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EcoSal Plus

Domain 8:

Pathogenesis

Adhesins of Diffusely Adherent and Enteroaggregative

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  • Authors: Chantal Le Bouguénec1, and James P. Nataro2
  • Editor: Michael S. Donnenberg3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Pathogénie Bactérienne des Muqueuses, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France; 2: Center for Vaccine Development, Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine and Microbiology & Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201; 3: University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
  • Received 10 February 2005 Accepted 05 May 2005 Published 25 July 2005
  • Address correspondence to Chantal Le Bouguénec clb@pasteur.fr
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  • Abstract:

    Epidemiological studies have implicated enteroaggregative (EAEC) strains in acute and persistent diarrhea in children, in food-borne diarrhea outbreaks, and in traveler's diarrhea, and this group is recognized as an emerging pathotype of enteric disease. Diffusely adherent (DAEC) have been implicated as a cause of diarrhea, especially in children more than 2 years old, in both developing and developed countries. Although EAEC and DAEC strains appear to have different molecular equipment for attachment to host cell surfaces, identification and characterization of the gene clusters encoding adherence evidenced close relatedness between those determinants most frequently detected in isolates belonging to these two pathotypes of diarrheagenic . DAEC strains are a heterogeneous group of isolates, many of which express the related so-called Dr adhesins. The single designation is based on the identification of one similar cellular receptor for all these proteins. Although structurally different, they all recognize the Dr human blood group antigen on the decay-accelerating factor (DAF or CD55). These adhesins are encoded by a family of closely related operons, the first characterized and sequenced being the operon. Consequently, it has been suggested that this group of DAEC strains producing such adhesins be named the Afa/Dr DAEC family. Three distinct but closely related gene clusters coding for phenotypically and morphologically distinct aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF) have been characterized. In each case, electron microscopy revealed that bacterial surfaces were surrounded by long, relatively flexible fimbrial structures.

  • Citation: Le Bouguénec C, Nataro J. 2005. Adhesins of Diffusely Adherent and Enteroaggregative , EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.2

Key Concept Ranking

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.42232284
Traveler's Diarrhea
0.36804587
Outer Membrane Proteins
0.34620073
0.42232284

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/content/journal/ecosalplus/10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.2
2005-07-25
2017-03-26

Abstract:

Epidemiological studies have implicated enteroaggregative (EAEC) strains in acute and persistent diarrhea in children, in food-borne diarrhea outbreaks, and in traveler's diarrhea, and this group is recognized as an emerging pathotype of enteric disease. Diffusely adherent (DAEC) have been implicated as a cause of diarrhea, especially in children more than 2 years old, in both developing and developed countries. Although EAEC and DAEC strains appear to have different molecular equipment for attachment to host cell surfaces, identification and characterization of the gene clusters encoding adherence evidenced close relatedness between those determinants most frequently detected in isolates belonging to these two pathotypes of diarrheagenic . DAEC strains are a heterogeneous group of isolates, many of which express the related so-called Dr adhesins. The single designation is based on the identification of one similar cellular receptor for all these proteins. Although structurally different, they all recognize the Dr human blood group antigen on the decay-accelerating factor (DAF or CD55). These adhesins are encoded by a family of closely related operons, the first characterized and sequenced being the operon. Consequently, it has been suggested that this group of DAEC strains producing such adhesins be named the Afa/Dr DAEC family. Three distinct but closely related gene clusters coding for phenotypically and morphologically distinct aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF) have been characterized. In each case, electron microscopy revealed that bacterial surfaces were surrounded by long, relatively flexible fimbrial structures.

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Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Photomicrographs of HeLa cells infected with the DAEC isolate AL845 (A) and the EAEC isolate 55989 (B). Electron micrographs of DAEC and EAEC strain preparations negatively stained with 1% ammonium molybdate and shadowed with platinum. No fimbriae were visualized on the cell surface of the DAEC strain AL845 (C). In contrast, thin fimbriae were detected in the DAEC strain F1845 (E). The EAEC isolate 55989 produces both flagella and long, flexible fimbriae (arrows), which are involved in the cohesion of bacterial aggregates (D and E).

Citation: Le Bouguénec C, Nataro J. 2005. Adhesins of Diffusely Adherent and Enteroaggregative , EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.2
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

(A) Schematic representation of the genetic determinants and role of the Afa products. The DNA fragments specifying the operons are indicated ( and probes and PCR). (B) Backscattered electron imaging of double immunogold staining of AfaE and AfaD proteins produced by a DAEC isolate. AfaE was probed with 10-nm gold particles; AfaD was probed with 15-nm gold particles.

Citation: Le Bouguénec C, Nataro J. 2005. Adhesins of Diffusely Adherent and Enteroaggregative , EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.2
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Figure 3

Citation: Le Bouguénec C, Nataro J. 2005. Adhesins of Diffusely Adherent and Enteroaggregative , EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.2
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Figure 4

(A) Recruitment of DAF and carcinoembryonic antigen-related molecules. (B) Microvillus injury and proinflammatory responses.

Citation: Le Bouguénec C, Nataro J. 2005. Adhesins of Diffusely Adherent and Enteroaggregative , EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.2
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Figure 5

(A to D) DAEC strains; (E) EAEC isolate. (A) Transmission electron micrograph of HeLa cells infected with DAEC isolate A30. (B) Transmission electron microscopy of piglet ileal explants infected with an strain expressing the operon. Some bacteria are internalized. (C) Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained HeLa cells 2 days after infection with DAEC strain A30. Intracellular bacteria clustered within large vacuoles. (D) Transmission electron microscopy of intestinal Caco-2 cells infected with AfaD-coated beads. Beads enter the cells. (E) Transmission electron micrograph of HeLa cells infected with EAEC isolate 55989. Arrows indicate intracellular bacteria and beads.

Citation: Le Bouguénec C, Nataro J. 2005. Adhesins of Diffusely Adherent and Enteroaggregative , EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.2
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Figure 6

Citation: Le Bouguénec C, Nataro J. 2005. Adhesins of Diffusely Adherent and Enteroaggregative , EcoSal Plus 2005; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.2.2
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