1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

EcoSal Plus

Domain 8:

Pathogenesis

Vaccines against Infections Caused by , , and Pathogenic

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Buy article
Choose downloadable ePub or PDF files.
Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00
  • Authors: Carlos A. Guzman1, Stefan Borsutzky2, Didier Favre3, and Guido Dietrich4
  • Editor: Michael S. Donnenberg5
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Vaccine Research Group, Division of Microbiology, GBF—German Research Centre for Biotechnology, Mascheroder Weg 1, Braunschweig, Germany; 2: Vaccine Research Group, Division of Microbiology, GBF—German Research Centre for Biotechnology, Mascheroder Weg 1, Braunschweig, Germany; 3: Berna Biotech Ltd., Rehhagstr. 79, CH-3018 Berne, Switzerland; 4: Berna Biotech Ltd., Rehhagstr. 79, CH-3018 Berne, Switzerland; 5: University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
  • Received 16 June 2004 Accepted 09 September 2004 Published 29 December 2004
  • Address correspondence to Carlos A. Guzman cag@gbf.de
image of Vaccines against Infections Caused by <span class="jp-italic">Salmonella</span>, <span class="jp-italic">Shigella</span>, and Pathogenic <span class="jp-italic">Escherichia coli</span>
    Preview this reference work article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    Vaccines against Infections Caused by , , and Pathogenic , Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/ecosalplus/1/1/8_8_14_module-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/ecosalplus/1/1/8_8_14_module-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    Infectious diseases represent one of the most common causes of death worldwide, with the enteropathogenic bacteria and and pathogenic being among the most detrimental. Currently, vaccination represents the preferred method of preventing such infections. For stimulating the adaptive immune response, immunizations are frequently based on formulations which include inactivated whole-cell vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, or subunit vaccines. These can be administered via a parenteral or mucosal route, the latter having the advantage that it most closely mimics the actual course of infection. In addition to the type of vaccine and method of application, important consideration needs to be paid to safety, efficacy, and cost, which are often major bottlenecks in the successful implementation of vaccines. In this chapter we take a limited look at the history surrounding vaccinations involving , , and pathogenic . infections, which can lead to typhoid fever, are becoming increasing difficult to treat with antibiotics due to multi-drug-resistant strains. At present, the parenteral Vi-based subunit vaccines and the live attenuated oral vaccine Ty21a have proven to be the vaccines of choice, with high levels of protective efficacy and limited side effects. infections are responsible for the diarrheal disease shigellosis. Various live and nonliving mucosal and parenteral vaccines have been tested, with the most promising candidates evolving around those that stimulate the production of O-antigen-specific antibodies. Pathogenic infections can lead to severe diseases due to the bacterium's production of several specific toxins. Vaccines against this bacterium target its toxins, as well as surface-exposed antigens, all of which have been found to be effective as immunogens.

  • Citation: Guzman C, Borsutzky S, Favre D, Dietrich G. 2004. Vaccines against Infections Caused by , , and Pathogenic , EcoSal Plus 2004; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.14

References

1. Dietrich G, Spreng S, Favre D, Viret JF, Guzman CA. 2003. Live attenuated bacteria as vectors to deliver plasmid DNA vaccines. Curr Opin Mol Ther 5:10–19.[PubMed]
2. McGhee JR, Mestecky J, Dertzbaugh MT, Eldridge JH, Hirasawa M, Kiyono H. 1992. The mucosal immune system: from fundamental concepts to vaccine development. Vaccine 10:75–88. [PubMed][CrossRef]
3. Shata MT, Stevceva L, Agwale S, Lewis GK, Hone DM. 2000. Recent advances with recombinant bacterial vaccine vectors. Mol Med Today 6:66–71. [PubMed][CrossRef]
4. Mooi FR, van Loo IH, King AJ. 2001. Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to vaccination: a cause for its reemergence? Emerg Infect Dis 7:526–528. [PubMed][CrossRef]
5. Schouls LM, van der Heide HG, Vauterin L, Vauterin P, Mooi FR. 2004. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Dutch Bordetella pertussis strains reveals rapid genetic changes with clonal expansion during late 1990s. J Bacteriol 186:5496–5505. [PubMed][CrossRef]
6. Everest P, Wain J, Roberts M, Rook G, Dougan G. 2001. The molecular mechanisms of severe typhoid fever. Trends Microbiol 9:316–320. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Ivanoff B, Levine MM, Lambert PH. 1994. Vaccination against typhoid fever: present status. Bull W.H.O. 72:957–971.[PubMed]
8. Parry CM, Hien TT, Dougan G, White NJ, Farrar JJ. 2002. Typhoid fever. N Engl J Med 347:1770–1782. [PubMed][CrossRef]
9. Mirza SH, Beeching NJ, Hart CA. 1996. Multi-drug resistant typhoid: a global problem. J Med Microbiol 44:317–319. [PubMed][CrossRef]
10. Levine MM. 1999. Typhoid fever vaccines, p 781–815. In Plotkin SA and Orenstein WA (ed), Vaccines, 3rd ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
11. Ashcroft MT, Singh B, Nicholson CC, Ritchie JM, Sorryan E, Williams F. 1967. A seven-year field trial of two typhoid vaccines in Guyana. Lancet 2:1056–1059. [PubMed][CrossRef]
12. Hejfec LB, Salmin LV, Lejtman MZ, Kuz'minova ML, Vasil'eva AV, Levina LA, Bencianova TG, Pavlova EA, Antonova AA. 1966. A controlled field trial and laboratory study of five typhoid vaccines in the USSR. Bull W.H.O. 34:321–339.[PubMed]
13. Tapa S, Cvjetanovic B. 1975. Controlled field trial on the effectiveness of one and two doses of acetone-inactivated and dried typhoid vaccine. Bull W.H.O. 52:75–80.[PubMed]
14. Ashcroft MT, Morrison-Ritchie J, Nicholson CC. 1964. Controlled field trial in British Guyana school-children of heat-killed phenolized and acetone-killed lyophilized typhoid vaccines. Am J Hyg 79:196–206.[PubMed]
15. Engels EA, Falagas ME, Lau J, Bennish ML. 1998. Typhoid fever vaccines: a meta-analysis of studies on efficacy and toxicity. BMJ 316:110–116.[PubMed]
16. D’Amelio R, Tagliabue A, Nencioni L, Di Addario A, Villa L, Manganaro M, Boraschi D, Le Moli S, Nisini R, Matricardi PM. 1988. Comparative analysis of immunological responses to oral (Ty21a) and parenteral (TAB) typhoid vaccines. Infect Immun 56:2731–2735.[PubMed]
17. Levine MM, DuPont HL, Hornick RB, Snyder MJ, Woodward W, Gilman RH, Libonati JP. 1976. Attenuated, streptomycin-dependent Salmonella typhi oral vaccine: potential deleterious effects of lyophilization. J Infect Dis 133:424–429.[PubMed]
18. Looney RJ, Steigbigel RT. 1986. Role of the Vi antigen of Salmonella typhi in resistance to host defense in vitro. J Lab Clin Med 108:506–516.[PubMed]
19. Robbins JD, Robbins JB. 1984. Reexamination of the protective role of the capsular polysaccharide (Vi antigen) of Salmonella typhi. J Infect Dis 150:436–449.[PubMed]
20. Hessel L, Debois H, Fletcher M, Dumas R. 1999. Experience with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 18:609–620. [PubMed][CrossRef]
21. Acharya IL, Lowe CU, Thapa R, Gurubacharsssya VL, Shrestha MB, Cadoz M, Schulz D, Armand J, Bryla DA, Trollfors B, Cramton T, Schneerson R, Robbins JB. 1987. Prevention of typhoid fever in Nepal with the Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi. A preliminary report. N Engl J Med 317:1101–1104.[PubMed]
22. Klugman KP, Gilbertson IT, Koornhof HJ, Robbins JB, Schneerson R, Schulz D, Cadoz M, Armand J. 1987. Protective activity of Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever. Lancet 2:1165–1169. [PubMed][CrossRef]
23. Tacket CO, Ferreccio C, Robbins JB, Tsai CM, Schulz D, Cadoz M, Goudeau A, Levine MM. 1986. Safety and immunogenicity of two Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines. J Infect Dis 154:342–345.[PubMed]
24. Klugman KP, Koornhof HJ, Robbins JB, Le Cam NN. 1996. Immunogenicity, efficacy and serological correlate of protection of Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine three years after immunization. Vaccine 14:435–438. [PubMed][CrossRef]
25. Plotkin SA, Bouveret-Le Cam N. 1995. A new typhoid vaccine composed of the Vi capsular polysaccharide. Arch Intern Med 155:2293–2299. [PubMed][CrossRef]
26. Lin FY, Ho VA, Khiem HB, Trach DD, Bay PV, Thanh TC, Kossaczka Z, Bryla DA, Shiloach J, Robbins JB, Schneerson R, Szu SC. 2001. The efficacy of a Salmonella typhi Vi conjugate vaccine in two-to-five-year-old children. N Engl J Med 344:1263–1269. [PubMed][CrossRef]
27. Germanier R, Fürer E. 1975. Isolation and characterisation of Gal E mutant Ty21a of Salmonella typhi: a candidate strain for a live, oral typhoid vaccine. J Infect Dis 131:553–558.[PubMed]
28. Cryz SJ Jr. 1988. Attenuated, live, oral typhoid vaccine. Drugs Today 24:349–353.
29. Coynault C, Robbe-Saule V, Norel F. 1996. Virulence and vaccine potential of Salmonella typhimurium mutants deficient in the expression of the RpoS (σS) regulon. Mol Microbiol 22:149–160. [PubMed][CrossRef]
30. Robbe-Saule V, Coynault C, Norel F. 1995. The live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a is a rpoS mutant and is susceptible to various environmental stresses. FEMS Microbiol Lett 126:171–176. [PubMed][CrossRef]
31. Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Black RE, Tacket CO, Germanier R. 1989. Progress in vaccines against typhoid fever. Rev Infect Dis 11(Suppl. 3):S552–S567.
32. Salerno-Goncalves R, Pasetti M, Sztein MB. 2002. Characterization of CD8(+) effector T cell responses in volunteers immunized with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a typhoid vaccine. J Immunol 169:2196–2203.[PubMed]
33. Dietrich G, Griot-Wenk M, Metcalfe IC, Lang AB, Viret JF. 2003. Experience with registered mucosal vaccines. Vaccine 21:678–683. [PubMed][CrossRef]
34. Viret JF, Favre D, Wegmüller B, Herzog C, Que JU, Cryz SJ, Lang AB. 1999. Mucosal and systemic immune responses in humans after primary and booster immunisations with orally administered invasive and non-invasive live attenuated bacteria. Infect Immun 67:3680–3685.[PubMed]
35. Nisini R, Biselli R, Matricardi PM, Fattorossi A, D’Amelio RD. 1993. Clinical and immunologic response to typhoid vaccination in two groups of 30 recruits. Vaccine 11:582–586. [PubMed][CrossRef]
36. Mollenkopf H, Dietrich G, Kaufmann SHE. 2001. Intracellular Bacteria as targets and carriers for vaccination. Biol Chem 382:521–532. [PubMed][CrossRef]
37. Morgan RL, Isaacson RE, Moon HW, Brinton CC, To CC. 1978. Immunization of suckling pigs against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced diarrheal disease by vaccinating dams with purified 987 or K99 pili: protection correlates with pilus homology of vaccine and challenge. Infect Immun 22:771–777. [PubMed]
38. Black RE, Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Clements ML, Lanata C, Rooney J, Germanier R. 1990. Efficacy of one or two doses of Ty21a Salmonella typhi vaccine in enteric-coated capsules in a controlled field trial. Chilean Typhoid Committee. Vaccine 8:81–84. [PubMed][CrossRef]
39. Ferreccio C, Levine MM, Rodriguez H, Contreras R. 1989. Comparative efficacy of two, three, or four doses of TY21a live oral typhoid vaccine in enteric-coated capsules: a field trial in an endemic area. J Infect Dis 159:766–769.[PubMed]
40. Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Cryz S, Ortiz E. 1990. Comparison of enteric-coated capsules and liquid formulation of Ty21a typhoid vaccine in randomised controlled field trial. Lancet 336:891–894. [PubMed][CrossRef]
41. Advisory Committee on Immunisation Practices. 1994. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunisation Practices (ACIP): typhoid immunisation. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 43:RR-14.
42. Wahdan MH, Sérié C, Cerisier Y, Sallam S, Germanier R. 1982. A controlled field trial of Live Salmonella typhi strain Ty21a oral vaccine against typhoid: three-year results. J Infect Dis 145:292–295.[PubMed]
43. Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Black RE, Germanier R, Chilean Typhoid Committee. 1987. Large-scale field trial of Ty21a live oral typhoid vaccine in enteric-coated capsule formulation. Lancet i:1049–1052.
44. Gilman RH, Hornick RB, Woodward WE, DuPont HL, Snyder MJ, Levine MM, Libonati JP. 1977. Evaluation of a UDP-glucose-4-epimerase-less mutant of Salmonella typhi as a live oral vaccine. J Infect Dis 136:717–723.[PubMed]
45. Griot-Wenk ME, Hartmann K, Herzog C, Ackermann J, Maspes B. 2001. Excellent long-term safety data established in a recent post-marketing surveillance for the oral typhoid fever vaccine, VIVOTIF®’. Ital J Trop Med 6:104–105.
46. Hone DM, Attridge SR, Forrest B, Morona R, Daniels D, Labrooy JT, Bartholomeusz RCA, Shearman DJC, Hackett J. 1988. A galE via (Vi-antigen negative) mutant of Salmonella typhi Ty2 retains virulence in humans. Infect Immun 56:1326–1333.[PubMed]
47. Levine MM, Tacket CO, Sztein MB. 2001. Host-Salmonella interaction: human trials. Microb Infect 3:1271–1279. [CrossRef]
48. Black R, Levine MM, Young C, Rooney J, Levine S, Clements ML, O'Donnell S, Hugues T, Germanier R. 1983. Immunogenicity of Ty21a attenuated Salmonella typhi given with sodium bicarbonate or in enteric-coated capsules. Dev Biol Stand 53:9–14.[PubMed]
49. Tacket CO, Hone DM, Losonsky GA, Guers L, Edelman R, Levine MM. 1992. Clinical acceptability and immunogenicity of CVD908 Salmonella typhi vaccine strain. Vaccine 10:443–446. [PubMed][CrossRef]
50. Tacket CO, Sztein MB, Losonsky GA, Wassermann SS, Nataro JP, Edelman R, Pickard D, Dougan G, Chatfield SN, Levine MM. 1997. Safety of live oral Salmonella typhi vaccine strains harbouring defined mutations in htrA and aroC, aroD and immune response in humans. Infect Immun 65:452–456.[PubMed]
51. Tacket CO, Sztein MB, Wassermann SS, Losonsky GA, Kotloff KL, Wyant TL, Nataro JP, Edelman R, Perry J, Bedford P, Brown D, Chatfield SN, Dougan G, Levine MM. 2000. Phase 2 clinical trial of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar typhi oral live vector vaccine CVD908-htrA in U.S. volunteers. Infect Immun 68:1196–1201. [PubMed][CrossRef]
52. Lowe DC, Savidge TC, Pickard D, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF, Dougan G, Chatfield SN. 1999. Characterization of candidate live oral Salmonella typhi vaccine strains harboring defined mutations in aroA, aroC, and htrA. Infect Immun 67:700–707.[PubMed]
53. Dilts DA, Riesenfeld-Orn I, Fulginiti JP, Ekwall E, Granert C, Nonenmacher J, Brey RN, Cryz SJ, Karlsson K, Bergman K, Thompson T, Hu B, Bruckner AH, Lindberg AA. 2000. Phase I clinical trials of aroA aroD and aroA aroD htrA attenuated S. typhi vaccines; effect of formulation on safety and immunogenicity. Vaccine 18:1473–1484. [PubMed][CrossRef]
54. Hohmann EL, Oletta CA, Killeen KP, Miller SI. 1996. PhoP/phoQ-deleted Salmonella typhi (Ty800) is a safe and immunogenic single-dose typhoid fever vaccine in adult volunteers. J Infect Dis 173:1408–1414.[PubMed]
55. Curtiss R III, Kelly SM. 1987. Salmonella typhimurium deletion mutants lacking adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP receptor protein are avirulent and immunogenic. Infect Immun 55:3035–3043.[PubMed]
56. Tacket CO, Kelly SM, Schodel F, Losonsky GA, Nataro JP, Edelman R, Levine MM, Curtiss R III. 1997. Safety and immunogenicity in humans of an attenuated Salmonella typhi vaccine vector strain expressing plasmid-encoded hepatitis B antigens stabilized by the Asd-balanced lethal vector system. Infect Immun 65:3381–3385.[PubMed]
57. Hindle Z, Chatfield S, Phillimore J, Bentley M, Johnson J, Cosgrove CA, Ghaem-Maghami M, Sexton A, Khan M, Brennan FR, Everest P, Wu T, Pickard D, Holden DW, Dougan G, Griffin GE, House D, Santangelo JD, Khan SA, Shea JE, Feldman RG, Lewis DJM. 2002. Characterization of Salmonella enterica derivatives harboring defined aroC and Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system (ssvA) mutations by immunization of healthy volunteers. Infect Immun 70:3457–3467. [PubMed][CrossRef]
58. Feberwee A, de Vries TS, Elbers AR, de Jong WA. 2000. Results of a Salmonella enteritidis vaccination field trial in broiler-breeder flocks in The Netherlands. Avian Dis 44:249–255. [PubMed][CrossRef]
59. Steinbach G, Meyer H. 1994. The effectiveness in calves of subcutaneous vaccination with the Salmonella vaccine Murivac. Tieraerztl Prax 22:529–531.
60. Matsui K, Arai T. 1992. The comparison of cell-mediated immunity induced by immunization with porin, viable cells and killed cells of Salmonella typhimurium. Microbiol Immunol 36:269–278.[PubMed]
61. Smith HW. 1956. The use of live vaccines in experimental Salmonella gallinarum infection in chickens with observations on their interference effect. J Hyg 54:419–432. [PubMed][CrossRef]
62. Feberwee A, de Vries TS, Hartman EG, de Wit JJ, Elbers AR, de Jong WA. 2001. Vaccination against Salmonella enteritidis in Dutch commercial layer flocks with a vaccine based on a live Salmonella gallinarum 9R strain: evaluation of efficacy, safety, and performance of serologic Salmonella tests. Avian Dis 45:83–91. [PubMed][CrossRef]
63. Griffin HG, Barrow PA. 1993. Construction of an aroA mutant of Salmonella serotype Gallinarum: its effectiveness in immunization against experimental fowl typhoid. Vaccine 11:457–462. [PubMed][CrossRef]
64. Zhang-Barber L, Turner A, Dougan G, Barrow P. 1998. Protection of chickens against experimental fowl typhoid using a nuoG mutant of Salmonella serotype Gallinarum. Vaccine 16:899–903. [PubMed][CrossRef]
65. Cerquetti MC, Gherardi MM. 2000. Vaccination of chickens with a temperature-sensitive mutant of Salmonella enteritidis. Vaccine 18:1140–1145. [PubMed][CrossRef]
66. Meyer H. 1980. Results of oral application of Salmonella dublin live vaccine to calves. Arch Exp Vetmed 34:99–104.
67. Meyer H, Hartmann H, Steinbach G, Schulz W, Gunther H, Kiupel H, Koch H, Linde K. 1977. Studies on salmonellosis in the calf. 5. Clinical testing of Smd-Salmonella-dublin vaccine for oral administration. Arch Exp Vetmed 31:277–288.
68. Meyer H, Koch H, Methner U, Steinbach G. 1993. Vaccines in salmonellosis control in animals. Zentbl Bakteriol 278:407–415.
69. Germanier R, Furer E. 1971. Immunity in experimental salmonellosis. II. Basis for the avirulence and protective capacity of gal E mutants of Salmonella typhimurium. Infect Immun 4:663–673.[PubMed]
70. Wray C, Sojka WJ, Morris JA, Brinley Morgan WJ. 1977. The immunization of mice and calves with galE mutants of Salmonella typhimurium. J Hyg 79:17–24. [CrossRef]
71. Wray C, Sojka WJ, Pritchard DG, Morris JA. 1983. Immunization of animals with galE mutants of Salmonella typhimurium. Dev Biol Stand 53:41–46.[PubMed]
72. Zhang-Barber L, Turner AK, Barrow PA. 1999. Vaccination for control of Salmonella in poultry. Vaccine 17:2538–2545. [PubMed][CrossRef]
73. Nnalue NA, Stocker BAD. 1987. Tests of the virulence and live-vaccine efficacy of auxotrophic and gale derivatives of Salmonella choleraesuis. Infect Immun 55:955–962.[PubMed]
74. Hoiseth SK, Stocker BA. 1981. Aromatic-dependent Salmonella typhimurium are non-virulent and effective as live vaccines. Nature 291:238–239. [PubMed][CrossRef]
75. Linde K. 1980. Preparation of stable Salmonella vaccine strains through combination of 2 independently attenuating markers with no limitation on growth. Arch Exp Vetmed 34:19–32.
76. Robertsson JA, Lindberg AA, Hoiseth S, Stocker BA. 1983. Salmonella typhimurium infection in calves: protection and survival of virulent challenge bacteria after immunization with live or inactivated vaccines. Infect Immun 41:742–750.[PubMed]
77. Springer S, Lehmann J, Lindner T, Thielebein J, Alber G, Selbitz HJ. 2000. A new live Salmonella enteritidis vaccine for chickens--experimental evidence of its safety and efficacy. Berl Muench Tieraerztl Wochenschr 113:246–252.
78. Linde K, Beer J, Bondarenko V. 1990. Stable Salmonella live vaccine strains with two or more attenuating mutations and any desired level of attenuation. Vaccine 8:278–282. [PubMed][CrossRef]
79. Hassan JO, Curtiss R III. 1994. Development and evaluation of an experimental vaccination program using a live avirulent Salmonella typhimurium strain to protect immunized chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes. Infect Immun 62:5519–5527.[PubMed]
80. Kennedy MJ, Yancey RJ Jr, Sanchez MS, Rzepkowski RA, Kelly SM, Curtiss R III. 1999. Attenuation and immunogenicity of Deltacya Deltacrp derivatives of Salmonella choleraesuis in pigs. Infect Immun 67:4628–4636.[PubMed]
81. Kramer T, Roof MB, Matheson RR. 1992. Safety and efficacy of an attenuated strain of Salmonella choleraesuis for vaccination of swine. Am J Vet Res 53:444–448.[PubMed]
82. Galan JE, Curtiss R III. 1989. Virulence and vaccine potential of phoP mutants of Salmonella typhimurium. Microb Pathog 6:433–443. [PubMed][CrossRef]
83. Methner U, Barrow PA, Gregorova D, Rychlik I. 2004. Intestinal colonization-inhibition and virulence of Salmonella phoP, rpoS and ompC deletion mutants in chickens. Vet Microbiol 98:37–43. [PubMed][CrossRef]
84. Miller SI, Kukral AM, Mekalanos JJ. 1989. A two-component regulatory system (phoP phoQ) controls Salmonella typhimurium virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:5054–5048. [PubMed][CrossRef]
85. Garcia Del Portillo F, Pucciarelli MG, Casadesus J. 1999. DNA adenine methylase mutants of Salmonella typhimurium show defects in protein secretion, cell invasion, and M cell cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:11578–11583. [CrossRef]
86. Dueger EL, House JK, Heithoff DM, Mahan MJ. 2003. Salmonella DNA adenine methylase mutants prevent colonization of newly hatched chickens by homologous and heterologous serovars. Int J Food Microbiol 80:153–159. [PubMed][CrossRef]
87. Weber A, Bernt C, Bauer K, Mayr A. 1993. The control of bovine salmonellosis under field conditions using herd-specific vaccines. Tieraerztl Prax 21:511–516.
88. Clifton-Hadley FA, Breslin M, Venables LM, Sprigings KA, Cooles SW, Houghton S, Woodward MJ. 2002. A laboratory study of an inactivated bivalent iron restricted Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium dual vaccine against Typhimurium challenge in chickens. Vet Microbiol 89:167–179. [PubMed][CrossRef]
89. Barrow PA, Mead GC, Wray C, Duchet-Suchaux M. 2003. Control of food-poisoning Salmonella in poultry - biological options. World's Poultry Sci J 59:373–383. [CrossRef]
90. Hale TL. 1998. Bacillary dysentery. In Hausler WJ and Sussman M (ed), Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, vol. 3. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
91. Kotloff KL. 1999. Bacterial diarrheal pathogens. Adv Pediatr Infect Dis 14:219–267.[PubMed]
92. Kotloff KL, Winickoff JP, Ivanoff B, Clemens JD, Swerdlow DL, Sansonetti PJ, Adak GK, Levine MM. 1999. Global burden of Shigella infections: implications for vaccine development and implementation of control strategies. Bull W.H.O. 77:651–666.[PubMed]
93. Sansonetti PJ. 2001. Microbes and microbial toxins: paradigms for microbial-mucosal interactions III. Shigellosis: from symptoms to molecular pathogenesis. Am J Physiol 280:G319–G323.
94. Phalipon A, Sansonetti P. 1995. Live attenuated Shigella flexneri mutants as vaccine candidates against shigellosis and vectors for antigen delivery. Biologicals 23:125–134. [PubMed][CrossRef]
95. Cohen D, Green MS, Block C, Rouach T, Ofek I. 1988. Serum antibodies to lipopolysaccharide and natural immunity to shigellosis in an Israeli military population. J Infect Dis 157:1068–1071.[PubMed]
96. DuPont HL, Hornick RB, Snyder MJ, Libonati JP, Formal SB, Gangarosa EJ. 1972. Immunity in shigellosis. I. Response of man to attenuated strains of Shigella. J Infect Dis 125:5–11.[PubMed]
97. DuPont HL, Hornick RB, Snyder MJ, Libonati JP, Formal SB, Gangarosa EJ. 1972. Immunity in shigellosis. II. Protection induced by oral live vaccine or primary infection. J Infect Dis 125:12–16. [PubMed]
98. Herrington DA, Van de Verg L, Formal SB, Hale TL, Tall BD, Cryz SJ, Tramont EC, Levine MM. 1990. Studies in volunteers to evaluate candidate Shigella vaccines: further experience with a bivalent Salmonella typhi-Shigella sonnei vaccine and protection conferred by previous Shigella sonnei disease. Vaccine 8:353–357. [PubMed][CrossRef]
99. Huan PT, Taylor R, Lindberg AA, Verma NK. 1995. Immunogenicity of the Shigella flexneri serotype Y (SFL 124) vaccine strain expressing cloned glucosyl transferase gene of converting bacteriophage SfX. Microbiol Immunol 39:467–472.[PubMed]
100. Hale TL, Venkatesan MM. 1997. Vaccines against Shigella infections. Part i: Escherichia coli- or Salmonella typhi-expressing Shigella antigens, p 843–852. In Levine MM, Woodrow GC, Kaper JB, and Cobon GS (ed), New Generation Vaccines. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y.
101. Lindberg AA, Pal T. 1993. Strategies for development of potential candidate Shigella vaccines. Vaccine 11:168–179. [PubMed][CrossRef]
102. Turbyfill KR, Hartman AB, Oaks EV. Shigella flexneri invasin complex subunit vaccine. Infect Immun 68:6624–6632. [CrossRef]
103. Robbins JB, Schneerson R, Szu SC. 1997. O-specific polysaccharide-protein conjugates for prevention of enteric bacterial diseases, p 803–815. In Levine MM, Woodrow GC, Kaper JB, and Cobon GS (ed), New Generation Vaccines. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y.
104. Islam D, Christensson B. 2000. Disease-dependent changes in T-cell populations in patients with shigellosis. APMIS 108:251–260. [PubMed][CrossRef]
105. Islam D, Bardhan PK, Lindberg AA, Christensson B. 1995. Shigella infection induces cellular activation of T and B cells and distinct species-related changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets during the course of the disease. Infect Immun 63:2941–2919.[PubMed]
106. Samandari T, Kotloff KL, Losonsky GA, Picking WD, Sansonetti PJ, Levine MM, Sztein MB. 2000. Production of IFN-gamma and IL-10 to Shigella invasins by mononuclear cells from volunteers orally inoculated with a Shiga toxin-deleted Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strain. J Immunol 164:2221–2232.[PubMed]
107. Baskin DH, Lax JD, Barenberg D. 1987. Shigella bacteremia in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 82:338–341.[PubMed]
108. Blaser MJ, Hale TL, Formal SB. 1989. Recurrent shigellosis complicating human immunodeficiency virus infection: failure of pre-existing antibodies to confer protection. Am J Med 86:105–117. [PubMed][CrossRef]
109. DuPont HL, Levine MM, Hornick RB, Formal SB. 1989. Inoculum size in shigellosis and implications for expected mode of transmission. J Infect Dis 159:1126–1128.[PubMed]
110. Mel DM, Terzin AL, Vuksic L. 1965. Studies on vaccination against bacillary dysentery. 3. Effective oral immunization against Shigella flexneri 2a in a field trial. Bull W.H.O. 32:647–655.[PubMed]
111. Formal SB, Kent TH, May HC, Palmer A, Falkow S, LaBrec EH. 1966. Protection of monkeys against experimental shigellosis with a living attenuated oral polyvalent dysentery vaccine. J Bacteriol 92:17–22.[PubMed]
112. Meitert T, Pencu E, Ciudin L, Tonciu M. 1984. Vaccine strain Sh. flexneri T32-ISTRATI Studies in animals and volunteers Antidysentery immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy by live vaccine. Arch Roum Pathol Exp Microbiol 43:251–278.[PubMed]
113. Venkatesan M, Fernandez-Prada C, Buysse JM, Formal SB, Hale TL. 1991. Virulence phenotype and genetic characteristics of the T32-ISTRATI Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine strain. Vaccine 9:358–363. [PubMed][CrossRef]
114. Lindberg AA, Karnell A, Pal T, Sweiha H, Hultenby K, Stocker BA. 1990. Construction of an auxotrophic Shigella flexneri strain for use as a live vaccine. Microb Pathog 8:433–440. [PubMed][CrossRef]
115. Li A, Pal T, Forsum U, Lindberg AA. 1992. Safety and immunogenicity of the live oral auxotrophic Shigella flexneri SFL124 in volunteers. Vaccine 10:395–404. [PubMed][CrossRef]
116. Li A, Cam PD, Islam D, Minh NB, Huan PT, Rong ZC, Karlsson K, Lindberg G, Lindberg AA. 1994. Immune responses in Vietnamese children after a single dose of the auxotrophic, live Shigella flexneri Y vaccine strain SFL124. J Infect 28:11–23. [PubMed][CrossRef]
117. Li A, Karnell A, Huan PT, Cam PD, Minh NB, Tram LN, Quy NP, Trach DD, Karlsson K, Lindberg G, Lindberg AA. 1993. Safety and immunogenicity of the live oral auxotrophic Shigella flexneri SFL124 in adult Vietnamese volunteers. Vaccine 11:180–189. [PubMed][CrossRef]
118. Karnell A, Li A, Zhao CR, Karlsson K, Nguyen BM, Lindberg AA. 1995. Safety and immunogenicity study of the auxotrophic Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine SFL1070 with a deleted aroD gene in adult Swedish volunteers. Vaccine 13:88–99. [PubMed][CrossRef]
119. Bernardini ML, Mounier J, d'Hauteville H, Coquis-Rondon M, Sansonetti PJ. 1989. Identification of icsA, a plasmid locus of Shigella flexneri that governs bacterial intra- and intercellular spread through interaction with F-actin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:3867–3871. [PubMed][CrossRef]
120. Barzu S, Fontaine A, Sansonetti P, Phalipon A. 1996. Induction of a local anti-IpaC antibody response in mice by use of a Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidate: implications for use of IpaC as a protein carrier. Infect Immun 64:1190–1196.[PubMed]
121. Coster TS, Hoge CW, VanDeVerg LL, Hartman AB, Oaks EV, Venkatesan MM, Cohen D, Robin G, Fontaine-Thompson A, Sansonetti PJ, Hale TL. 1999. Vaccination against shigellosis with attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a strain SC602. Infect Immun 67:3437–3443.[PubMed]
122. Teska JD, Coster T, Byrne WR, Colbert JR, Taylor D, Venkatesan M, Hale TL. 1999. Novel self-sampling culture method to monitor excretion of live, oral Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine SC602 during a community-based phase 1 trial. J Lab Clin Med 134:141–146. [PubMed][CrossRef]
123. Tribble DR, Hale TL, Taylor DN. 2004. ETEC and enteric vaccines. p 275–297. In Jong EC and Zuckerman JN (ed), Traveler's Vaccines. BC Decker, Inc., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
124. Katz DE, Coster TS, Wolf MK, Trespalacios FC, Cohen D, Robins G, Hartman AB, Venkatesan MM, Taylor DN, Hale TL. 2004. Two studies evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of a live, attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine (SC602) and excretion of vaccine organisms in North American volunteers. Infect Immun 72:923–930. [PubMed][CrossRef]
125. Kotloff KL, Taylor DN, Sztein MB, Wasserman SS, Losonsky GA, Nataro JP, Venkatesan M, Hartman A, Picking WD, Katz DE, Campbell JD, Levine MM, Hale TL. 2002. Phase I evaluation of delta virG Shigella sonnei live, attenuated, oral vaccine strain WRSS1 in healthy adults. Infect Immun 70:2016–2021. [PubMed][CrossRef]
126. Venkatesan MM, Hartman AB, Newland JW, Ivanova VS, Hale TL, McDonough M, Butterton J. 2002. Construction, characterization, and animal testing of WRSd1, a Shigella dysenteriae 1 vaccine. Infect Immun 70:2950–2958. [PubMed][CrossRef]
127. Kotloff KL, Noriega F, Losonsky GA, Sztein MB, Wasserman SS, Nataro JP, Levine MM. 1996. Safety, immunogenicity, and transmissibility in humans of CVD 1203, a live oral Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidate attenuated by deletions in aroA and virG. Infect Immun 64:4542–4548. [PubMed]
128. McFarland WC, Stocker BA. 1987. Effect of different purine auxotrophic mutations on mouse-virulence of a Vi-positive strain of Salmonella dublin and of two strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Microb Pathog 3:129–141. [PubMed][CrossRef]
129. Noriega FR, Losonsky G, Lauderbaugh C, Liao FM, Wang JY, Levine MM. 1996. Engineered deltaguaB-A deltavirG Shigella flexneri 2a strain CVD 1205: construction, safety, immunogenicity, and potential efficacy as a mucosal vaccine. Infect Immun 64:3055–3061.[PubMed]
130. Kotloff KL, Noriega FR, Samandari T, Sztein MB, Losonsky GA, Nataro JP, Picking WD, Barry EM, Levine MM. 2000. Shigella flexneri 2a strain CVD 1207, with specific deletions in virG, sen, set, and guaBA, is highly attenuated in humans. Infect Immun 68:1034–1039. [PubMed][CrossRef]
131. Tzschaschel BD, Guzmán CA, Timmis KN, de Lorenzo V. 1996. An Escherichia coli hemolysin transport system-based vector for the export of polypeptides: export of shiga-like toxin IIe B subunit by Salmonella typhimurium aroA. Nat Biotechnol 14:765–769. [PubMed][CrossRef]
132. Levine MM, Woodward WE, Formal SB, Gemski P, DuPont HL, Hornick RB, Snyder MJ. 1977. Studies with a new generation of oral attenuated Shigella vaccine: Escherichia coli bearing surface antigens of Shigella flexneri. J Infect Dis 136:577–582.[PubMed]
133. Favre D, Cryz SJ, Viret JF. 1996. Development of Shigella sonnei live oral vaccines based on defined rfb Inaba deletion mutants of Vibrio cholerae expressing the Shigella serotype D O polysaccharide. Infect Immun 64:576–584.[PubMed]
134. Kotloff KL, Herrington DA, Hale TL, Newland JW, Van De Verg L, Cogan JP, Snoy PJ, Sadoff JC, Formal SB, Levine MM. 1992. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in monkeys and humans of invasive Escherichia coli K-12 hybrid vaccine candidates expressing Shigella flexneri 2a somatic antigen. Infect Immun 60:2218–2224.[PubMed]
135. Kotloff KL, Losonsky GA, Nataro JP, Wasserman SS, Hale TL, Taylor DN, Newland JW, Sadoff JC, Formal SB, Levine MM. 1995. Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in healthy adults of four doses of live oral hybrid Escherichia coli-Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine strain EcSf2a-2. Vaccine 13:495–502. [PubMed][CrossRef]
136. Cohen D, Ashkenazi S, Green MS, Yavzori M, Orr N, Slepon R, Lerman Y, Robin G, Ambar R, Block C, Taylor DN, Hale TL, Sadoff JC, Wiener M. 1994. Safety and immunogenicity of the oral E. coli K12-S. flexneri 2a vaccine (EcSf2a-2) among Israeli soldiers. Vaccine 12:1436–1442. [PubMed][CrossRef]
137. Taylor DN, Phillip DF, Zapor M, Trofa A, Van de Verg L, Hartman A, Bendiuk N, Newland JW, Formal SB, Sadoff JC, Hale TL. 1994. Outpatient studies of the safety and immunogenicity of an auxotrophic Escherichia coli K-12-Shigella flexneri 2a hybrid vaccine candidate, EcSf2a-2. Vaccine 12:565–568. [PubMed][CrossRef]
138. Klee SR, Tzschaschel BD, Fält I, Kärnell A, Lindberg AA, Timmis KN, Guzmán CA. 1997. Construction and characterization of live attenuated vaccine candidates against Shigella dysenteriae type 1. Infect Immun 65:2112–2118.[PubMed]
139. Klee SR, Tzschaschel BD, Singh M, Fält I, Lindberg AA, Timmis KN, Guzmán CA. 1997. Construction and characterization of genetically-marked bivalent anti-Shigella dysenteriae 1 and anti-Shigella flexneri Y live vaccine candidates. Microb Pathog 22:363–376. [PubMed][CrossRef]
140. Klee SR, Tzschaschel BD, Timmis KN, Guzmán CA. 1997. Influence of different rol gene products on the chain length of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 lipopolysaccharide O antigen expressed by Shigella flexneri carrier strains. J Bacteriol 179:2421–2425.[PubMed]
141. Tzschaschel BD, Klee SR, de Lorenzo V, Timmis KN, Guzmán CA. 1996. Towards a vaccine candidate against Shigella dysenteriae 1: expression of the Shiga toxin B-subunit in an attenuated Shigella flexneri aroD carrier strain. Microb Pathog 21:277–288. [PubMed][CrossRef]
142. Ryd M, Verma N, Lindberg AA. 1992. Induction of a humoral immune response to a Shiga toxin B subunit epitope expressed as a chimeric lamB protein in a Shigella flexneri live vaccine strain. Microb Pathog 12:399–407. [PubMed][CrossRef]
143. Lowell GH. 1990. Proteosomes, hydrophobic anchors, iscoms, and liposomes for improved presentation of peptide and protein vaccines, p 141–160. In Woodrow GC and Levine MM (ed), New Generation Vaccines. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y.
144. Mallett CP, Hale TL, Kaminski RW, Larsen T, Orr N, Cohen D, Lowell GH. 1995. Intranasal or intragastric immunization with proteosome-Shigella lipopolysaccharide vaccines protects against lethal pneumonia in a murine model of Shigella infection. Infect Immun 63:2382–2386.[PubMed]
145. Fries LF, Montemarano AD, Mallett CP, Taylor DN, Hale TL, Lowell GH. 2001. Safety and immunogenicity of a proteosome-Shigella flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide vaccine administered intranasally to healthy adults. Infect Immun 69:4545–4553. [PubMed][CrossRef]
146. Pierce NF, Reynolds HY. 1974. Immunity to experimental cholera. I. Protective effect of humoral IgG antitoxin demonstrated by passive immunization. J Immunol 113:1017–1023.[PubMed]
147. Cohen D, Ashkenazi S, Green MS, Gdalevich M, Robin G, Slepon R, Yavzori M, Orr N, Block C, Ashkenazi I, Shemer J, Taylor DN, Hale TL, Sadoff JC, Pavliakova D, Schneerson R, Robbins JB. 1997. Double-blind vaccine-controlled randomised efficacy trial of an investigational Shigella sonnei conjugate vaccine in young adults. Lancet 349:155–159. [PubMed][CrossRef]
148. Cohen D, Ashkenazi S, Green M, Lerman Y, Slepon R, Robin G, Orr N, Taylor DN, Sadoff JC, Chu C, Shiloach J, Schneerson R, Robbins JB. 1996. Safety and immunogenicity of investigational Shigella conjugate vaccines in Israeli volunteers. Infect Immun 64:4074–4077.[PubMed]
149. Passwell JH, Harlev E, Ashkenazi S, Chu C, Miron D, Ramon R, Farzan N, Shiloach J, Bryla DA, Majadly F, Roberson R, Robbins JB, Schneerson R. 2001. Safety and immunogenicity of improved Shigella O-specific polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in adults in Israel. Infect Immun 69:1351–1357. [CrossRef]
150. Passwell JH, Ashkenazi S, Harlev E, Miron D, Ramon R, Farzam N, Lerner-Geva L, Levi Y, Chu C, Shiloach J, Robbins JB, Schneerson R, Israel Shigella Study Group. 2003. Safety and immunogenicity of Shigella sonnei-CRM9 and Shigella flexneri type 2a-rEPAsucc conjugate vaccines in one- to four-year-old children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:701–706.[PubMed]
151. Levenson VI, Egorova TP, Belkin ZP, Fedosova VG, Subbotina JL, Rukhadze EZ, Dzhikidze EK, Stassilevich ZK. 1991. Protective ribosomal preparation from Shigella sonnei as a parenteral candidate vaccine. Infect Immun 59:3610–3618.[PubMed]
152. Nataro JP, Kaper JB. 1998. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin Microbiol Rev 11:142–201.[PubMed]
153. Donnenberg MS, Whittam TS. 2001. Pathogenesis and evolution of virulence in enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. J Clin Invest 107:539–548. [PubMed][CrossRef]
154. McDaniel TK, Jarvis KG, Donnenberg MS, Kaper JB. 1995. A genetic locus of enterocyte effacement conserved among diverse enterobacterial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:1664–1668. [PubMed][CrossRef]
155. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. 1997. Mortality by cause for eight regions of the world: global burden of disease study. Lancet 349:1269–1276. [PubMed][CrossRef]
156. WHO. 1999. New frontiers in the development of vaccines against enterotoxinogenic (ETEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) E. coli infections Part I. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 74:98–101.[PubMed]
157. Klipstein FA, Engert RF. 1979. Protective effect of active immunization with purified Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin in rats. Infect Immun 23:592–599.[PubMed]
158. Klipstein FA, Engert RF, Clements JD. 1981. Protection in rats immunized with Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin. Infect Immun 34:637–639.[PubMed]
159. Wolf MK. 1997. Occurrence, distribution, and associations of O and H serogroups, colonization factor antigens, and toxins of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Clin Microbiol Rev 10:569–584.
160. Tacket CO, Levine MM. 1997. Vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections, p 875–883. In Levine MM, Woodrow GC, Kaper JB, and Cobon GS (ed), New Generation Vaccines. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y.
161. Turner AK, Terry TD, Sack DA, Londono-Arcila P, Darsley MJ. 2001. Construction and characterization of genetically defined aro omp mutants of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and preliminary studies of safety and immunogenicity in humans. Infect Immun 69:4969–4979. [PubMed][CrossRef]
162. Wu S, Pascual DW, VanCott JL, McGhee JR, Maneval DR, Levine MM, Hone DM. 1995. Immune responses to novel Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium vectors that express colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) of enterotoxigenic E. coli in the absence of the CFA/I positive regulator cfaR. Infect Immun 63:4933–4938.[PubMed]
163. Xu B, Zhang ZS, Li SQ, Shu D, Huang CF. 2002. Simultaneous expression of CS3 colonization factor antigen and LT-B/ST fusion enterotoxin antigen of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium. Yi Chuan Xue 29:370–376.
164. Altboum Z, Barry EM, Losonsky G, Galen JE, Levine MM. 2001. Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a Delta guaBA strain CVD 1204 expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) CS2 and CS3 fimbriae as a live mucosal vaccine against Shigella and ETEC infection. Infect Immun 69:3150–3158. [PubMed][CrossRef]
165. Altboum Z, Levine MM, Galen JE, Barry EM. 2003. Genetic characterization and immunogenicity of coli surface antigen 4 from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli when it is expressed in a Shigella live-vector strain. Infect Immun 71:1352–1360. [PubMed][CrossRef]
166. Barry EM, Altboum Z, Losonsky G, Levine MM. 2003. Immune responses elicited against multiple enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae and mutant LT expressed in attenuated Shigella vaccine strains. Vaccine 21:333–340. [PubMed][CrossRef]
167. Koprowski H, Levine MM, Anderson RJ, Losonsky G, Pizza M, Barry EM. 2000. Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine strain CVD 1204 expressing colonization factor antigen I and mutant heat-labile enterotoxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 68:4884–4892. [PubMed][CrossRef]
168. Glenn GM, Taylor DN, Li X, Frankel S, Montemarano A, Alving CR. 2000. Transcutaneous immunization: a human vaccine delivery strategy using a patch. Nat Med 6:1403–1406. [PubMed][CrossRef]
169. Guerena-Burgueno F, Hall ER, Taylor DN, Cassels FJ, Scott DA, Wolf MK, Roberts ZJ, Nesterova GV, Alving CR, Glenn GM. 2002. Safety and immunogenicity of a prototype enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine administered transcutaneously. Infect Immun 70:1874–1880. [PubMed][CrossRef]
170. Holmgren I, Jetborn M, Svennerholm AM. 1997. New and improved vaccines against cholera. Part ii: Oral B subunit killed whole-cell cholera vaccine, p 459–468. In Levine MM, Woodrow GC, Kaper JB, and Cobon GS (ed), New Generation Vaccines. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y.
171. Clemens JD, Sack DA, Harris JR, Chakraborty J, Neogy PK, Stanton B, Huda N, Khan MU, Kay BA, Khan MR, Ansaruzzaman M, Yunus M, Rao MR, Svennerholm A-M, Holmgren J. 1988. Cross-protection by B subunit-whole cell cholera vaccine against diarrhea associated with heat-labile toxin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: results of a large-scale field trial. J Infect Dis 158:372–377.[PubMed]
172. Peltola H, Siitonen A, Kyronseppa H, Simula I, Mattila L, Oksanen P, Kataja MJ, Cadoz M. 1991. Prevention of travellers' diarrhoea by oral B-subunit/whole-cell cholera vaccine. Lancet 338:1285–1289. [PubMed][CrossRef]
173. Evans D, Evans D, Opekun A, Graham D. 1988. Immunoprotective oral whole cell vaccine for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea prepared by in situ destruction of chromosomal and plasmid DNA with colicin E2. FEMS Microbiol Immunol 1:9–18. [PubMed][CrossRef]
174. Evans D, Evans D, Opekun A, Graham D. 1988. Non-replicating oral whole cell vaccine protective against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhea: stimulation of anti-CFA (CFA/I) and anti-enterotoxin (anti-LT) intestinal IgA and protection against challenge with ETEC belonging to heterologous serotypes. FEMS Microbiol Immunol 1:117–125. [PubMed][CrossRef]
175. Ahren C, Wenneras C, Holmgren J, Svennerholm AM. 1993. Intestinal antibody response after oral immunization with a prototype cholera B subunit-colonization factor antigen enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine. Vaccine 11:929–934. [PubMed][CrossRef]
176. Jertborn M, Ahren C, Holmgren J, Svennerholm AM. 1998. Safety and immunogenicity of an oral inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine. Vaccine 16:255–260. [PubMed][CrossRef]
177. Ahren C, Jertborn M, Svennerholm A-M. 1998. Intestinal immune responses to an inactivated oral enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine and associated immunoglobulin A responses in blood. Infect Immun 66:3311–3316.[PubMed]
178. Jertborn M, Ahren C, Svennerholm AM. 2001. Dose-dependent circulating immunoglobulin A antibody-secreting cell and serum antibody responses in Swedish volunteers to an oral inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:424–428.[PubMed]
179. Hall ER, Wierzba TF, Ahren C, Rao MR, Bassily S, Francis W, Girgis FY, Safwat M, Lee YJ, Svennerholm AM, Clemens JD, Savarino SJ. 2001. Induction of systemic antifimbria and antitoxin antibody responses in Egyptian children and adults by an oral, killed enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli plus cholera toxin B subunit vaccine. Infect Immun 69:2853–2857. [PubMed][CrossRef]
180. Savarino SJ, Brown FM, Hall E, Bassily S, Youssef F, Wierzba T, Peruski L, El-Masry NA, Safwat M, Rao M, Jertborn M, Svennerholm AM, Lee YJ, Clemens JD. 1998. Safety and immunogenicity of an oral, killed enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-cholera toxin B subunit vaccine in Egyptian adults. J Infect Dis 177:796–799. [CrossRef]
181. Savarino SJ, Hall ER, Bassily S, Brown FM, Youssef F, Wierzba TF, Peruski L, El-Masry NA, Safwat M, Rao M, El Mohamady H, Abu-Elyazeed R, Naficy A, Svennerholm AM, Jertborn M, Lee YJ, Clemens JD. 1999. Oral, inactivated, whole cell enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli plus cholera toxin B subunit vaccine: results of the initial evaluation in children. PRIDE Study Group. J Infect Dis 179:107–114. [PubMed][CrossRef]
182. Savarino SJ, Hall ER, Bassily S, Wierzba TF, Youssef FG, Peruski LF, Abu-Elyazeed R, Rao M, Francis WM, El Mohamady H, Safwat M, Naficy AB, Svennerholm AM, Jertborn M, Lee YJ, Clemens JD. 2002. Pride Study Group. Introductory evaluation of an oral, killed whole cell enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli plus cholera toxin B subunit vaccine in Egyptian infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:322–330. [PubMed][CrossRef]
183. Qadri F, Ahmed T, Ahmed F, Sack RB, Sack DA, Svennerholm AM. 2003. Safety and immunogenicity of an oral, inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli plus cholera toxin B subunit vaccine in Bangladeshi children 18—36 months of age. Vaccine 21:2394–2403. [PubMed][CrossRef]
184. Qadri F, Wenneras C, Ahmed F, Asaduzzaman M, Saha D, Albert MJ, Sack RB, Svennerholm AM. 2000. Safety and immunogenicity of an oral, inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli plus cholera toxin B subunit vaccine in Bangladeshi adults and children. Vaccine 18:2704–2712. [PubMed][CrossRef]
185. Cohen D, Orr N, Haim M, Ashkenazi S, Robin G, Green MS, Ephros M, Sela T, Slepon R, Ashkenazi I, Taylor DN, Svennerholm AM, Eldad A, Shemer J. 2000. Safety and immunogenicity of two different lots of the oral, killed enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-cholera toxin B subunit vaccine in Israeli young adults. Infect Immun 68:4492–4497. [PubMed][CrossRef]
186. Rutter JM, Jones GW. 1973. Protection against enteric disease caused by Escherichia coli-a model for vaccination with a virulence determinant? Nature 242:531–532. [PubMed][CrossRef]
187. Moon HW, Bunn TO. 1993. Vaccines for preventing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in farm animals. Vaccine 11:213–200. [PubMed][CrossRef]
188. Dobrescu L, Huygelen C. 1976. Protection of piglets against neonatal E. coli enteritis by immunization of the sow with a vaccine containing heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) I Protection against experimentally induced diarrhoea. Zentbl Vetmed Reihe B 23:79–88.
189. Frantz JC, Bhatnagar PK, Brown AL, Garrett LK, Hughes JL. 1987. Investigation of synthetic Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin as an immunogen for swine and cattle. Infect Immun 55:1077–1084.[PubMed]
190. Wittig W, Klie H, Gallien P, Lehmann S, Timm M, Tschape H. 1995. Prevalence of the fimbrial antigens F18 and K88 and of enterotoxins and verotoxins among Escherichia coli isolated from weaned pigs. Zentbl Bakteriol 283:95–104.
191. Sarrazin E, Bertschinger HU. 1997. Role of fimbriae F18 for actively acquired immunity against porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Vet Microbiol 54:133–144. [PubMed][CrossRef]
192. Bianchi AT, Scholten JW, van Zijderveld AM, van Zijderveld FG, Bokhout BA. 1996. Parenteral vaccination of mice and piglets with F4+ Escherichia coli suppresses the enteric anti-F4 response upon oral infection. Vaccine 14:199–206. [PubMed][CrossRef]
193. Francis DH, Willgohs JA. 1991. Evaluation of a live avirulent Escherichia coli vaccine for K88+, LT+ enterotoxigenic colibacillosis in weaned pigs. Am J Vet Res 52:1051–1055.[PubMed]
194. Bertschinger HU, Nief V, Tschape H. 2000. Active oral immunization of suckling piglets to prevent colonization after weaning by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with fimbriae F18. Vet Microbiol 71:255–267. [PubMed][CrossRef]
195. Verdonck F, Cox E, van Gog K, Van der Stede Y, Duchateau L, Deprez P, Goddeeris BM. 2002. Different kinetic of antibody responses following infection of newly weaned pigs with an F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain or an F18 verotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain. Vaccine 20:2995–3004. [PubMed][CrossRef]
196. Dean-Nystrom EA, Bosworth BT, Moon HW, O'Brien AD. 1998. Escherichia coli O157:H7 requires intimin for enteropathogenicity in calves. Infect Immun 66:4560–4563.[PubMed]
197. Dean-Nystrom EA, Gansheroff LJ, Mills M, Moon HW, O'Brien AD. 2002. Vaccination of pregnant dams with intimin (O157) protects suckling piglets from Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. Infect Immun 70:2414–2418. [PubMed][CrossRef]
198. MacLeod DL, Gyles CL. 1991. Immunization of pigs with a purified Shiga-like toxin II variant toxoid. Vet Microbiol 29:309–318. [PubMed][CrossRef]
199. Gordon VM, Whipp SC, Moon HW, O'Brien AD, Samuel JE. 1992. An enzymatic mutant of Shiga-like toxin II variant is a vaccine candidate for edema disease of swine. Infect Immun 60:485–490.[PubMed]
200. Bosworth BT, Samuel JE, Moon HW, O'Brien AD, Gordon VM, Whipp SC. 1996. Vaccination with genetically modified Shiga-like toxin IIe prevents edema disease in swine. Infect Immun 64:55–60.[PubMed]
201. Hogan JS, Weiss WP, Todhunter DA, Smith KL, Schoenberger PS. 1992. Efficacy of an Escherichia coli J5 mastitis vaccine in an experimental challenge trial. J Dairy Sci 75:415–422.[PubMed]
202. Dosogne H, Vangroenweghe F, Burvenich C. 2002. Potential mechanism of action of J5 vaccine in protection against severe bovine coliform mastitis. Vet Res 33:1–12. [PubMed][CrossRef]
ecosalplus.8.8.14.citations
ecosalplus/1/1
content/journal/ecosalplus/10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.14
Loading

Citations loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ecosalplus/10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.14
2004-12-29
2017-07-21

Abstract:

Infectious diseases represent one of the most common causes of death worldwide, with the enteropathogenic bacteria and and pathogenic being among the most detrimental. Currently, vaccination represents the preferred method of preventing such infections. For stimulating the adaptive immune response, immunizations are frequently based on formulations which include inactivated whole-cell vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, or subunit vaccines. These can be administered via a parenteral or mucosal route, the latter having the advantage that it most closely mimics the actual course of infection. In addition to the type of vaccine and method of application, important consideration needs to be paid to safety, efficacy, and cost, which are often major bottlenecks in the successful implementation of vaccines. In this chapter we take a limited look at the history surrounding vaccinations involving , , and pathogenic . infections, which can lead to typhoid fever, are becoming increasing difficult to treat with antibiotics due to multi-drug-resistant strains. At present, the parenteral Vi-based subunit vaccines and the live attenuated oral vaccine Ty21a have proven to be the vaccines of choice, with high levels of protective efficacy and limited side effects. infections are responsible for the diarrheal disease shigellosis. Various live and nonliving mucosal and parenteral vaccines have been tested, with the most promising candidates evolving around those that stimulate the production of O-antigen-specific antibodies. Pathogenic infections can lead to severe diseases due to the bacterium's production of several specific toxins. Vaccines against this bacterium target its toxins, as well as surface-exposed antigens, all of which have been found to be effective as immunogens.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Comment has been disabled for this content
Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

(A) Micrograph of Cos7 cells infected with serovar Typhimurium, in which bacterial-induced membrane ruffling is shown (magnification, ×40,000). (B) Mouse fibroblasts infected with enteropathogenic . , revealing actin pedestals formed as a result of the bacterium-triggered rearrangement of cytoskeletal proteins (magnification, ×90,000).

Citation: Guzman C, Borsutzky S, Favre D, Dietrich G. 2004. Vaccines against Infections Caused by , , and Pathogenic , EcoSal Plus 2004; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

The electron microscopic image shows an infected macrophage with intracellular bacteria indicated by white lines.

Citation: Guzman C, Borsutzky S, Favre D, Dietrich G. 2004. Vaccines against Infections Caused by , , and Pathogenic , EcoSal Plus 2004; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

(A) Schematic structure of the three major surface bacterial antigens, the LPS (O-antigen), flagella (H-antigen), and polysaccharide capsule (Vi-antigen). (B) Transmission electron micrograph of the wild-type serovar Typhi strain Ty2.

Citation: Guzman C, Borsutzky S, Favre D, Dietrich G. 2004. Vaccines against Infections Caused by , , and Pathogenic , EcoSal Plus 2004; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

The direct application of the vaccine to the intestinal mucosal surface induces local IgA antibody responses (layer 1) and cellular immunity (layer 2), in addition to systemic IgG immune responses (layer 3). These three layers of protection enable mucosally administered live attenuated vaccines to protect against infection rather than only preventing disease.

Citation: Guzman C, Borsutzky S, Favre D, Dietrich G. 2004. Vaccines against Infections Caused by , , and Pathogenic , EcoSal Plus 2004; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Serovar Typhi expresses the Vi-polysaccharide capsule (A) at its surface, but serovar Paratyphi does not express capsular polysaccharide (B). The most important surface antigen of serovar Paratyphi is the O12-antigen, which is shared with serovar Typhi.

Citation: Guzman C, Borsutzky S, Favre D, Dietrich G. 2004. Vaccines against Infections Caused by , , and Pathogenic , EcoSal Plus 2004; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Properties of inactivated, attenuated, and subunit vaccines

Citation: Guzman C, Borsutzky S, Favre D, Dietrich G. 2004. Vaccines against Infections Caused by , , and Pathogenic , EcoSal Plus 2004; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.14
Generic image for table
Table 2

Clinical trials performed with Ty21a

Citation: Guzman C, Borsutzky S, Favre D, Dietrich G. 2004. Vaccines against Infections Caused by , , and Pathogenic , EcoSal Plus 2004; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.14
Generic image for table
Table 3

Live attenuated vaccines against shigellosis

Citation: Guzman C, Borsutzky S, Favre D, Dietrich G. 2004. Vaccines against Infections Caused by , , and Pathogenic , EcoSal Plus 2004; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.14

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error