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EcoSal Plus

Domain 5:

Responding to the Environment

Oxidative Stress

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  • Author: James A. Imlay1
  • Editor: James M. Slauch2
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801; 2: The Schoold of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL
  • Received 16 January 2009 Accepted 16 January 2009 Published 26 September 2009
  • Address correspondence to James A. Imlay jimlay@illinois.edu.
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  • Abstract:

    The ancestors of and ultimately evolved to thrive in air-saturated liquids, in which oxygen levels reach 210 μM at 37°C. However, in 1976 Brown and colleagues reported that some sensitivity persists: growth defects still become apparent when hyperoxia is imposed on cultures of . This residual vulnerability was important in that it raised the prospect that normal levels of oxygen might also injure bacteria, albeit at reduced rates that are not overtly toxic. The intent of this article is both to describe the threat that molecular oxygen poses for bacteria and to detail what we currently understand about the strategies by which and defend themselves against it. mutants that lack either superoxide dismutases or catalases and peroxidases exhibit a variety of growth defects. These phenotypes constitute the best evidence that aerobic cells continually generate intracellular superoxide and hydrogen peroxide at potentially lethal doses. Superoxide has reduction potentials that allow it to serve in vitro as either a weak univalent reductant or a stronger univalent oxidant. The addition of micromolar hydrogen peroxide to lab media will immediately block the growth of most cells, and protracted exposure will result in the loss of viability. The need for inducible antioxidant systems seems especially obvious for enteric bacteria, which move quickly from the anaerobic gut to fully aerobic surface waters or even to ROS-perfused phagolysosomes. and have provided two paradigmatic models of oxidative-stress responses: the SoxRS and OxyR systems.

  • Citation: Imlay J. 2009. Oxidative Stress, EcoSal Plus 2009; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.5.4.4

Key Concept Ranking

DNA Repair Enzyme
0.5097567
PhoPQ Two-Component Regulatory System
0.4528996
Type III Secretion System
0.4090091
Organic Chemicals
0.38930425
Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase
0.37163818
0.5097567

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ecosalplus.5.4.4.citations
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/content/journal/ecosalplus/10.1128/ecosalplus.5.4.4
2009-09-26
2017-07-27

Abstract:

The ancestors of and ultimately evolved to thrive in air-saturated liquids, in which oxygen levels reach 210 μM at 37°C. However, in 1976 Brown and colleagues reported that some sensitivity persists: growth defects still become apparent when hyperoxia is imposed on cultures of . This residual vulnerability was important in that it raised the prospect that normal levels of oxygen might also injure bacteria, albeit at reduced rates that are not overtly toxic. The intent of this article is both to describe the threat that molecular oxygen poses for bacteria and to detail what we currently understand about the strategies by which and defend themselves against it. mutants that lack either superoxide dismutases or catalases and peroxidases exhibit a variety of growth defects. These phenotypes constitute the best evidence that aerobic cells continually generate intracellular superoxide and hydrogen peroxide at potentially lethal doses. Superoxide has reduction potentials that allow it to serve in vitro as either a weak univalent reductant or a stronger univalent oxidant. The addition of micromolar hydrogen peroxide to lab media will immediately block the growth of most cells, and protracted exposure will result in the loss of viability. The need for inducible antioxidant systems seems especially obvious for enteric bacteria, which move quickly from the anaerobic gut to fully aerobic surface waters or even to ROS-perfused phagolysosomes. and have provided two paradigmatic models of oxidative-stress responses: the SoxRS and OxyR systems.

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Figures

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Figure 1

Left to right: molecular oxygen, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and water. Reduction potentials are shown; the reduction potential for molecular oxygen considers the standard state to be 1 M. At the bottom, the relative cytoplasmic concentrations of molecular oxygen, superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide in unstressed aerobic are shown.

Citation: Imlay J. 2009. Oxidative Stress, EcoSal Plus 2009; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.5.4.4
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Figure 2

Citation: Imlay J. 2009. Oxidative Stress, EcoSal Plus 2009; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.5.4.4
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Figure 3

Citation: Imlay J. 2009. Oxidative Stress, EcoSal Plus 2009; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.5.4.4
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Figure 4

Based on Kona and Brinck ( 95 ).

Citation: Imlay J. 2009. Oxidative Stress, EcoSal Plus 2009; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.5.4.4
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Figure 5

The identity of the initiating oxidant in reaction 1 is unknown. Propagation reaction 3 is possible only because of the stabilizing effect of resonance upon the radical product. Unlike the lipids in the figure, bacterial lipids are not polyunsaturated and therefore resist peroxidation.

Citation: Imlay J. 2009. Oxidative Stress, EcoSal Plus 2009; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.5.4.4
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Figure 6

Neither the identity of the oxidant nor that of the reductant is certain.

Citation: Imlay J. 2009. Oxidative Stress, EcoSal Plus 2009; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.5.4.4
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Figure 7

HO inactivates the Isc cluster assembly system, degrades exposed iron-sulfur clusters, damages DNA, inactivates the Fur repressor, and oxidizes polypeptides of ferroproteins. Induced defenses (bracketed, dashed lines) include HO decomposition by Ahp and catalase, cluster assembly by the Suf system, iron sequestration by Dps, superinduction of Fur, and import of manganese by MntH. Disulfide bond formation, and re-reduction by glutaredoxin and/or thioredoxin, have been proposed but not yet demonstrated to occur at physiological doses of HO.

Citation: Imlay J. 2009. Oxidative Stress, EcoSal Plus 2009; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.5.4.4
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Tables

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Table 1

Selected members of the SoxRS regulon ( 112 , 113 )

Citation: Imlay J. 2009. Oxidative Stress, EcoSal Plus 2009; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.5.4.4
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Table 2

Selected members of the OxyR regulon ( 133 , 134 )

Citation: Imlay J. 2009. Oxidative Stress, EcoSal Plus 2009; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.5.4.4

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