1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

EcoSal Plus

Domain 8:

Pathogenesis

Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Buy article
Choose downloadable ePub or PDF files.
Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00
  • Authors: Elisabeth Torstensson1, Peter KjÄll2, and Agneta Richter-Dahlfors
  • Editor: James M. Slauch3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Microbiology and Tumour Biology Center (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; 2: Microbiology and Tumour Biology Center (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; 3: The Schoold of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL
  • Received 07 January 2005 Accepted 03 February 2005 Published 27 May 2005
  • Address correspondence to Agneta Richter-Dahlfors agneta.richter.dahlfors@mtc.ki.se
image of Imaging Techniques for the Study of <span class="jp-italic">Escherichia coli</span> and <span class="jp-italic">Salmonella</span> Infections
    Preview this reference work article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/ecosalplus/1/2/2_2_6_module-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/ecosalplus/1/2/2_2_6_module-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    Infectious diseases are among the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and numerous bacterial species are included in the vast array of causative agents. This review describes microscopy-based techniques that can be used to study interactions between bacteria and infected host cells, bacterial gene expression in the infected animal, and bacteria-induced cell signaling in eukaryotic cells. As infectious model systems, urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic (UPEC) and a mouse model of typhoid fever caused by serovar Typhimurium are used. To study the interaction mechanism between bacteria and eukaryotic cells, one commonly uses cell lines, primary cells, and animal models. Within the host, bacteria can be located in various organs where they are exposed to different cell types, ranging from epithelial cells at the mucosal linings to phagocytic white blood cells. In each site, bacteria are exposed to specific sets of innate immune defense mechanisms, and to survive these threats, bacteria must rapidly adapt their gene expression profile to maximize their chance of survival in any situation. The rapid development of fluorescent reporter proteins and advances in microscopy-based techniques have provided new and promising approaches not only to locate bacteria in tissues, but also to analyze expression of virulence factors in individual bacteria and host cells during the progression of disease. These techniques enable, for the first time, studies of the complex microenvironments within infected organs and will reveal the alterations of bacterial physiology that occur during bacterial growth within a host.

  • Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6

Key Concept Ranking

White Blood Cells
0.5192092
Urinary Tract Infections
0.5021638
Type 1 Fimbriae
0.46489453
Infectious Diseases
0.40304166
Microbial Pathogenesis
0.3981065
Typhoid Fever
0.3859839
0.5192092

References

1. Kaper JB, Nataro JP, Mobley HL. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nat Rev Microbiol 2:123–140. [PubMed][CrossRef]
2. Parry CM, Hien TT, Dougan G, White NJ, Farrar JJ. 2002. Typhoid fever. N Engl J Med 347:1770–1782. [PubMed][CrossRef]
3. Backhed F, Alsen B, Roche N, Angstrom J, von Euler A, Breimer ME, Westerlund-Wikstrom B, Teneberg S, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2002. Identification of target tissue glycosphingolipid receptors for uropathogenic, F1C-fimbriated Escherichia coli and its role in mucosal inflammation. J Biol Chem 277:18198–18205. [PubMed][CrossRef]
4. Barnhart MM, Schilling JD, Backhed F, Richter-Dahlfors A, Normark S, Hultgren SJ. 2002. Host-pathogen interactions: structure and function of pili, p133–159. In Sansonetti P and Zychlinsky A (ed), Methods in Microbiology: Molecular Cellular Microbiology, vol. 31. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif. [CrossRef]
5. Leffler H, Svanborg Edén C. 1980. Chemical identification of a glycosphingolipid receptor for Escherichia coli attaching to human urinary tract epithelial cells and agglutinating human erythrocytes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 8:127–134. [CrossRef]
6. Martinez JJ, Mulvey MA, Schilling JD, Pinkner JS, Hultgren SJ. 2000. Type 1 pilus-mediated bacterial invasion of bladder epithelial cells. EMBO J 19:2803–2812. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Khalil A, Tullus K, Bartfai T, Bakhiet M, Jaremko G, Brauner A. 2000. Renal cytokine responses in acute Escherichia coli pyelonephritis in IL-6-deficient mice. Clin Exp Immunol 122:200–206. [PubMed][CrossRef]
8. Tardif M, Beauchamp D, Bergeron Y, Lessard C, Gourde P, Bergeron MG. 1994. L-651, 392, a potent leukotriene inhibitor, controls inflammatory process in Escherichia coli pyelonephritis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38:1555–1560.[PubMed]
9. Uhlen P, Laestadius A, Jahnukainen T, Soderblom T, Backhed F, Celsi G, Brismar H, Normark S, Aperia A, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2000. Alpha-haemolysin of uropathogenic E. coli induces Ca2+ oscillations in renal epithelial cells. Nature 405:694–697. [PubMed][CrossRef]
10. Richter-Dahlfors A, Buchan AM, Finlay BB. 1997. Murine salmonellosis studied by confocal microscopy: Salmonella typhimurium resides intracellularly inside macrophages and exerts a cytotoxic effect on phagocytes in vivo. J Exp Med 186:569–580. [PubMed][CrossRef]
11. Salcedo SP, Noursadeghi M, Cohen J, Holden DW. 2001. Intracellular replication of Salmonella typhimurium strains in specific subsets of splenic macrophages in vivo. Cell Microbiol 3:587–597. [PubMed][CrossRef]
12. Hooper LV, Mills JC, Roth KA, Stappenbeck TS, Wong MH, Gordon JI. 2002. Combining gnotobiotic mouse models with functional genomics to define the impact of microflora on host physiology. In Sansonetti P and Zychlinsky A (ed), Methods in Microbiology: Molecular Cellular Microbiology, vol. 31. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif. [CrossRef]
13. Eriksson S, Lucchini S, Thompson A, Rhen M, Hinton JC. 2003. Unravelling the biology of macrophage infection by gene expression profiling of intracellular Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol 47:103–118. [PubMed][CrossRef]
14. Connell H, Poulsen LK, Klemm P. 2000. Expression of type 1 and P fimbriae in situ and localisation of a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain in the murine bladder and kidney. Int J Med Microbiol 290:587–597.[PubMed]
15. Scholz O, Thiel A, Hillen W, Niederweis M. 2000. Quantitative analysis of gene expression with an improved green fluorescent protein. Eur J Biochem 267:1565–1570. [PubMed][CrossRef]
16. Hautefort I, Proenca MJ, Hinton JC. 2003. Single-copy green fluorescent protein gene fusions allow accurate measurement of Salmonella gene expression in vitro and during infection of mammalian cells. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:7480–7491. [PubMed][CrossRef]
17. Datsenko KA, Wanner BL. 2000. One-step inactivation of chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli K-12 using PCR products. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:6640–6645. [PubMed][CrossRef]
18. Miyake K. 2004. Innate recognition of lipopolysaccharide by Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2. Trends Microbiol 12:186–192. [PubMed][CrossRef]
19. Backhed F, Soderhall M, Ekman P, Normark S, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2001. Induction of innate immune responses by Escherichia coli and purified lipopolysaccharide correlate with organ- and cell-specific expression of Toll-like receptors within the human urinary tract. Cell Microbiol 3:153–158. [PubMed][CrossRef]
20. Welch RA. 2001. RTX toxin structure and function: a story of numerous anomalies and few analogies in toxin biology. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 257:85–111.[PubMed]
21. Dolmetsch RE, Lewis RS, Goodnow CC, Healy JI. 1997. Differential activation of transcription factors induced by Ca2+ response amplitude and duration. Nature 386:855–388. [PubMed][CrossRef]
22. Dolmetsch RE, Xu K, Lewis RS. 1998. Calcium oscillations increase the efficiency and specificity of gene expression. Nature 392:933–936. [PubMed][CrossRef]
23. Berridge MJ, Bootman MD, Lipp P. 1998. Calcium—a life and death signal. Nature 395:645–648. [PubMed][CrossRef]
24. Berridge MJ, Bootman MD, Roderick HL. 2003. Calcium signalling: dynamics, homeostasis and remodelling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:517–529. [PubMed][CrossRef]
ecosalplus.2.2.6.citations
ecosalplus/1/2
content/journal/ecosalplus/10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Loading

Citations loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ecosalplus/10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
2005-05-27
2017-04-23

Abstract:

Infectious diseases are among the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and numerous bacterial species are included in the vast array of causative agents. This review describes microscopy-based techniques that can be used to study interactions between bacteria and infected host cells, bacterial gene expression in the infected animal, and bacteria-induced cell signaling in eukaryotic cells. As infectious model systems, urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic (UPEC) and a mouse model of typhoid fever caused by serovar Typhimurium are used. To study the interaction mechanism between bacteria and eukaryotic cells, one commonly uses cell lines, primary cells, and animal models. Within the host, bacteria can be located in various organs where they are exposed to different cell types, ranging from epithelial cells at the mucosal linings to phagocytic white blood cells. In each site, bacteria are exposed to specific sets of innate immune defense mechanisms, and to survive these threats, bacteria must rapidly adapt their gene expression profile to maximize their chance of survival in any situation. The rapid development of fluorescent reporter proteins and advances in microscopy-based techniques have provided new and promising approaches not only to locate bacteria in tissues, but also to analyze expression of virulence factors in individual bacteria and host cells during the progression of disease. These techniques enable, for the first time, studies of the complex microenvironments within infected organs and will reveal the alterations of bacterial physiology that occur during bacterial growth within a host.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Comment has been disabled for this content
Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

E. Torstensson and A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2a
Figure 2a

E. Torstensson and A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2b
Figure 2b

The thin green line represents the tight junctions that are formed between the cells.

E. Torstensson and A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

A. von Euler.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

The glomerulus (1), Bowmans capsule (2), and proximal tubuli (3) are indicated by arrows.

A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6a
Figure 6a

A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6b
Figure 6b

Bacteria are shown in red, and tissue morphology is visualized by FITC-phalloidin (green).

A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 7a
Figure 7a

Immune cells (resident Kupffer cells and infiltrated immune cells) are shown in pink with an anti-CD18 antibody, and bacteria are shown in yellow with an anti-LPS antibody. Uninfected liver.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 7b
Figure 7b

Immune cells (resident Kupffer cells and infiltrated immune cells) are shown in pink with an anti-CD18 antibody, and bacteria are shown in yellow with an anti-LPS antibody. Liver tissue 3 days after infection.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 7c
Figure 7c

Immune cells (resident Kupffer cells and infiltrated immune cells) are shown in pink with an anti-CD18 antibody, and bacteria are shown in yellow with an anti-LPS antibody. Liver tissue at 5 days after infection.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 8a
Figure 8a

Red, anti-CD18 staining all immune cells; purple, neutrophils; green/light blue/yellow, serovar Typhimurium. Uninfected liver where only resident Kupffer cells are present.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 8b
Figure 8b

Red, anti-CD18 staining all immune cells; purple, neutrophils; green/light blue/yellow, serovar Typhimurium. Neutrophils (purple) have infiltrated the tissue and are present in foci of infection at 3 days after infection.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 8c
Figure 8c

Red, anti-CD18 staining all immune cells; purple, neutrophils; green/light blue/yellow, serovar Typhimurium. Macrophages (red) are dominating the tissue at 5 days after infection, and neutrophils are no longer present.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9a
Figure 9a

Serovar Typhimurium (red) colocalize to macrophages (anti-CD18, green) in infected mouse liver at 5 days after infection.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9b
Figure 9b

Three-dimensional analysis of data represented by the white box in Fig. 9a reveals that bacteria are intracellularly located in macrophages.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9c
Figure 9c

Volume rendering of data represented by the white box in Fig. 9a outlines the surface membrane of the macrophage.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9d
Figure 9d

A 1.8-μm tilted section of the macrophage shown in Fig. 9c shows that bacteria (orange) are intracellularly located. See text for details.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 10
Figure 10

Each dot represents spotted cDNA from a specific gene. The chip represents 70% of serovar Typhimurium genome. The color reflects differences in expression level.

S. Eriksson and M. Rehn.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 11
Figure 11

E. Torstensson and A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 12
Figure 12

See text for details.

E. Torstensson and A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 13a
Figure 13a

Renal tubular structures can be seen because of autofluorescence in tissue (soft green).

E. Torstensson and A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 13b
Figure 13b

E. Torstensson and A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14a
Figure 14a

The image shows that HlyA-exposed cells round up, detach from the surface, and undergo cell death. Green, one rounded cell; yellow, HlyA-producing UPEC.

E. Torstensson and A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14b
Figure 14b

Green, monolayer of epithelial cells; yellow, UPEC mutant.

E. Torstensson and A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15
Figure 15

The pseudocolored cells show basal levels of [Ca] as blue (0.1 μM), and increases in intracellular [Ca] are depicted as yellow, red, and white. Images represent cells that are monitored for 60 min.

A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16
Figure 16

Data are presented as a ratio (arbitrary unit) that reflects the alteration of the intracellular [Ca].

P. Kjäll and A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 17
Figure 17

Data are presented as a ratio (arbitrary unit) that reflects the change of the intracellular [Ca].

P. Kjäll and A. Richter-Dahlfors.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 18a
Figure 18a

Uninfected tissue.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 18b
Figure 18b

Three days after infection.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 18c
Figure 18c

Five days after infection.

Richter-Dahlfors et al. 1997. 569–580.

Citation: Torstensson E, KjÄll P, Richter-Dahlfors A. 2005. Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.2.2.6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error