Scand J Gastroenterol 43 : 12241231.[PubMed]
114. Miyamoto S,, Furuse J,, Maru Y,, Tajiri H,, Muto M,, Yoshino M . 2001. Duodenal tuberculosis with a choledocho-duodenal fistula. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 16 : 235238.[PubMed]
115. Nagi B,, Lal A,, Kochhar R,, Bhasin DK,, Thapa BR,, Singh K . 2002. Perforations and fistulae in gastrointestinal tuberculosis. Acta Radiol 43 : 501506.[PubMed]
116. Chong VH,, Joseph TP,, Telisinghe PU,, Jalihal A . 2007. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with intestinal tuberculosis. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 40 : 377380.[PubMed]
117. Sato S,, Yao K,, Yao T,, Schlemper RJ,, Matsui T,, Sakurai T,, Iwashita A . 2004. Colonoscopy in the diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis in asymptomatic patients. Gastrointest Endosc 59 : 362368.[PubMed]
118. Katagiri Y,, Hachinohe S,, Nakajima K . 2006. A case of lung tuberculosis which also incidentally found intestinal tuberculosis by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 103 : 420425. (In Japanese.)[PubMed]
119. Bonthala L,, Wood E . 2011. Oesophageal tuberculosis. BMJ Case Rep 2011 : bcr0920114883. [PubMed]
120. Devarbhavi HC,, Alvares JF,, Radhikadevi M . 2003. Esophageal tuberculosis associated with esophagotracheal or esophagomediastinal fistula: report of 10 cases. Gastrointest Endosc 57 : 588592.[PubMed]
121. Ramchandani M,, Lakhtakia S,, Galasso D,, Baron T,, Sekaran A,, Nageshwar Reddy D . 2015. Dyspepsia and weight loss in a 47-year-old man. Gut 64 : 610; discussion, 683. [PubMed]
122. Uzunkoy A,, Harma M,, Harma M . 2004. Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis: experience from 11 cases and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol 10 : 36473649.[PubMed]
123. Rasheed S,, Zinicola R,, Watson D,, Bajwa A,, McDonald PJ . 2007. Intra-abdominal and gastrointestinal tuberculosis. Colorectal Dis 9 : 773783.[PubMed]
124. Croker J,, Record CO,, Wright JT . 1978. Ileo-caecal tuberculosis in immigrants. Postgrad Med J 54 : 410412.[PubMed]
125. Gordon AH,, Marshall JB . 1990. Esophageal tuberculosis: definitive diagnosis by endoscopy. Am J Gastroenterol 85 : 174177.[PubMed]
126. Eng J,, Sabanathan S . 1991. Tuberculosis of the esophagus. Dig Dis Sci 36 : 536540.[PubMed]
127. Rosario MT,, Raso CL,, Comer GM . 1989. Esophageal tuberculosis. Dig Dis Sci 34 : 12811284.[PubMed]
128. Puri R,, Khaliq A,, Kumar M,, Sud R,, Vasdev N . 2012. Esophageal tuberculosis: role of endoscopic ultrasound in diagnosis. Dis Esophagus 25 : 102106.[PubMed]
129. Sathiyasekaran M,, Shivbalan S . 2004. Esophageal tuberculosis. Indian J Pediatr 71 : 457458.[PubMed]
130. Eroğlu A,, Kürkçüoğlu C,, Karaoğlanoğlu N,, Yilmaz O,, Gürsan N . 2002. Esophageal tuberculosis abscess: an unusual cause of dysphagia. Dis Esophagus 15 : 9395.[PubMed]
131. Mokoena T,, Shama DM,, Ngakane H,, Bryer JV . 1992. Oesophageal tuberculosis: a review of eleven cases. Postgrad Med J 68 : 110115.[PubMed]
132. Peixoto PC,, Ministro PS,, Sadio AD,, Cancela EM,, Araújo RN,, Machado JL,, Castanheira AH,, Silva AT,, Nunes RD,, Carvalho MT,, Caldas AF . 2009. Esophageal tuberculosis: an unusual cause of dysphagia. Gastrointest Endosc 69 : 11731176.[PubMed]
133. Vahid B,, Huda N,, Esmaili A . 2007. An unusual case of dysphagia and chest pain in a non-HIV patient: esophageal tuberculosis. Am J Med 120 : e1e2.[PubMed]
134. Mohan P,, Myilsamy S,, Leelakrishnan V . 2012. Esophageal tuberculosis. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 36 : 312313.[PubMed]
135. Gomes J,, Antunes A,, Carvalho A,, Duarte R . 2011. Dysphagia as a manifestation of esophageal tuberculosis: a report of two cases. J Med Case Rep 5 : 447. [PubMed]
136. Ramakantan R,, Shah P . 1990. Tuberculous fistulas of the pharynx and esophagus. Gastrointest Radiol 15 : 145147.[PubMed]
137. Baltz JG,, Brock AS . 2013. Esophageal perforation caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Am J Med 126 : e5e6.[PubMed]
138. Catinella FP,, Kittle CF . 1988. Tuberculous esophagitis with aortic aneurysm fistula. Ann Thorac Surg 45 : 8788.[PubMed]
139. Chase RA,, Haber MH,, Pottage JC Jr,, Schaffner JA,, Miller C,, Levin S . 1986. Tuberculous esophagitis with erosion into aortic aneurysm. Arch Pathol Lab Med 110 : 965966.[PubMed]
140. Iwamoto I,, Tomita Y,, Takasaki M,, Mine K,, Koga Y,, Nabeshima K,, Takechi Y . 1995. Esophagoaortic fistula caused by esophageal tuberculosis: report of a case. Surg Today 25 : 381384.[PubMed]
141. Newman RM,, Fleshner PR,, Lajam FE,, Kim U . 1991. Esophageal tuberculosis: a rare presentation with hematemesis. Am J Gastroenterol 86 : 751755.[PubMed]
142. Jain SS,, Somani PO,, Mahey RC,, Shah DK,, Contractor QQ,, Rathi PM . 2013. Esophageal tuberculosis presenting with hematemesis. World J Gastrointest Endosc 5 : 581583.[PubMed]
143. Lee KN,, Lee OY,, Song SY . 2013. Massive esophageal bleeding in an immunocompetent young man. Gastroenterology 145 : 291, 490. [PubMed]
144. Audouin J,, Poulain J . 1950. [Stenosing tuberculosis of the esophagus, apparently primary, cured by esophagectomy]. Arch Mal Appar Dig Mal Nutr 39 : 231236. (In French).[PubMed]
145. Brullet E,, Font B,, Rey M,, Ferrer A,, Nogueras A . 1993. Esophageal tuberculosis: early diagnosis by endoscopy. Endoscopy 25 : 485. [PubMed]
146. Takaki Y,, Yao K,, Yano Y,, Matsui T,, Tanabe H,, Haraoka S,, Iwashita A,, Nakashima R . 2011. Esophageal tuberculosis: a microgranuloma visualized by narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy. Endoscopy 43(Suppl 2 UCTN): E377E378.
147. Annamalai A,, Shreekumar S . 1972. Tuberculosis of the esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol 57 : 166168.[PubMed]
148. Seivewright N,, Feehally J,, Wicks AC . 1984. Primary tuberculosis of the esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol 79 : 842843.[PubMed]
149. Mou Y,, Zeng H,, Wang QM,, Yi H,, Liu W,, Wen D,, Hu B . 2015. Esophageal tuberculosis initially misdiagnosed by endoscopy as a submucosal tumor. Endoscopy 47(Suppl 1 UCTN): E30E31.
150. Upadhyay AP,, Bhatia RS,, Anbarasu A,, Sawant P,, Rathi P,, Nanivadekar SA . 1996. Esophageal tuberculosis with intramural pseudodiverticulosis. J Clin Gastroenterol 22 : 3840.[PubMed]
151. Park JK,, Lee SH,, Kim SG,, Kim HY,, Lee JH,, Shim JH,, Kim JS,, Jung HC,, Song IS . 2005. A case of intestinal tuberculosis presenting massive hematochezia controlled by endoscopic coagulation therapy. Korean J Gastroenterol 45 : 6063. (In Korean.)[PubMed]
152. Welzel TM,, Kawan T,, Bohle W,, Richter GM,, Bosse A,, Zoller WG . 2010. An unusual cause of dysphagia: esophageal tuberculosis. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 19 : 321324.[PubMed]
153. von Bartheld MB,, van Kralingen KW,, Veenendaal RA,, Willems LN,, Rabe KF,, Annema JT . 2010. Mediastinal-esophageal fistulae after EUS-FNA of tuberculosis of the mediastinum. Gastrointest Endosc 71 : 210212.[PubMed]
154. Meyer A,, Connell T,, Alex G . 2014. Gastrointestinal: esophageal traction diverticulum led to tuberculosis diagnosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 29 : 1850. [PubMed]
155. Nagi B,, Lal A,, Kochhar R,, Bhasin DK,, Gulati M,, Suri S,, Singh K . 2003. Imaging of esophageal tuberculosis: a review of 23 cases. Acta Radiol 44 : 329333.[PubMed]
156. Williford ME,, Thompson WM,, Hamilton JD,, Postlethwait RW . 1983. Esophageal tuberculosis: findings on barium swallow and computed tomography. Gastrointest Radiol 8 : 119122.[PubMed]
157. Bashi SA,, Laajam MB,, Joharjy IA,, Abdullah AK . 1985. Tuberculous oesophagopulmonary communication: effectiveness of antituberculous chemotherapy. A case report and review of literature. Digestion 32 : 145148.[PubMed]
158. Jain SK,, Jain S,, Jain M,, Yaduvanshi A . 2002. Esophageal tuberculosis: is it so rare? Report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Am J Gastroenterol 97 : 287291.[PubMed]
159. Lee JH,, Shin DH,, Kang KW,, Park SS,, Lee DH . 1992. The medical treatment of a tuberculous tracheo-oesophageal fistula. Tuber Lung Dis 73 : 177179.[PubMed]
160. Wigley FM,, Murray HW,, Mann RB,, Saba GP,, Kashima H,, Mann JJ . 1976. Unusual manifestation of tuberculosis: TE fistula. Am J Med 60 : 310314.[PubMed]
161. Rosario P,, Song J,, Wittenborn W,, Christian F . 1996. Tracheoesophageal fistula in AIDS: stent versus primary repair. AIDS Patient Care STDS 10 : 334335.[PubMed]
162. Rämö OJ,, Salo JA,, Isolauri J,, Luostarinen M,, Mattila SP . 1996. Tuberculous fistula of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg 62 : 10301032.[PubMed]
163. Gupta B,, Mathew S,, Bhalla S . 1990. Pyloric obstruction due to gastric tuberculosis—an endoscopic diagnosis. Postgrad Med J 66 : 6365.[PubMed]
164. Palmer ED . 1950. Tuberculosis of the stomach and the stomach in tuberculosis; a review with particular reference to gross pathology and gastroscopic diagnosis. Am Rev Tuberc 61 : 116130.[PubMed]
165. Subei I,, Attar B,, Schmitt G,, Levendoglu H . 1987. Primary gastric tuberculosis: a case report and literature review. Am J Gastroenterol 82 : 769772.[PubMed]
166. Brody JM,, Miller DK,, Zeman RK,, Klappenbach RS,, Jaffe MH,, Clark LR,, Benjamin SB,, Choyke PL . 1986. Gastric tuberculosis: a manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Radiology 159 : 347348.[PubMed]
167. Amarapurkar DN,, Patel ND,, Amarapurkar AD . 2003. Primary gastric tuberculosis—report of 5 cases. BMC Gastroenterol 3 : 6. [PubMed]
168. Kim SE,, Shim KN,, Yoon SJ,, Jung SA,, Kim TH,, Yoo K,, Moon H . 2006. A case of gastric tuberculosis mimicking advanced gastric cancer. Korean J Intern Med 21 : 6267.[PubMed]
169. Lin OS,, Wu SS,, Yeh KT,, Soon MS . 1999. Isolated gastric tuberculosis of the cardia. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 14 : 258261.[PubMed]
170. Dai SC,, Calderwood A . 2012. Epigastric pain and an unusual perigastric mass in a 28-year-old man. Gastroenterology 142 : 1072, 1258–1259.[PubMed]
171. Salpeter SR,, Shapiro RM,, Gasman JD . 1991. Gastric tuberculosis presenting as fever of unknown origin. West J Med 155 : 412413.[PubMed]
172. Thiéfin G,, Jaussaud R . 2013. Gastric tuberculous abscesses. Dig Liver Dis 45 : 263. [PubMed]
173. Okoro EO,, Komolafe OF . 1999. Gastric tuberculosis: unusual presentations in two patients. Clin Radiol 54 : 257259.[PubMed]
174. Ishii N,, Furukawa K,, Itoh T,, Fujita Y . 2011. Primary gastric tuberculosis presenting as non-healing ulcer and mimicking Crohn’s disease. Intern Med 50 : 439442.[PubMed]
175. Geo SK,, Harikumar R,, Varghese T,, Rajan P,, Aravindan KP . 2005. Isolated tuberculosis of gastric cardia presenting as perforation peritonitis. Indian J Gastroenterol 24 : 227228.[PubMed]
176. Sharma D,, Gupta A,, Jain BK,, Agrawal V,, Dargan P,, Upreti L,, Arora V . 2004. Tuberculous gastric perforation: report of a case. Surg Today 34 : 537541.[PubMed]
177. Woudstra M,, van Tilburg AJ,, Tjen JS . 1997. Two young Somalians with gastric outlet obstruction as a first manifestation of gastroduodenal tuberculosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 9 : 393395.[PubMed]
178. Arabi NA,, Musaad AM,, Ahmed EE,, Ibnouf MM,, Abdelaziz MS . 2015. Primary gastric tuberculosis presenting as gastric outlet obstruction: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Case Rep 9 : 265. [PubMed]
179. Öztürk B,, Nural MS,, Ecemiş Ö,, Danacı M . 2015. Imaging findings of an isolated gastric tuberculosis case mimicking lymphoma and infiltrative gastric cancer. Turk J Gastroenterol 26 : 6566.[PubMed]
180. Yaita H,, Nakamura S,, Kurahara K,, Morishita T,, Kochi S,, Oshiro Y,, Hamaguchi N,, Fuchigami T . 2014. Gastric tuberculosis resembling depressed type, early gastric cancer. 46(Suppl 1 UCTN): E669E670.
181. Kang HJ,, Lee YS,, Jang YJ,, Mok YJ . 2012. Gastric cancer and concomitant gastric tuberculosis: a case report. J Gastric Cancer 12 : 254257.[PubMed]
182. Agrawal S,, Shetty SV,, Bakshi G . 1999. Primary hypertrophic tuberculosis of the pyloroduodenal area: report of 2 cases. J Postgrad Med 45 : 1012.[PubMed]
183. Rao YG,, Pande GK,, Sahni P,, Chattopadhyay TK . 2004. Gastroduodenal tuberculosis management guidelines, based on a large experience and a review of the literature. Can J Surg 47 : 364368.[PubMed]
184. Sharma BC,, Prasad H,, Bhasin DK,, Singh K . 2000. Gastroduodenal tuberculosis presenting with massive hematemesis in a pregnant woman. J Clin Gastroenterol 30 : 336. [PubMed]
185. Baylan O,, Kilciler G,, Albay A,, Tuzun A,, Kisa O,, Dagalp K . 2009. Polymerase chain reaction based diagnosis of primary gastric tuberculosis in an 80-year-old woman: a case report and review of the literature. New Microbiol 32 : 217221.[PubMed]
186. Tan MF,, Ng WC,, Chan SH,, Tan WC . 1997. Comparative usefulness of PCR in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in different clinical specimens. J Med Microbiol 46 : 164169.[PubMed]
187. Padmanabhan H,, Rothnie A,, Singh P . 2013. An unusual case of gastric outlet obstruction caused by tuberculosis: challenges in diagnosis and treatment. BMJ Case Rep 2013 : bcr2012008277. [PubMed]
188. Puri AS,, Sachdeva S,, Mittal VV,, Gupta N,, Banka A,, Sakhuja P,, Puri SK . 2012. Endoscopic diagnosis, management and outcome of gastroduodenal tuberculosis. Indian J Gastroenterol 31 : 125129.[PubMed]
189. Padma V,, Anand NN,, Rajendran SM,, Gurukal S . 2012. Primary tuberculosis of stomach. J Indian Med Assoc 110 : 187188.[PubMed]
190. Tewari M,, Mishra RR,, Kumar V,, Kar AG,, Shukla HS . 2009. Isolated tuberculosis of the ampulla of vater masquerading as periampullary carcinoma: a case report. JOP 10 : 184186.[PubMed]
191. Akinoğlu A,, Bilgin I . 1988. Tuberculous enteritis and peritonitis. Can J Surg 31 : 5558.[PubMed]
192. Brandt MM,, Bogner PN,, Franklin GA . 2002. Intestinal tuberculosis presenting as a bowel obstruction. Am J Surg 183 : 290291.[PubMed]
193. Schwartz DC,, Pfau PR . 2003. Multifocal intestinal tuberculosis. Gastrointest Endosc 58 : 100. [PubMed]
194. Ozkan OF,, Ozkul F,, Caymaz I,, Güner A,, Kant A,, Reis E . 2013. A case of intestinal obstruction due to ileocecal tuberculosis. Turk J Gastroenterol 24 : 190192.[PubMed]
195. Sisodiya R,, Ramachandra L . 2013. Tubercular duodenal, jejunal and ileocecal stricture in a patient. BMJ Case Rep 2013 : bcr2013200347. [PubMed]
196. Upadhyaya VD,, Kumar B,, Lal R,, Sharma MS,, Singh M,, Rudramani . 2013. Primary duodenal tuberculosis presenting as gastric-outlet obstruction: its diagnosis. Afr J Paediatr Surg 10 : 8386.[PubMed]
197. Dahiya D,, Garg M,, Kaman L,, Rana S,, Rao C,, Behera A . 2013. Duodenal tuberculosis—a rare case report and review of literature. Pol Przegl Chir 85 : 464466.[PubMed]
198. Chawla I,, Aery V,, Singh K,, Singla B,, Singh V . 2012. Duodenal tuberculosis presenting as gatric [sic] outlet obstruction. J Surg Case Rep 2012 : 13. [PubMed]
199. Eggleston FC,, Deodhar MC,, Kumar A . 1983. Tuberculous perforation of the bowel—results in 21 cases. Trop Gastroenterol 4 : 164167.[PubMed]
200. Gilinsky NH,, Voigt MD,, Bass DH,, Marks IN . 1986. Tuberculous perforation of the bowel. A report of 8 cases. S Afr Med J 70 : 4446.[PubMed]
201. Friedenberg KA,, Draguesku JO,, Kiyabu M,, Valenzuela JE . 1993. Intestinal perforation due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV-infected indivi