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Chapter 4 : From the CRISPR Defense System to the CRISPR/Cas9 Method for Modifying Genomes

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Abstract:

In nature, bacteria need to defend themselves constantly, particularly against bacteriophages (or phages), the viruses that specifically attack bacteria. A phage generally attaches itself to a bacterium, injects its DNA into it, and subverts the bacterium's mechanisms of replication, transcription, and translation in order to replicate itself. The phage DNA reproduces its own DNA, transcribes it into RNA, and produces phage proteins that accumulate to generate new phages and eventually cause the bacterial cell to explode (or lyse), releasing hundreds of new bacteriophages. Phages continually infect bacteria everywhere—in soil, in water, and even in our own intestinal microbiota (Fig. 9). Bacteriophage families are numerous and vary widely in their form, size, composition, and the bacteria they target.

Citation: Cossart P. 2018. From the CRISPR Defense System to the CRISPR/Cas9 Method for Modifying Genomes, p 23-27. In The New Microbiology: From Microbiomes to CRISPR. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670117.ch4
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Figures

Image of Figure 9.
Figure 9.

Bacteriophages infecting an bacterium.

Citation: Cossart P. 2018. From the CRISPR Defense System to the CRISPR/Cas9 Method for Modifying Genomes, p 23-27. In The New Microbiology: From Microbiomes to CRISPR. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670117.ch4
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Image of Figure 10.
Figure 10.

(Top) The three steps involved in CRISPR function. (1) Integration of a piece of DNA from a phage into the CRISPR locus (acquisition); (2) the expression of Cas proteins and of pre-crRNA, which is then split into small crRNAs; (3) the interference that takes place when the DNA injected by a phage into a bacterium meets a crRNA, a hybrid form that is then degraded, consequently preventing infection. (Bottom) Schematic drawing of genome modification (gene editing) by an sgRNA (small guided RNA) made of crRNA and tracrRNA and the endonuclease Cas9.

Citation: Cossart P. 2018. From the CRISPR Defense System to the CRISPR/Cas9 Method for Modifying Genomes, p 23-27. In The New Microbiology: From Microbiomes to CRISPR. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781683670117.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

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