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EcoSal Plus

Domain 8:

Pathogenesis

Adhesins of Enterotoxigenic Strains That Infect Animals

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  • Author: Dieter M. Schifferli1
  • Editor: Michael S. Donnenberg2
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: University of Pennsylvania Veterinary School, 3800 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6049; 2: University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
  • Received 14 October 2004 Accepted 11 January 2005 Published 29 March 2005
  • Address correspondence to Dieter M. Schifferli dmschiff@vet.penn.edu
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  • Abstract:

    The first described adhesive antigen of strains isolated from animals was the K88 antigen, expressed by strains from diarrheic pigs. The K88 antigen was visible by electron microscopy as a surface-exposed filament that was thin and flexible and had hemagglutinating properties. Many different fimbriae have been identified in animal enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and have been discussed in this article. The role of these fimbriae in the pathogenesis of ETEC has been best studied with K88, K99, 987P, and F41. Each fimbrial type carries at least one adhesive moiety that is specific for a certain host receptor, determining host species, age, and tissue specificities. ETEC are the most frequently diagnosed pathogens among neonatal and post-weaning piglets that die of diarrhea. Immune electron microscopy of animal ETEC fimbriae usually shows that the minor subunits are located at the fimbrial tips and at discrete sites along the fimbrial threads. Since fimbriae most frequently act like lectins by binding to the carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins or glycolipids, fimbrial receptors have frequently been studied with red blood cells of various animal species. Identification and characterization of the binding moieties of ETEC fimbrial adhesins should be useful for the design of new prophylactic or therapeutic strategies. Some studies describing potential receptor or adhesin analogues that interfere with fimbria-mediated colonization have been described in the article.

  • Citation: Schifferli D. 2005. Adhesins of Enterotoxigenic Strains That Infect Animals, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.1.2

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Animal Enterotoxigenic

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ecosalplus.8.3.2.1.2.citations
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/content/journal/ecosalplus/10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.1.2
2005-03-29
2017-05-25

Abstract:

The first described adhesive antigen of strains isolated from animals was the K88 antigen, expressed by strains from diarrheic pigs. The K88 antigen was visible by electron microscopy as a surface-exposed filament that was thin and flexible and had hemagglutinating properties. Many different fimbriae have been identified in animal enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and have been discussed in this article. The role of these fimbriae in the pathogenesis of ETEC has been best studied with K88, K99, 987P, and F41. Each fimbrial type carries at least one adhesive moiety that is specific for a certain host receptor, determining host species, age, and tissue specificities. ETEC are the most frequently diagnosed pathogens among neonatal and post-weaning piglets that die of diarrhea. Immune electron microscopy of animal ETEC fimbriae usually shows that the minor subunits are located at the fimbrial tips and at discrete sites along the fimbrial threads. Since fimbriae most frequently act like lectins by binding to the carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins or glycolipids, fimbrial receptors have frequently been studied with red blood cells of various animal species. Identification and characterization of the binding moieties of ETEC fimbrial adhesins should be useful for the design of new prophylactic or therapeutic strategies. Some studies describing potential receptor or adhesin analogues that interfere with fimbria-mediated colonization have been described in the article.

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Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Genes encoding similar products or products with similar functions were labeled with the same pattern; genes for the major fimbrial subunit (black), minor fimbrial subunits (diagonal lines), minor adhesive subunit (gray), chaperones (horizontal lines), usher (vertical lines), regulators (checkered), and mobile or conjugation elements (white).

Citation: Schifferli D. 2005. Adhesins of Enterotoxigenic Strains That Infect Animals, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.1.2
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

The 987P fimbriae consists of the major subunit FasA and two minor subunits, the adhesin FasG and the linker subunit FasF. The usher protein FasD locates in the outer membrane and serves as a subunit channel. 987P expression involves three periplasmic chaperones: the FasA-specific chaperone FasB, the FasG-specific chaperone FasC, and FasE, a chaperone-like protein that facilitates FasG export. Whether FasF interacts with any of these chaperones is not known. FasH (FapR) is an AraC-like transcriptional activator of

Citation: Schifferli D. 2005. Adhesins of Enterotoxigenic Strains That Infect Animals, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.1.2
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Tables

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Table 1

Fimbriae of animal enterotoxigenic

Citation: Schifferli D. 2005. Adhesins of Enterotoxigenic Strains That Infect Animals, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.1.2
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Table 2

Numbers of K88-, K99-, and 987P-fimbriated ETEC isolated from piglets in various studies since 1979

Citation: Schifferli D. 2005. Adhesins of Enterotoxigenic Strains That Infect Animals, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.1.2
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Table 3

The structural proteins of animal enterotoxigenic

Citation: Schifferli D. 2005. Adhesins of Enterotoxigenic Strains That Infect Animals, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.1.2
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Table 4

The fimbrial adhesins of enterotoxigenic and their receptors

Citation: Schifferli D. 2005. Adhesins of Enterotoxigenic Strains That Infect Animals, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.1.2
Generic image for table
Table 5

Porcine phenotypes and their K88 receptors ( 169 , 179 , 180 , 181 , 182 )

Citation: Schifferli D. 2005. Adhesins of Enterotoxigenic Strains That Infect Animals, EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.1.2

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