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Chapter 10 : Preventing Plagues: Immunization

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Abstract:

The year was 430 b.c., and Athens was being devastated by a plague. The Greek historian Thucydides wrote:

The infection first began, it is said, in parts of Ethiopia above Egypt and thence descended into Egypt and Libya and into most of the king’s country (i.e., Persia). Suddenly falling upon Athens, it first attacked the population in Piraeus … and afterwards appeared in the upper city, when the deaths became more frequent. Fear of gods or laws of men there was none to restrain them. As for the first, they judged it to be just the same whether they worshipped them or not, as they saw all alike perishing. As for the latter, no one expected to live to be brought to trial for his offenses … even the most staid and respectable citizens devoted themselves to nothing but gluttony, drunkenness and licentiousness.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Figures

Image of Figure 10.1
Figure 10.1

Immunization against measles. Courtesy CDC/Amanda Mills, 2011.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.2
Figure 10.2

The immune system consists of tissues containing lymphocytes and lymphatic vessels that transport the cells from the lymphatic tissues and the antibodies secreted by lymphocytes returning them to the bloodstream via the lymphatic and the thoracic duct in the neck region. Lymphocytes are manufactured in bone marrow and multiply in the thymus, the spleen and the lymph nodes.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.3 (A)
Figure 10.3 (A)

Neutrophil with blood platelet (arrow) Courtesy CDC Public Health Image Library #6645/Dr. F. Gilbert, 1972;

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.3 (B)
Figure 10.3 (B)

Eosinophil, basophil and lymphocyte Courtesy CDC Public Health Image Library #15133/Dr. Candler Ballard, 1974;

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.3 (C)
Figure 10.3 (C)

Monocyte. Courtesy CDC Public Health Image Library #12084/Dr. Mae Melvin, 1965.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.4
Figure 10.4

Detail from the 1812 painting “El Garratillo” (), attributed to Francisco de Goya (1746-1828). The bearded man is attempting to remove the adherent membrane in the throat that is blocking the breathing of the child. Courtesy Wikimedia Commons.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.5
Figure 10.5

Digitally colored transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of H1N1 influenza virus particle. Surface proteins are shown in black. Courtesy CDC Public Health Image Library #18156/ NIAID, 2013.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.6b
Figure 10.6b

Child with 4 day rash of measles. Courtesy CDC Public Health Image Library #132/NIP/Barbara Rice.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.6a
Figure 10.6a

Measles virus as seen with the transmission electron microscope. Courtesy CDC Public Health Image Library #10707/C. Goldsmith/W. Bellini.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.7a
Figure 10.7a

Mumps virus negatively stained and viewed by transmission electron microscope. Courtesy CDC Public Health Image Library #8578/F.A. Murphy, 1973.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.7b
Figure 10.7b

Child with mumps. Courtesy CDC Public Health Image Library #130, 1976.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.8a
Figure 10.8a

Transmission electron micrograph of chicken pox virus. Courtesy CDC Public Health Image Library #1878/Erskine Palmer, B. G. Partin, 1982.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.8b
Figure 10.8b

Child with chicken pox. Courtesy Wikipedia Commons, 1995.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.9a
Figure 10.9a

President Franklin Roosevelt confined to a wheelchair due to contracting polio in 1921 at age 39. By FDR Presidential Library & Museum photograph by Margaret Suckley - 73-113 61, CC BY 2.0.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.9b
Figure 10.9b

Polio virus as seen with the transmission electron microscope. Courtesy CDC Public Health Image Library #1875/Dr. Fred Murphy, Sylvia Whitfield, 1975.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.9c
Figure 10.9c

A 1957 March of Dimes poster for the polio vaccine campaign. Courtesy Wikipedia Commons.

Citation: Sherman I. 2017. Preventing Plagues: Immunization, p 216-263. In The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670018.ch10
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